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Application of advanced technologies for CO2 capture from industrial sources

Romano, Matteo C.; Anantharaman, Rahul; Arasto, Antti; Ozcan, Dursun Can; Ahn, Hyungwoong; Dijkstra, Jan Wilco; Carbo, Michiel; Boavida, Dulce
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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The great majority of the research on CO2 capture worldwide is today devoted to the integration of new technologies in power plants, which are responsible for about 80% of the worldwide CO2 emission from large stationary sources. The remaining 20% are emitted from industrial sources, mainly cement production plants (~7% of the total emission), refineries (~6%) and iron and steel industry (~5%). Despite their lower overall contribution, the CO2 concentration in flue gas and the average emission per source can be higher than in power plants. Therefore, application of CO2 capture processes on these sources can be more effective and can lead to competitive cost of the CO2 avoided with respect to power plants. Furthermore, industrial CO2 capture could be an important early-opportunity application, or a facilitate demonstration of capture technology at a relative small scale or in a side stream. This paper results from a collaborative activity carried out within the Joint Programme on Carbon Capture and Storage of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA CCS-JP) and aims at investigating the potentiality of new CO2 technologies in the application on the major industrial emitters.

Tax Policy to Reduce Carbon Emissions in South Africa

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Go, Delfin S.; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Noting that South Africa may be one of the few African countries that could contribute to mitigating climate change, the authors explore the impact of a carbon tax relative to alternative energy taxes on economic welfare. Using a disaggregate general-equilibrium model of the South African economy, they capture the structural characteristics of the energy sector, linking a supply mix that is heavily skewed toward coal to energy use by different sectors and hence their carbon content. The authors consider a "pure" carbon tax as well as various proxy taxes such as those on energy or energy-intensive sectors like transport and basic metals, all of which achieve the same level of carbon reduction. In general, the more targeted the tax to carbon emissions, the better the welfare results. If a carbon tax is feasible, it will have the least marginal cost of abatement by a substantial amount when compared to alternative tax instruments. If a carbon tax is not feasible, a sales tax on energy inputs is the next best option. Moreover...

Carbon Capture and Storage in Developing Countries : A Perspective on Barriers to Deployment

Kulichenko, Natalia; Ereira, Eleanor
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This report assesses some of the most important barriers facing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) deployment within the context of developing and transition economies. The selection of the case studies is based on several criteria, including the level of reliance on fossil fuels for power generation and the level of interconnection of electricity networks. The case studies selected for this analysis are the Balkans and Southern African regions. Many countries within the Balkan region are considered transition economies, a status recognized as different from middle-income and low income developing countries. However, for the purposes of this report, countries within both regions are referred to as developing countries. The report presents the results of a model developed to investigate ways of structuring financing for power generation facilities equipped with CCS in the developing world, using instruments available from multilateral development banks and commercial financiers, as well as concessional funding sources. The objective is to assess whether a combination of such instruments could result in reductions in the overall cost of financing. The model calculates the resulting Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE)...

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan : Carbon Capture and Storage Capacity Building Technical Assistance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This study was funded by the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) capacity building trust fund, and administered by the World Bank. The main objectives of the study were: to build or enhance Jordan s institutional capacity to make informed policy decisions on CCS technology and applications; to assess the potential application of CCS technology in Jordan; and to identify barriers-legal, regulatory, financial and others-to CCS activities in Jordan and recommend ways to address those barriers. During the course of this study, the study team concluded that Jordan may benefit from following the evolution of carbon capture and storage technology via publicly available information. Similar CCS studies are being carried out in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, and Jordan could benefit from a regional knowledge exchange event when those studies are concluded. However, given Jordan s other national priorities, tight government fiscal situation and limited CO2 emissions, the CCS team that authored this report believes that it is not in the interest of Jordan to pursue capital investment related to CCS in the short-term. This study...

