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The Impact of EU Accession on Human Capital : Formation - Can Migration Fuel a Brain Gain?

Farchy, Emily
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Can a brain drain be good for development? Many studies have established the theoretical possibility of such a brain gain. Yet it is only recently that the relaxation of data constraints has allowed for sound empirical assessments. In utilizing the dramatic policy change that accompanied European Union accession as a natural experiment, this paper is able to assuage fears of reverse causality between migration and human capital formation. The results highlight a significant impact of European Union accession on human capital formation indicating that the prospect of migration can indeed fuel skill formation even in the context of middle-income economies. And, if accompanied by policies to promote return migration, as well as a functioning credit market to enable private investment, international labor mobility could represent a powerful tool for growth.

Institutional and Structural Determinants of Investment Worldwide

Lim, Jamus Jerome
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
This paper considers institutional and structural factors associated with investment activity in a panel of up to 129 developed and developing countries. It introduces these factors to a standard neoclassical investment function for open economies, and find that financial development and institutional quality are reasonably robust determinants of cross-country capital formation, with latter displaying more stability in the sign and significance of its coefficient. Indeed, when endogeneity concerns are addressed more explicitly using external instruments, and both interactions and subsamples are considered, institutional quality tends to survive as the causal determinant of investment.

Stuck in the Middle? Human Capital Development and Economic Growth

Jimenez, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Vy; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
The challenge of sustaining economic growth over the long term is one that only a few countries have been able to surmount. Slowing momentum in countries like Malaysia and Thailand has led analysts and policy makers to consider what it would take to lift them out of middle-income status, where other countries have arguably become stuck. The paper examines the role of human capital formation in the quest to sustain economic growth in these two countries. It argues that a good education system is fundamental to equip workers with marketable skills. Malaysia and Thailand have successfully expanded access to schooling, but the quality of education remains an issue. Modern education systems should aim to provide universally-available quality education using the following policies: prioritize budgets to deliver quality and universally-available basic education before expanding higher levels of schooling; provide appropriate incentives and rewards to teachers; permit school autonomy and ensure accountability for results; invest in early childhood development; and consider implementing income-contingent loan financing schemes to expand higher education.

Institutional Quality Mediates the Effect of Human Capital on Economic Performance

Adams-Kane, Jonathon; Lim, Jamus Jerome
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
This paper considers the relationship between institutional quality, educational outcomes, and economic performance. More specifically, it seeks to establish the linkages by which government effectiveness affects per capita income, via its mediating effect on human capital formation. The empirical approach adopts a two-stage strategy that estimates national-level educational production functions that include government effectiveness as a covariate, and then uses these estimates as instruments for human capital in cross-country regressions of per capita income. The results identify a significant and positive effect of human capital on per capita income levels, and partially resolves the inconsistency between macro- and micro-level studies of the effect of human capital on income. The results also remain robust to alternative specifications, extension to a panel setting, subsamples of the data, and fully endogenous institutions.

Studies in New Zealand Investment 1871-1900

Dowie, John Alexander
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
This thesis consists of three studies, each to some extent distinctive in character, but linked together by a common concern with investment in the late nineteenth-century New Zealand economy. Each study grew of its predecessors on a reasonably systematic way and the most practical introduction to the thesis is probably a brief outline of its evolution. This will also provide a précis of the contents. The initial general intention was a largely quantitative study of investment, based on original estimates of domestic capital formation, but extending, possibly, into the questions of source of funds and institutional channels of financing. The prime aim was to take one step towards providing New Zealand with the historical time series for major economic variables which are now available for most other developed countries. The compilation of such series is, however, a lengthy process (especially for the beginner) and it was obvious that, however much an historical series for capital formation in New Zealand was desirable, its construction would not, by itself, provide a viable thesis. Also not unexpectedly the demands of purely quantitative research gave in increasingly added attraction to some literary investigation of the period concerned; literary investigation which would in any case be essential if any flesh was to be put on the statistical bones. The first and third studies (parts A and C) are therefore envisaged as complementary excursions into the two broad fields of emphasis within economic history – the quantitative and the institutional. Part A comprises...

Endogenous Selection of Comparison Groups, Human Capital Formation, and Tax Policy

Hyll, Walter; Stark, Oded; Wang, Yong
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
This paper considers a setting in which the acquisition of human capital entails a change of location in social space that causes individuals to revise their comparison groups. Skill levels are viewed as occupational groups, and moving up the skill ladder by acquiring additional human capital, which in itself is rewarding, leads to a shift in the individual’s inclination to compare himself with a different, and on average better-paid, comparison group, which in itself is penalizing. The paper sheds new light on the dynamics of human capital formation, and suggests novel policy interventions to encourage human capital formation in the aggregate and, at the same time, reduce inter-group income inequality.

