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Strategic Climate Policy with Offsets and Incomplete Abatement : Carbon Taxes Versus Cap-and-Trade

Strand, Jon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
This paper provides a first analysis of optimal offset policies by a "policy bloc" of fossil fuel importers implementing a climate policy, facing a (non-policy) fringe of other importers, and a bloc of fuel exporters. The policy bloc uses either a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade scheme, jointly with a fully efficient offset mechanism for reducing emissions in the fringe. The policy bloc is then shown to prefer a tax over a cap-and-trade scheme, since 1) a tax extracts more rent as fuel exporters reduce the export price, and more so when the policy bloc is larger relative to the fringe; and 2) offsets are more favorable to the policy bloc under a tax than under a cap-and-trade scheme. The optimal offset price under a carbon tax is half the tax rate; under a cap-and-trade scheme the quota and offset price are equal. The domestic carbon and offset price are both higher under a tax than under a cap-and-trade scheme when the policy bloc is small; when it is larger the offset price can be higher under a cap-and-trade scheme. Fringe countries gain by mitigation in the policy bloc...

Under What Conditions Does a Carbon Tax on Fossil Fuels Stimulate Biofuels?

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Csordas, Stefan; Mevel, Simon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.45%
A carbon tax is an efficient economic instrument to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel burning. Its impacts on production of renewable energy depend on how it is designed -- particularly in the context of the penetration of biofuels into the energy supply mix for road transportation. Using a multi-sector, multi-country computable general equilibrium model, this study shows first that a carbon tax with the entire tax revenue recycled to households through a lump-sum transfer does not stimulate biofuel production significantly, even at relatively high tax rates. This reflects the high cost of carbon dioxide abatement through biofuels substitution, relative to other energy substitution alternatives; in addition, the carbon tax will have negative economy-wide consequences that reduce total demand for all fuels. A combined carbon tax and biofuel subsidy policy, where part of the carbon tax revenue is used to finance a biofuel subsidy, would significantly stimulate market penetration of biofuels. Although the carbon tax and biofuel subsidy policy would cause higher loss in global economic output compared with the carbon tax with lump sum revenue redistribution...

Carbon Offsets with Endogenous Environmental Policy

Strand, Jon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.54%
Interests in obtaining carbon offsets in host countries for Clean Development Mechanism projects may serve as an obstacle to implementing more stringent general environmental policies in the same countries. A relatively lax environmental policy, whereby carbon emissions remain high, can be advantageous for such countries as it leaves them with a higher than otherwise scope for future emissions reductions through Clean Development Mechanism and other offset projects. In this note, the potential to affect the availability of future Clean Development Mechanism projects is shown to distort environmental and energy policies of Clean Development Mechanism host countries in two ways. Measures to reduce use of fossil energy are weakened. Because this weakens private sector incentives to switch to lower-carbon technology through Clean Development Mechanism projects, host governments then also find it attractive to subsidize this switch, in order to maximize the country s advantage from the Clean Development Mechanism.

The Effects of Domestic Climate Change Measures on International Competitiveness

Kee, Hiau Looi; Ma, Hong; Mani, Muthukumara
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.53%
Under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized countries (called Annex I countries) have to reduce their combined emissions to 5 percent below 1990 levels in the first commitment period of 2008-12. Efforts to reduce emissions to meet Kyoto targets and beyond have raised issues of competitiveness in countries that are implementing these policies, as well as fear of leakage of carbon-intensive industries to non-implementing countries. This has also led to proposals for tariff or border tax adjustments to offset any adverse impact of capping carbon dioxide emissions. This paper examines the implications of climate change policies such as carbon tax and energy efficiency standards on competitiveness across industries, as well as issues related to leakage, if any, of carbon-intensive industries to developing countries. Although competitiveness issues have been much debated in the context of carbon taxation policies, the study finds no evidence that the energy intensive industries competitiveness is affected by carbon taxes. In fact...

Implementing Carbon Tariffs : A Fool’s Errand?

Moore, Michael O.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.55%
Some governments are considering taxes on imports based on carbon content from countries that have not introduced climate change policies. Such carbon border taxes appeal to domestic industries facing higher charges for their own carbon emissions. This research demonstrates that there are enormous practical difficulties surrounding such plans. Various policies are evaluated according to World Trade Organization compliance, administrative plausibility, help in meeting environmental goals, and ability to deal with domestic pressures. The steel industry is used as a case study in this analysis. All considered policies arguably fail to meet at least one of these constraints, bringing into question the plausibility that a carbon border tax can be practical policy.