Trade-off in Emissions of Acid Gas Pollutants and of Carbon Dioxide in Fossil Fuel Power Plants with Carbon Capture

TZIMAS EVANGELOS; MERCIER ARNAUD; CORMOS CALIN-CRISTIAN; PETEVES ESTATHIOS
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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This paper investigates the impact of capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel fired power plants on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur oxides (SOX), which are acid gas pollutants. This was done by estimating the emissions of these three chemical species from natural gas combined cycle plants and pulverised coal plants, equipped with post-combustion carbon capture technology for the removal of CO2 from their flue gases, and comparing them to the emissions of similar plants without CO2 capture. The capture of CO2 is not likely to increase the emissions of acid gas pollutants from individual power plants; on the contrary some NOX and SOX will also be removed during the process of capturing CO2. The large-scale implementation of carbon capture is however likely to increase the emission levels of NOX from the power sector, due to the reduced efficiency of power plants equipped with carbon capture technologies and the need to maintain electricity generation. On the other hand SOX emissions from coal plants may be decreased significantly due to the need to reduce its concentration to very low levels to avoid significant losses of the chemicals that are used to capture CO2. The increase in the quantity of NOXemissions will be however low...

A Study of Surface Treatments on Carbonate Core Material for Application to Mineral Precipitation and Dissolution during Geologic Carbon Storage

Work, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
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Underground injection of acid gas has been studied for several decades for oil field applications, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), but is now being studied as a solution to climate change. This research aims to simulate underground conditions at injection sites, such as the pilot scale injection site located near the site of a coal fired power facility in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) location would involve injection of liquid CO2 into a carbonaceous saline aquifer. The objective of this study was to investigate carbonate surface treatments that alter the kinetics and mechanism of mineral dissolution resulting from the injection of an acid gas (CO2) into a geologic formation. A variety of mineral coatings were tested in an attempt to preserve mineral integrity under acidic conditions. Surface active chemicals were first tested, including scale inhibitors, followed by a novel acid induced surface treatment that precipitates an inorganic layer on the calcite to preserve the acid soluble mineral. These experiments are the first to investigate the use of scale inhibitors for mineral preservation, although were found ultimately to have little impact on dissolution kinetics. However...

Análisis y modelado del comportamiento de lixiviación de metales de sedimentos contaminados en contacto con fugas de CO2 procedentes de sistemas de captura y almacenamiento de carbono (CAC); Analysis and modeling of metal release from contaminated sediment subject to CO2 leakages from carbon capture an storage (CCS) sites

Payán Fraile, María Cruz
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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RESUMEN: La Captura y Almacenamiento de Carbono (CAC)es una técnica objeto de intensivo estudio por la comunidad investigadora internacional debido a su potencial para reducir los gases de efecto invernadero. Es importante evaluar las consecuencias de las potenciales fugas de CO2 de sistemas CAC en sedimentos y en el fondo marino. Los metales y contaminantes orgánicos se liberarían de sedimentos contaminados debido a la acidificación del agua de mar. El objetivo de esta tesis es generar conocimiento sobre los potenciales efectos de fugas de CO2 en sedimentos contaminados de sistemas CAC a través del análisis, modelado y evaluación de la movilidad de metales y Carbono Orgánico Disuelto (COD). Se estudia la caracterización ambiental y físico-química del sedimento y el comportamiento de parámetros globales (pH, conductividad y COD) de ensayos de lixiviación, así como la evaluación y el modelado de la liberación de metales bajo diferentes escenarios de acidificación utilizando ensayos de lixiviación. Los resultados obtenidos en la tesis permiten evaluar la sostenibilidad de la tecnología CAC en diferentes escenarios simulados de acidificación del medio marino.; ABSTRACT: Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) is currently among techniques intensely studies by the international research community for their potential to reduce greenhouse gases. the consequences of potential CO2 leakages from CCS sites into surface sediment and into deep sea are then necessary to be evaluated. Trace metals and organic contaminants would be release from contaminated sediment due to the seawater acidification. the general objective of this thesis is to generate new knowledge about the potential effects of CO2 leakages on contaminated marine sediment in CCs systems by means of the analysis...

The Indonesia Carbon Capture Storage Capacity Building Program; CCS for Coal-fired Power Plants in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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In order to meet the growing Indonesian demand for electricity, while also constraining carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, future coal power plants may have to include CO2 capture equipment with storage of that CO2. This study set out to define and evaluate the conditions under which fossil fuel power plants can be deemed as carbon capture and storage (CCS) ready (CCS-R). It considers the technical, economic, and institutional implications of CO2 capture and storage for candidate power plants in South Sumatra and West Java. The potential to sell captured CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in South Sumatra is reviewed.