Differential Migration Prospects, Skill Formation, and Welfare

Stark, Oded; Zakharenko, Roman
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.01%
This paper develops a one sector, two-input model with endogenous human capital formation. The two inputs are two types of skilled labor: “engineering,” which exerts a positive externality on total factor productivity, and “law”, which does not. The paper shows that a marginal prospect of migration by engineers increases human capital accumulation of both types of workers (engineers and lawyers), and also the number of engineers who remain in the country. These two effects are socially desirable, since they move the economy from the(inefficient) free-market equilibrium towards the social optimum. The paper also shows that if the externality effect of engineering is sufficiently powerful, everyone will be better off as a consequence of the said prospect of migration, including the engineers who lose the migration “lottery”, and even the individuals who practice law.

International Migration, Human Capital Formation, and Saving

Stark, Oded; Dorn, Agnieszka
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
In the model of Stark et al. (1997, 1998), the possibility of employment in a developed country raises the level of human capital acquired by workers in the developing country. We show that this result holds even when workers have the option to save.

Human capital formation in Europe at the regional level – implications for economic growth; Humankapitalbildung in Europa auf regionaler Ebene – Bedeutung für das Wirtschaftswachstum

Hippe, Ralph
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
This thesis highlights the formation of human capital in the European regions and its implications for economic growth. It is characterised by its combined regional, long-term and European approach. To this end, I refer to Unified Growth Theory and New Economic Geography as the most important recent theoretical contributions and construct an unparalleled new and large database on regional human capital and other economic factors from numerous diverse sources. For the empirical analysis, spatial and GIS methods are employed in addition to standard econometric models. In this way, the thesis explores human capital formation in the regions of the European continent between 1790 and 2010. Moreover, it underlines the relationship between human capital proxies, the determinants of human capital and the long-run impact of human capital on economic growth.; Die Dissertation zeigt auf regionaler Ebene die Bildung von Humankapital in Europa und ihre Bedeutung für das Wirtschaftswachstum. Sie ist gekennzeichnet durch ihren kombinierten regionalen, langfristigen und europäischen Ansatz. Zu diesem Zweck wird auf die sog. Unified Growth Theory und die Neue Ökonomische Geographie als den bedeutendsten neueren theoretischen Beiträgen Bezug genommen und eine neue große Datenbasis der Bildung von Humankapital und anderer Faktoren aus einer Vielzahl von unterschiedlichen Quellen erstellt. Für die empirische Analyse werden neben den üblichen ökonometrischen Modellen ebenfalls räumliche und GIS-Methoden verwendet. Auf diese Weise untersucht die Dissertation die Bildung von Humankapital in den Regionen des europäischen Kontinents zwischen 1790 und 2010. Zudem hebt sie die Beziehung zwischen Humankapital-Indikatoren...

Socially Gainful Gender Quotas

Stark, Oded; Hyll, Walter
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Aufsatz
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
We study the impact of gender quotas on the acquisition of human capital. We assume that individuals’ formation of human capital is influenced by the prospect of landing high-pay top positions, and that these positions are regulated by gender-specific quotas. In the absence of quotas, women consider their chances of getting top positions to be lower than men’s. The lure of top positions induces even men of relatively low ability to engage in human capital formation, whereas women of relatively high ability do not expect to get top positions and do not therefore engage in human capital formation. Gender quotas discourage men who are less efficient in forming human capital, and encourage women who are more efficient in forming human capital. We provide a condition under which the net result of the institution of gender quotas is an increase in human capital in the economy as a whole.

Determinants of Long-Run Human Capital Formation in the Iberian World; Determinanten der Humankapitalentwicklung in der Iberischen Welt

Juif, Dácil
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
That human capital is a core driving factor for economic growth has become eminent at least since the emergence of endogenous growth theories and especially since Unified Growth Theory. It not only increases individual and aggregate productivity but probably also improves the quality of institutions, which in turn affects economic growth. Education of women has been linked to reduced child mortality and to a better health status of the family. On the other hand, the discrimination of the poorer section of the population in the access to education reduces their opportunities on the labour market, making social mobility difficult and perpetuating income inequality. Human capital and its distribution plays an important role in explaining global differences in wellbeing and growth trajectories. But data that allows to test those links empirically for the very long run is scarce and more so for Latin America. One contribution of this thesis is the construction of databases that include human capital measures for regions and historical times that are understudied. Assessing the reasons why governments and individuals invest into human capital is another one. This cumulative thesis consists of five chapters related to human capital, mostly in the Iberian world. It addresses important topics that can be relevant also from today’s perspective. The questions raised are...