Tax Policy to Reduce Carbon Emissions in South Africa

Devarajan, Shantayanan; Go, Delfin S.; Robinson, Sherman; Thierfelder, Karen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.76%
Noting that South Africa may be one of the few African countries that could contribute to mitigating climate change, the authors explore the impact of a carbon tax relative to alternative energy taxes on economic welfare. Using a disaggregate general-equilibrium model of the South African economy, they capture the structural characteristics of the energy sector, linking a supply mix that is heavily skewed toward coal to energy use by different sectors and hence their carbon content. The authors consider a "pure" carbon tax as well as various proxy taxes such as those on energy or energy-intensive sectors like transport and basic metals, all of which achieve the same level of carbon reduction. In general, the more targeted the tax to carbon emissions, the better the welfare results. If a carbon tax is feasible, it will have the least marginal cost of abatement by a substantial amount when compared to alternative tax instruments. If a carbon tax is not feasible, a sales tax on energy inputs is the next best option. Moreover...

Carbon Markets, Institutions, Policies, and Research

Larson, Donald F.; Ambrosi, Philippe; Dinar, Ariel; Rahman, Shaikh Mahfuzur; Entler, Rebecca
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.26%
The scale of investment needed to slow greenhouse gas emissions is larger than governments can manage through transfers. Therefore, climate change policies rely heavily on markets and private capital. This is especially true in the case of the Kyoto Protocol with its provisions for trade and investment in joint projects. This paper describes institutions and policies important for new carbon markets and explains their origins. Research efforts that explore conceptual aspects of current policy are surveyed along with empirical studies that make predictions about how carbon markets will work and perform. The authors summarize early investment and price outcomes from newly formed markets and point out areas where markets have preformed as predicted and areas where markets remain incomplete. Overall the scale of carbon-market investment planned exceeds earlier expectations, but the geographic dispersion of investment is uneven and important opportunities for abatement remain untapped in some sectors, indicating a need for additional research on how investment markets work. How best to promote the development and deployment of new technologies is another promising area for study identified in the paper.

The Role of Revenue Recycling Schemes in Environmental Tax Selection : A General Equilibrium Analysis

Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
This study examines the roles of revenue recycling schemes for the selection of alternative tax instruments (i.e., carbon-, sulphur-, energy- and output-tax) to reduce CO2 emissions to a specified level in Thailand. A static, single period, multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Thai economy has been developed for this purpose. This study finds that the selection of a tax instrument to reduce CO2 emissions would be significantly influenced by the scheme to recycle the tax revenue to the economy. If the tax revenue is recycled to finance cuts in the existing labour or indirect tax rates, carbon tax would be more efficient than the sulphur-, energy- and output-taxes to reduce CO2 emissions. On the other hand, if the tax revenue is recycled to households through a lump-sum transfer, sulphur and carbon taxes would be more efficient than energy and output taxes. The ranking between the sulphur and carbon taxes under the lump sum transfer scheme depends on substitution possibility of fossil fuels. Sulphur tax is found superior over carbon tax at the higher substitution possibility between fossil fuels; the reverse is found true at the lower substitution possibility. In all schemes of revenue recycling considered...

What is the Role of Carbon Taxes in Climate Change Mitigation?

Aldy, Joseph; Ley, Eduardo; Parry, Ian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
This note argues that a carbon tax system is more practical to implement, monitor and enforce than tradable permit-based approaches to global climate-change action. It suggests that a sensible design will be an upstream carbon tax on the fossil fuel supply chain, which can also include other major non-(carbon monoxide) CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs). While risks such as fiscal cushioning exist, a tax-based system will be more transparent and offer the appropriate incentives for participation and compliance.

State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2012

Kossoy, Alexandre; Guigon, Pierre
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.26%
The total value of the carbon market grew by 11 percent in 2011, to $176 billion, and transaction volumes reached a new high of 10.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This growth took place in the face of economic turbulence, growing long-term oversupply in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and plummeting carbon prices. By far, the largest segment of the carbon market was that of EU Allowances (EUAs), valued at $148 billion. With the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, the value of the pre-2013 primary certified emission reduction (CER), emission reduction unit (ERU) and assigned amount unit (AAU) markets declined in 2011. At the same time, the post-2012 primary Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) market increased by a robust 63 percent, to US$2 billion, despite depressed prices and limited long-term-visibility. Against this backdrop, several new domestic and regional carbon market initiatives gained traction in both developed and developing economies in 2011. Five new jurisdictions (i.e., Australia, California, Québec, Republic of Korea, and Mexico) passed legislations laying the foundation for cap-and-trade schemes. Together, these initiatives will drive substantial resources towards low-carbon investments and they have the potential to unleash a truly transformational carbon market...