Pricing Contracts Under Uncertainty in a Carbon Capture and Storage Framework

Cai, W.; Singham, D.I.; Craparo, E.M.; White, J.A.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been demonstrated as a viable op- tion for reducing carbon emissions to the atmosphere. We consider a situa- tion where a tax on emissions is imposed on carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters to encourage their participation in CCS. Operators of CO2 transportation pipelines and storage sites enter into individual contracts with emitters to store CO2. We study the problem of setting the price and volume of these contracts under cost and emission uncertainty, and show how the storage operator's pro t can be optimized.

Re-Engineering the alkanolamine absorption process to economize carbon capture

Warudkar, Sumedh
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Climate change caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) released from the combustion of fossil fuels threatens to have a devastating impact on human life. Power plants that burn coal and natural gas to produce electricity generate more than half of global CO2 emissions. Separating the CO2 emitted at these large sources of emission, followed by long term storage has been proposed as short to medium term solution to mitigate climate change. Implementation of this strategy called 'Carbon Capture and Storage' would allow the continued use of fossil fuels while simultaneously reduce our CO2 emissions. Technologies such as the alkanolamine absorption process, used to separate CO2 from gas mixtures already exist. However, it is presently infeasible to use them for Carbon Capture and Storage due to their relatively large energy consumption. It is estimated that even with the use of state-of-the-art technology, the cost of electricity will increase by around 90%. The research presented in this dissertation is focused on developing novel strategies to limit the increase in the cost of electricity due to implementation of Carbon Capture and Storage. In order to achieve this objective, a process simulation software; ProMax® has been used to optimize the alkanolamine absorption process to suit Carbon Capture application. A wide range of process operating conditions has been analyzed for their effects on energy consumption. Included in this study are process conditions under which waste heat can be utilized for providing energy instead. Based on this analysis...

Assessing Low-Carbon Development in Nigeria : An Analysis of Four Sectors

Cervigni, Raffaello; Rogers, John Allen; Dvorak, Irina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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47.56007%
The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and the World Bank have agreed to carry out a Climate Change Assessment (CCA) within the framework of the Bank's Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for Nigeria (2010-13). The CCA includes an analysis of options for low-carbon development in selected sectors, including power, oil and gas, transport, and agriculture. The goal of the low-carbon analysis is to define likely trends in carbon emissions up to 2035, based on government sector development plans, and to identify opportunities for achieving equivalent development objectives with a reduced carbon footprint. This study comprises the following components: (i) development of a reference scenario of greenhouse gas (GHG) net emissions for the agriculture sector, consistent with vision 20: 2020 and other government plans; (ii) identification of opportunities for reduced net emissions- reduced emissions and or enhanced carbon sequestration- while achieving the same development objectives as in the reference scenario; and (iii) economic assessment of low-carbon options in order to help the Nigerian government to prioritize policy options. The study evaluates costs and benefits in a partial equilibrium setting...

Pathways toward Zero-Carbon Electricity Required for Climate Stabilization

Audoly, Richard; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Guivarch, Celine
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper covers three policy-relevant aspects of the carbon content of electricity that are well established among integrated assessment models but under-discussed in the policy debate. First, climate stabilization at any level from 2 to 3°C requires electricity to be almost carbon-free by the end of the century. As such, the question for policy makers is not whether to decarbonize electricity but when to do it. Second, decarbonization of electricity is still possible and required if some of the key zero-carbon technologies -- such as nuclear power or carbon capture and storage -- turn out to be unavailable. Third, progressive decarbonization of electricity is part of every country's cost-effective means of contributing to climate stabilization. In addition, this paper provides cost-effective pathways of the carbon content of electricity -- computed from the results of AMPERE, a recent integrated assessment model comparison study. These pathways may be used to benchmark existing decarbonization targets...

Capturing and Storing Carbon : The World Bank's Role

Kulichenko, Nataliya; Zechter, Richard H.; Ahmed, Asad Ali
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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Developing countries will be increasingly important players in the quest to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. By 2035, non-OECD countries will account for 66 percent of primary energy demand and, in the meantime, for 90 percent of growth in demand. Among the steps necessary to ensure that carbon capture and storage fulfills its potential to cut emissions are more powerful policy incentives, including a global carbon price; testing of new technologies in demonstration projects; and development of storage infrastructure.