Public Spending and Growth in an Economic and Monetary Union; The Case of West Africa

Moreno-Dodson, Blanca; Bayraktar, Nihal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The focus of the paper is on how public spending volume, composition (current versus capital), and quality are linked to the per capita growth rates of the West Africa economic and monetary union (WAEMU) countries, which have been fluctuating and remain relatively low compared to other parts of the world. The empirical analysis covers the period 2000-2013. The results indicate that total public spending has a significant impact on growth. While the impact of the capital component is positive and statistically significant, the effect of the current component is consistently negative, but not significant. When the capital component is further split into two: public fixed capital investment and public other capital expenditures, defined as total public capital expenditure minus public fixed capital investment, the results show that not only physical capital formation but also human capital spending is important for growth in the WAEMU group. While the volatility measure for public investment has a clear negative and statistically significant impact on growth...

Three Essays On Migration, Remittances And Human Capital Formation

MORAN, HILCIAS E.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, Economics, 2009; This dissertation investigates three topics related to migration and human capital formation in developing countries. The first essay attempts to determine the conditions under which exposure to international migration can have a positive effect on economic growth. Numerical simulations show that the lower the contribution of private investment in education to human capital accumulation in the source countries, the higher the likelihood that exposure to international migration negatively impacts economic growth if migration is sufficiently high. The level of efficient government expenditure on education is higher for an economy with migration than for an economy without migration only if migration has a positive effect on growth. The second essay analyzes the determinants of remittances using household data from Ecuador. It provides empirical evidence as follows: remittances and household migration size are non-monotonically related, remittances are altruistically motivated, the size of remittances decreases with time after migration and the Ecuadorian migrants who moved to the U.S. are more likely to remit and to remit more than those who moved to other countries. The third essay of this dissertation combines data from the 2002 National Population Census and the distribution of the number of victims and human rights violations across 22 departments to examine how the worst period of the civil war in Guatemala...

Essays on Human Capital Formation, Living Standards and Selective Migration; Aufsätze zu Humankapitalformation, Lebensstandard und selektiver Migration

Stolz, Yvonne
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
The first scientific paper, chapter two focuses on human capital as an important determinant of living standards. Human capital is proxied with the age-heaping technique. Additionally in this article, literacy evidence is provided to cross-check the results. As an indicator of the biological standard of living, human stature is used. The chapter provides a large data set on Portuguese living standards from the early 18th to the 20th centuries. It answers the question: When and why did the Portuguese become the shortest Europeans? In order to find the answer to this question, the trend in Portuguese living standards from the 1720s until recent times is estimated with Maximum Likelihood and OLS techniques. The data shows that during the early nineteenth century average height in Portugal did not differ significantly from average height in most other European countries. But when around 1850, their anthropometric values began to climb sharply, Portugal's, however, did not. In OLS and IV panel estimations, delays in both real-wage convergence and human capital formation in Portugal are found to be the main factors hindering any improvement there in the biological standard of living. Chapter three provides data on human capital development for seven Latin Ameri-can countries from the 17th to the 20th centuries...

Population ageing, human capital accumulation and economic growth in China: An applied general equilibrium analysis

Peng, Xiujian
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.07%
This paper uses a Computable General Equilibrium model to explore the macroeconomic impact of growth in the human capital stock for a given ageing profile of the population in China, during the first half of this century. It examines whether the projected reduction in the total dependency ratio for the period 2000 to the 2030s can be exploited for energetic human capital formation. Policy simulations show that accelerating human capital formation raises both total output and per capita real income dramatically. Public expenditure on education is, therefore, welfare enhancing, mitigating the adverse effects of population ageing while laying the foundation for supporting China's rapidly increasing elderly population. The basic policy message is that China should significantly increase investment in human capital. The long implementation lags of such policies and the rapidly growing proportion of the elderly population suggest that this investment should be undertaken without delay.; © Taylor & Francis

Evidence that Capital Formation is Over-Estimated in ICP 2011

Breton, Theodore R.
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Econom??a y Finanzas Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Econom??a y Finanzas
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigaci??n; draf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
Using the ICP 2011???s cross-country data on input prices and project cost shares, I show that the construction prices in ICP 2011 are substantially underestimated in low and middle income countries. As a consequence, the PPP-adjusted construction in these countries is overestimated on average by about 100% and gross fixed capital formation as a share of GDP is overestimated by 25-30%. I also examine the ICP 2005 construction prices and show that there are similar problems with the ICP 2005 data.