Strategic Climate Policy with Offsets and Incomplete Abatement : Carbon Taxes Versus Cap-and-Trade

Strand, Jon
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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56.38%
This paper provides a first analysis of a “policy bloc” of fossil fuel importers which implements an optimal climate policy, faces a (non-policy) fringe of other fuel importers, and an exporter bloc, and purchases offset from the fringe. We compare a carbon tax and a cap-and-trade scheme for the policy bloc, in either case accompanied by an efficient offset mechanism for reducing emissions in the fringe. The policy bloc is shown to prefer a tax over a cap, since only a tax reduces the fuel export price and by more when the policy bloc is larger. Offsets are also more favorable to the policy bloc under a tax than under a cap. The optimal offset price under a carbon tax is below the tax rate, while under a cap and free quota trading the offset price must equal the quota price. The domestic carbon and offset prices are both higher under a tax than under a cap when the policy bloc is small. When the policy bloc is larger, the offset price can be higher under a cap. Fringe countries gain by mitigation in the policy bloc, more under a carbon tax since the fuel import price is lower.

Mapping Carbon Pricing Initiatives : Developments and Prospects 2013

Kossoy, Alexandre; Oppermann, Klaus; Reddy, Rama Chandra; Bosi, Martina; Boukerche, Sandrine; Höhne, Niklas; Klein, Noémie; Gilbert, Alyssa; Jung, Martina; Borkent, Bram; Lam, Long; Röser, Frauke; Braun, Nadine; Hänsel, Gesine; Warnecke, Carsten
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.27%
The Mapping Carbon Pricing Initiatives Report maps existing and emerging carbon pricing initiatives around the world. It does not provide a quantitative, transaction-based analysis of the international carbon market since current market conditions invalidate any attempt to undertake such an analysis. The development of national and subnational carbon pricing initiatives in an increasing number of countries calls for a different focus. The uncertainty surrounding the existing carbon markets in the last years has prevented valuable resources to be channeled to low-carbon investments, particularly from the private sector. Following the economic downturn and slow economic recovery in major economies, industrial output plummeted and the demand for carbon assets used for compliance fell. With limited support, prices reached historical lows. At the same time, several national and sub-national carbon pricing initiatives are emerging. It is not surprising that several of these new carbon pricing initiatives also include design features to prevent similar developments in the future, including mechanisms to stabilize the carbon price.

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions through Joint Implementation of Projects

Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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56.43%
Efficient reduction of carbon dioxide emissions requires coordination of international efforts. Approaches proposed include carbon taxes, emission quotas, and jointly implemented energy projects. To reduce emissions efficiently, requires equalizing the marginal costs of reduction between countries. The apparently large differentials between the costs of reducing emissions in industrial and developing countries, implies a great potential for lowering the costs of reducing emissions by focusing on projects in developing countries. Most proposals for joint implementation of energy projects emphasize installing more technically efficient capital equipment, to allow reductions in energy use for any given mix of input, and output. But such increases in efficiency are likely to have potentially important second-round impacts: 1) Lowering the relative effective price of specific energy products. 2) Lowering the price of energy relative to other inputs. 3) Lowering the price of energy-intensive products relative to other products. The author explores the consequences of these second-round impacts...

Carbon Price Efficiency : Lock-in and Path Dependence in Urban Forms and Transport Infrastructure

Avner, Paolo; Rentschler, Jun; Hallegatte, Stéphane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
This paper investigates the effect of carbon or gasoline taxes on commuting-related CO2 emissions in an urban context. To assess the impact of public transport on the efficiency of the tax, the paper investigates two exogenous scenarios using a dynamic urban model (NEDUM-2D) calibrated for the urban area of Paris: (i) a scenario with the current dense public transport infrastructure, and (ii) a scenario without. It is shown that the price elasticity of CO2 emissions is twice as high in the short run if public transport options exist. Reducing commuting-related emissions thus requires lower (and more acceptable) tax levels in the presence of dense public transportation. If the goal of a carbon or gasoline tax is to change behaviors and reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions (not to raise revenues), then there is an incentive to increase the price elasticity through complementary policies such as public transport development. The emission elasticity also depends on the baseline scenario and is larger when population growth and income growth are high. In the longer run...

Taxes and Caps as Climate Policy Instruments with Domestic and Imported Fuels

Strand, Jon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69%
This paper develops a global model of climate policy, focusing on the choice between tax and cap-and-trade solutions. The analysis assumes that the world can be split into two regions, with two fuels that both lead to carbon emissions. Region A consumes all fuels, and is responsible for defining and implementing climate policy. Region B produces all of fuel 1 (oil), while fuel 2 (interpreted as coal, natural gas, or renewables) is both produced and consumed in region A. The paper studies three model variants. All involve full policy coordination in each country block, but no coordination across blocks; and all involve an optimal producer tax on fuel 1 by region B. In model 1, region A sets two fuel consumption taxes, one for each fuel. The optimal region A tax on fuel 1 then exceeds the Pigou level as defined by the region; the tax set on fuel 2 is Pigouvian. The presence of a second fuel in region A reduces region B s optimal tax on fuel 1. In model 2, region A sets a common carbon tax, which is lower (higher) for fuel 1 (2) than in model 1. In model 3...