Pathways to adoption of carbon capture and sequestration in India : technologies and policies; Pathways to adoption of CCS in India

Narain, Mudit
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 p.
Português
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India is the world's second most populous country with a rapidly growing economy and increasing emissions. With the imminent threat of anthropogenic climate change in the coming decades, helping to control India's emissions will have to be a global priority. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can play a pivotal role in reducing India's emissions in the future, given India's reliance on coal power and the large coal reserves. The motivation for this dissertation is the need to ascertain the current situation and conditions relevant to carbon capture in India so as to help guide the processes to prepare for large scale adoption if desired in the future. For carbon capture to be undertaken at a significant scale, various pieces will have to fall in to place in sync with each other. The technological capability would have to be complemented by adequate geological capacity under the umbrella of the right policies. Adoption of carbon capture would need a tailored approach for each country and for a diverse country the size of India, these approaches may need to be customized even locally to each region.; (cont.) The objective of this thesis is to increase the understanding of the opportunities, issues and challenges amongst the stakeholders regarding CCS in India regarding the capacity...

Public awareness of carbon capture and storage : a survey of attitudes toward climate change mitigation

Curry, Thomas Edward, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 p.; 4191306 bytes; 4191113 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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The Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program in the Laboratory for Energy and the Environment at MIT conducted a survey of public attitudes on energy use and environmental concerns. Over 1,200 people, representing a general population sample of the United States, responded. The survey asked a representative sample of the American public seventeen questions about the environment, global warming, and climate change-mitigation technologies. The analysis in this thesis uses the survey responses to draw conclusions about the level of public understanding and awareness of global climate change and carbon dioxide capture and storage and to suggest implications for public outreach. The survey results show that carbon dioxide capture and storage and carbon sequestration are largely unknown to the general public, and there is significant confusion over which environmental issue the technology is intended to address. The environment is not a top priority for the U.S. public, and global warming is not the top environmental concern, even for those concerned about the environment. The public's willingness to pay to solve global warming increases when an individual is concerned about the environment or believes that immediate action is necessary to address global warming. An experiment within the survey shows that a large portion of the public supports investment in renewable energy technologies but that support decreases when cost information for all climate mitigation technologies is provided.; by Thomas Edward Curry.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Financing Capture Ready Coal-Fired Power Plants in China by Issuing Capture Options

Liang, Xi; Reiner, David; Gibbons, Jon; Li, Jia
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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?Capture Ready? is a design concept enabling fossil fuel plants to be retrofitted more economically with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies, however financing the cost of capture ready can be problematic, especially in the developing world. We propose that fossil fuel plants issue tradable Capture Options to acquire financing. The Capture Option concept could move CCS forward politically in countries such as China, speed up CCS technology development, help Capture Ready investors diversify risk, and offer global warming investors an alternative investment opportunity. As a detailed case study, we assess the value of a Capture Option and Capture Ready plant for a 600 MW supercritical pulverized coal power plant in China, using a cash flow model with Monte-Carlo simulations. The gross value of Capture Ready varies from CNY3m ($0.4m) to CNY633m ($84.4m) at an 8% discount rate and the Capture Option is valued at CNY113m ($15.1m) to CNY1255m ($167.3m) for two of the four scenarios analyzed.

Regulatory Analysis and Environmental Impact of Carbon Capture and Sequestration Using the NET Power Technology

Maravich, John
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2013 Português
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Regulatory developments in the United States, coupled with low natural gas prices, have altered the economics of electricity generation. Through both court orders and its own regulatory review, the Environmental Protection Agency has made coal combustion especially unattractive for new generation. Low natural gas prices have driven extensive investment in combined cycle and combustion turbine systems. However, natural gas prices have historically been volatile and it is reasonable to assume current low prices will not be the norm. Given that the equipment and techniques needed to sequester carbon dioxide in geologic formations already exist, it is the goal of this paper to show that efficient and low cost carbon capture power plants will be attractive to utilities wanting to maintain a diversity of fuels while complying with new regulations. NET Power's technology will serve as a model for meeting the new environmental regulations.