On the regional impact of public capital formation in Spain

Pereira, Alfredo M.; Roca i Sagalés, Oriol
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
The objective of this paper is to investigate, in a methodologically consistent manner, the regional effects of public capital formation and the possible existence of regional spillover effects in Spain. The empirical results are based on VAR estimates at both the aggregate and regional levels using output, employment, and private capital, as well as different measures of public capital. Empirical results suggest that public capital affects output positively at the aggregate level as well as in all but one region. For most regions, the effects of public capital installed in the region itself are important but the spillover effects induced from public capital installed elsewhere are also very important. In fact, the spillover effects account for over half of the total effects of public capital formation in Spain. Furthermore, these spillover effects have a clear geographical pattern in that they tend to be more important in the peripheral regions of the country. We also find that relative to their share of the Spanish output, the biggest beneficiaries of public capital formation are the largest regions in the country. This suggests that public capital formation has contributed to concentration of output in these regions. Finally, in terms of the effects of public capital formation on the private inputs we find that both private capital and employment are affected positively at the aggregate level as well as for most of the regions. Nevertheless...

Spillover effects of public capital formation : evidence from the spanish regions

Pereira, Alfredo M.; Roca i Sagalés, Oriol
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Maybe because of the inconclusive nature of the results on the impact of public capital on output at the regional level, the issue of the possible existence of the regional spillovers from public capital formation has received little attention. The objective of this paper is to provide evidence on the possible existence of such spillovers. We consider the case of Spain and its seventeen regions. Our methodological approach consists in estimating an aggregate VAR model for Spain as well as seventeen region-specific VAR models in which both capital installed in the region and capital installed outside the region are allowed to play a role in enhancing regional output. The estimation results can be summarized as follows. The aggregate effects of public capital formation in Spain are important. They cannot, however, be captured in their entirety by the direct effects in each region from public capital installed in the region itself. When for each region both the capital installed in the region and the capital installed outside the region are considered the total disaggregated effect from the seventeen regional models are very much in line with the aggregate results. Furthermore, the aggregate effect seems to be due in almost equal parts to the direct and spillover effects of public capital formation. Ultimately...

Estimativas mensais da formação bruta de capital fixo pública no Brasil (2002-2010)

Santos, Cláudio H. M. dos; Orair, Rodrigo O.; Gobetti, Sergio W.; Ferreira, Alessandra S.; Rocha, Wanderson S.; Silva, Hilton L. da; Britto, José M.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.11%
Este artigo apresenta estimativas inéditas de séries mensais da formação bruta de capital fixo (FBCF) das administrações públicas no Brasil de 2002 a 2010. A estimação exigiu um esforço significativo de pesquisa. Em primeiro lugar, realizou-se uma análise criteriosa dos conceitos da contabilidade pública e da contabilidade nacional, enfatizando-se as peculiaridades do processo orçamentário brasileiro que enviesam as estimativas anuais dos investimentos públicos divulgadas nas estatísticas oficiais e que afetam a precisão das informações de alta frequência. Em segundo lugar, desenvolveram-se procedimentos para mitigar estes problemas. Por fim, buscou-se contornar a escassez de informações dos governos subnacionais solicitando-se informações adicionais de centenas de contadores públicos, técnicos ou secretários de Fazenda/Planejamento de todos os estados da Federação, do Distrito Federal (DF) e dos maiores municípios.; This article presents new monthly estimates of the gross fixed capital formation of the Brazilian general government for the 2002-2010 years. A significant research effort was made to carry out the estimations. First, the many differences between the concepts of "public investment" (as used in the Brazilian public accounting manuals) and "gross fixed capital formation of the general government" (as used in the United Nations System of National Accounts) were carefully identified...

Gross fixed capital formation in Minas Gerais during the period 2005-2009: bottleneck in highway infrastructure and more elaborated capital goods production.; Investimento em capital fixo em Minas Gerais no período de 2005-2009: gargalo na infraestrutura de transporte rodoviário e na produção de bens de capital mais elaborados

de Almeida, Thiago Rafael Corrêa; Fundação João Pinheiro, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
This paper aims to carry out a mapping of investments or, in more technical language, the Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) in Minas Gerais in the period 2005-2009. The methodology used for this purpose is to reference the results of the calculation of GFCF by FJP and other supplementary data sources. Briefly, it is intended to detail the investments with respect to their origin, use and composition; quantifying public investments by the state; analyze the weight of investments in infrastructure and identify potential bottlenecks for the establishment of public policies. Wherever possible, we sought to characterize the behavior of GFCF by means of economic theories of the determinants of investment.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8085.2014v17n1p56Este trabalho tem o objetivo de realizar um mapeamento dos investimentos ou, na linguagem mais técnica, da Formação Bruta de Capital Fixo (FBCF) em Minas Gerais no período 2005-2009. A metodologia utilizada para esse propósito tem como referência os resultados do cálculo da FBCF pela Fundação João Pinheiro (FJP) e outras fontes de dados complementares. De forma resumida, pretende-se detalhar os investimentos com relação a sua origem, uso e composição; quantificar os investimentos públicos pelo estado; analisar o peso dos investimentos em infraestrutura e identificar possíveis gargalos para o estabelecimento de políticas públicas. Na medida do possível...