What is the Role of Carbon Taxes in Climate Change Mitigation? (revised)

Aldy, Joseph; Ley, Eduardo; Parry, Ian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
This note argues that a carbon tax system is more practical to implement, monitor, and enforce than tradable permit-based approaches to global climate-change action. It suggests that a sensible design will be an upstream carbon tax on the fossil fuel supply chain, which can also include other major non-carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gases (GHGs). While risks such as fiscal cushioning exist, a tax-based system will be more transparent and offer the appropriate incentives for participation and compliance.

Supporting GHG Mitigation Actions with Effective Data Management Systems

Partnership for Market Readiness
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
The Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR) is a global partnership, which provides funding and technical assistance to support the design and development of market-based instruments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The PMR is country-led and builds on countries own mitigation priorities. It emphasizes improving technical and institutional capacity to scale up mitigation efforts, including domestic emissions trading, crediting mechanisms and carbon taxes, among others. The report contains three parts. First, it provides an overview of the types of data management systems included in this analysis, namely, systems that support: (1) national level inventories, (2) facility-level reporting, and (3) carbon asset registries as well as other systems for clean energy and energy efficiency policies. The first part also provides a snapshot of four cases studies (the United Kingdom, Australia, the United States, Germany; Annexes to this report includes full descriptions of the case studies). Secondly, the report presents lessons learned from the case studies...

Carbon Pricing Watch 2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
Português
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56.45%
Significant progress in carbon pricing has been made over the last ten years. In 2015, about 40 national and over 20 subnational jurisdictions, representing almost a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), are putting a price on carbon. Together, the carbon pricing instruments in these jurisdictions cover about half of their emissions, which translates into approximately 7 GtCO2e or about 12 percent of annual global GHG emissions. This figure represents a threefold increase over the past decade. The total value of the emissions trading schemes (ETSs) reported in the State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014 report was about US$30 billion (US$32 billion to be precise). Despite the repeal of Australia’s Carbon Pricing Mechanism in July 2014, and mainly due to the launch of the Korean ETS and the expansion of GHG emissions coverage in the California and Quebec ETSs, the value of global ETSs as of April 1, 2015 increased slightly to about US$34 billion. In addition, carbon taxes around the world, valued for the first time in this report...

The FASTER Principles for Successful Carbon Pricing

OECD; World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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46.63%
The case for climate action has never been stronger. Current weather extremes, including storms, floods and drought, affect millions of people across the world. Climate change is putting water security at risk; threatening agricultural and other supply chains as well as many coastal cities. The likelihood of severe pervasive and irreversible impacts will grow without action to limit and reverse the growth of GHG emissions globally. Last year’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report makes clear the overwhelming need to take action now on climate change and that the costs of inaction will only rise. The challenge is to decarbonize our economies by 2100 with action in the next decades being critical. The choices made by government, the private sector, and civil society as part of the transition to a decarbonized economy will determine the extent of future climate impacts but also provide an opportunity to unlock investment and build an innovative, dynamic low-carbon economy.

Consumer-based Carbon Reduction Incentives

Niemeyer, Simon
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 59530 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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46.38%
Australia's ability to meet its commitment to reduce greenhouse gases under the Kyoto convention will probably require at least some government intervention. Traditionally, approaches to reducing pollution in Australia have tended to focus on the adoption of emission standards. Theoretical criticism by environmental economists has, in part, resulted in a movement toward the adoption of market based mechanisms for pollution abatement; and flirtations with carbon taxes and tradeable permits to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Each instrument is subject to significant weaknesses. Tradeable permits are administratively complex for both polluter and administrator and can lead to production bottlenecks where polluters cannot find requisite permits. A carbon tax is simpler to administer and offers much more flexibility, but can have regressive and inequitable economic impacts. Of these approaches, tradeable permits offer greater potential for achieving set emissions reductions, but tend to be restricted in application to large emitters such as industry. It is argued here that to be truly cost effective, incentives to reduce emissions need to be targeted as close as possible to the point of fuel consumption-and hence greenhouse emission: by both industry and the household consumer. This paper explores the benefits and limitations of adopting a mixed incentive scheme applied to the energy consumer to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The proposed consumer carbon reduction incentive (CBCRI) incorporates elements of tradeable permits...