An Analysis of the Distribution and Economics of Oil Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery-Carbon Capture and Storage

Hall, Kristyn Ann
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The rising carbon dioxide emissions contributing to climate change has lead to the examination of potential ways to mitigate the environmental impact. One such method is through the geological sequestration of carbon (CCS). Although there are several different forms of geological sequestration (i.e. Saline Aquifers, Oil and Gas Reservoirs, Unminable Coal Seams) the current projects are just initiating the large scale-testing phase. The lead entry point into CCS projects is to combine the sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) due to the improved economic model as a result of the oil recovery and the pre-existing knowledge of the geological structures. The potential scope of CCS-EOR projects throughout the continental United States in terms of a systematic examination of individual reservoir storage potential has not been examined. Instead the majority of the research completed has centered on either estimating the total United States storage potential or the potential of a single specific reservoir.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between oil recovery, carbon dioxide storage and cost during CCS-EOR. The characteristics of the oil and gas reservoirs examined in this study from the Nehring Oil and Gas Database were used in the CCS-EOR model developed by Sean McCoy to estimate the lifting and storage costs of the different reservoirs throughout the continental United States. This allows for an examination of both technical and financial viability of CCS-EOR as an intermediate step for future CCS projects in other geological formations.

One option for mitigating climate change is to store industrial CO2 emissions in geologic reservoirs as part of a process known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). There is general consensus that large-scale deployment of CCS would best be initiated by combining geologic sequestration with enhanced oil recovery (EOR)...

Organic carbon capture in stands of Pinus taeda L. in the Rio Negrinho/SC region.; CAPTURA DE CARBONO ORGÂNICO EM POVOAMENTOS DE Pinus taeda L. NA REGIÃO DE RIO NEGRINHO, SC

Sette Junior, Carlos Roberto; ESALQ/USP; Nakajima, Nelson Yoshihiro; UFPR; Geromini, Márcio Penteado; SUZANO-BAHIA SUL
Fonte: FUPEF DO PARANÁ Publicador: FUPEF DO PARANÁ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2006 Português
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The main objective of this research was to quantify the capture of organic carbon in Pinus taeda stands of different ages in the Rio Negrinho/SC region. The stands were stratified and the selected trees were cut down and cut for further wood discs cuts at 25%, 50% and 75% of the total height of the tree. For each disc, the organic carbon content and the dry matters weight were verified and the green volume; as well as the basic wood density were calculated in order to obtain the average values for each age. The organic carbon capture quantification was obtained by multiplying the tree fitomass (Mg/ha¹) of each age by their average organic carbon content. The results showed 6,5Mg/C/ha¹ at the age of 5; 82,2Mg/C/ha¹ at the age of 12; 41,8 Mg/C/ha¹ at the age of 14; 109,9Mg/C/ha¹ at the age of 18; 91,4Mg/C/ha¹ at the age of 25 and 91,9Mg/C/ha¹ at the age of 26. It is possible to conclude that the total collection of organic carbon per hectare is directly influenced by the basic wood density of the species and by the wood volume of the stands.; A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo principal quantificar a captura de carbono orgânico em povoamentos de Pinus taeda L. com diferentes idades na região de Rio Negrinho/SC. Os povoamentos foram estratificados...

Tecnologia de Armazenamento Geológico de Dióxido de Carbono: Panorama Mundial e Situação Brasileira; CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY: WORLD OVERVIEW AND BRAZILIAN SITUATION; CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY: WORLD OVERVIEW AND BRAZILIAN SITUATION

Câmara, George Batista; UFBA; Andrade, José Célio; UFBA; Rocha, Paulo Vieira; Unifacs
Fonte: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC Publicador: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Revisão da Literatura Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/05/2012 Português
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As análises científicas e discussões quanto ao efeito das emissões antrópicas de Gases de Efeito Estufa (GEE)e suas consequências nas alterações do clima ganharam notoriedade pública nas últimas décadas. A necessidade deações mundiais direcionadas ao combate do aquecimento global, decorrente das emissões antrópicas de GEE, temmovimentado tanto o setor público quanto o setor privado. A relação meio ambiente e economia foi um assunto discutidodesde a primeira Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre o Meio Humano, realizada em Estocolmo, em 1972. Devidoà relação produção/consumo/meio ambiente, o setor privado é um dos maiores interessados nas questões referentes àGovernança Ambiental Global (GAG). Quanto às mudanças climáticas, embora as evidências científicas aumentem,as respostas políticas têm tido, até agora, pouco ou nenhum impacto sobre a acumulação de emissões. A tecnologia deCaptura e Armazenamento do Dióxido de Carbono (CO2) em Reservatórios Geológicos (CCS) é apontada, a curto emédio prazo, como uma das principais ações de mitigação de GEE. Para o incentivo do seu uso em larga escala, estãodisponíveis recursos internacionais e outros oriundos do mercado de crédito de carbono voluntário. Outro mecanismode incentivo para o seu uso é o mercado de crédito de carbono regulado...