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A NEO-KALECKIAN MODEL OF PROFIT SHARING, CAPACITY UTILIZATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

Lima, Gilberto Tadeu
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper sets forth a Neo-Kaleckian model of capacity utilization and growth with distribution featuring a profit-sharing arrangement. While a given proportion of firms compensate workers with only a base wage, the remaining proportion do so with a base wage and a share of profits. Consistent with the empirical evidence, workers hired by profit-sharing firms have a higher productivity than their counterparts in base-wage firms. While a higher profit-sharing coefficient raises capacity utilization and growth irrespective of the distribution of compensation strategies across firms, a higher frequency of profit-sharing firms does likewise only if the profit-sharing coefficient is sufficiently high.

Aplicação do indicador Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) e suas derivações como indicadores de desempenho global da utilização da capacidade de produção.; Application of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) indicator and its derivatives as indicators of performance global of production capacity utilization.

Busso, Christianne Matias
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/09/2012 Português
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A produtividade e competitividade de empresas intensivas em capital é muito dependente do grau de utilização de sua capacidade industrial. Muitos indicadores têm sido utilizados para medir o desempenho da manufatura, dentre eles o Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Contudo, somente altos índices de OEE não garantem um desempenho superior em uma fábrica. Alguns autores sugerem que a adoção de indicadores com maior abrangência como o Overall Plant Effectiveness (OPE) é mais adequada à medição e análise do desempenho global da manufatura por contemplar a influência de outras áreas da organização sobre a utilização da capacidade de uma fábrica. Esta pesquisa discute a aplicação do OEE em empresas cuja competitividade depende fortemente da sua habilidade em racionalizar a utilização da capacidade industrial e explora indicadores derivados da sua utilização. Com este propósito é realizada uma revisão bibliográfica da literatura para identificar suas limitações, relacionar os indicadores derivados do OEE e caracterizá-los como ferramentas gerenciais que podem oferecer uma perspectiva mais global à medição do desempenho da utilização da capacidade. Além disto, um estudo de caso é desenvolvido em uma empresa processadora de alimentos para identificar como se pode envolver os diversos agentes responsáveis pelas perdas de capacidade de produção...

Acumulação de capital, utilização da capacidade produtiva e inflação : uma análise a partir de um modelo pós-keynesiano não linear; Capital acumulation, capacity utilization and inflation : an analisys based in a non-linear post-keynesian macrodynamic model

Oreiro, José Luís da Costa; Neves, André Lucio
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar os efeitos da inflação sobre a acumulação de capital e o grau de utilização da capacidade produtiva no âmbito de um modelo pós-keynesiano de crescimento, no qual o investimento é uma função não linear (quadrática) da taxa de inflação. Nesse contexto, demonstra-se a existência de dois valores de equilíbrio de curto prazo para a taxa de inflação e o grau de utilização da capacidade produtiva. O primeiro equilíbrio é caracterizado pela existência de um baixo nível de utilização da capacidade produtiva e uma baixa taxa de inflação. No segundo equilíbrio, o grau de utilização da capacidade produtiva é alto, mas a inflação também é elevada. Esse resultado faz com que a condução da política de estabilização seja condicionada à posição de equilíbrio na qual a economia se encontra. A estabilidade do equilíbrio de longo prazo dependerá não só da posição de equilíbrio de curto prazo em que a economia se encontra (baixo ou alto) bem como da velocidade de resposta da política monetária a divergências entre a inflação efetiva e a meta de inflação definida pelo Banco Central e da velocidade de correção dos erros de previsão dos agentes econômicos quanto à taxa de inflação. Desse modo...

Trends in capacity utilization for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production

Langer, Eric S
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The administration of high doses of therapeutic antibodies requires large-scale, efficient, cost effective manufacturing processes. An understanding of how the industry is using its available production capacity is important for production planning, and facility expansion analysis. Inaccurate production planning for therapeutic antibodies can have serious financial ramifications. In the recent 5th Annual Report and Survey of Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Capacity and Production, 434 qualified respondents from 39 countries were asked to indicate, among other manufacturing issues, their current trends and future predictions with respect to the production capacity utilization of monoclonal antibodies in mammalian cell culture systems. While overall production of monoclonals has expanded dramatically since 2003, the average capacity utilization for mammalian cell culture systems, has decreased each year since 2003. Biomanufacturers aggressively attempt to avoid unanticipated high production demands that can create a capacity crunch. We summarize trends associated with capacity utilization and capacity constraints which indicate that biopharmaceutical manufacturers are doing a better job planning for capacity. The results have been a smoothing of capacity use shifts and an improved ability to forecast capacity and outsourcing needs. Despite these data...

Does Responsive Pricing Smooth Demand Shocks?

COURTY, Pascal; PAGLIERO, Mario
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Using data from a unique pricing experiment, we investigate Vickrey’s conjecture that responsive pricing can be used to smooth both predictable and unpredictable demand shocks. Our evidence shows that increasing the responsiveness of price to demand conditions reduces the magnitude of deviations in capacity utilization rates from a pre-determined target level. A 10 percent increase in price variability leads to a decrease in the variability of capacity utilization rates between 2 and 6 percent. We discuss implications for the use of demand-side incentives to deal with congestible resources.

The information content of capacity utilization for detrending total factor productivity

PLANAS Christophe; ROEGER Werner; ROSSI Alessandro
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
Português
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In the production function approach, an accurate output gap assessment requires a careful evaluation of the total factor productivity (TFP) cycle. We build a common cycle model that links TFP to capacity utilization and we show that, in almost all of the pre-enlargement EU countries, using information about capacity utilization reduces both the total estimation error and the revisions in real-time estimates of the concurrent TFP cycle compared to a univariate decomposition. We also argue that relaxing the constant drift hypothesis in favour of a non-linear specification helps to offset a general tendency to underestimate the TFP cycle in the last decade.; JRC.G.1-Scientific Support to Financial Analysis

RDT&E laboratory Capacity Utilization and Productivity Measurement Methods for Financial Decision-Making within DON

Haupt, Jeffrey S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This thesis identifies capacity utilization and productivity measures applicable to Department of the Navy (DON) Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) laboratories. The recent emphasis on efficiency and sound business practices from a financial management perspective mandates that the Navy evaluate and incorporate oppropriate laboratory performance measures. Industry capacity utilization and productivity measurement techniques and models were evaluated for their potential application to the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) RDT&E organization. The CAM-I capacity model was selected from the twelve industry models reviewed as a measure of capacity utilization. Additionally, laboratory productivity was examined in terms of revenue and full cost with measures of return on operations, operating margin, and operating margin per square foot. Productivity data were collected from NAWCAD accounting records. Observations, interviews, and a questionnaire were used to gather laboratory operating characteristics and capacity utilization data. The data were input to the selected measures and the results were analyzed. This analysis found that the measures identified provide a financial basis for responsible RDT&E resource decision-making and have potential application to all Department of Defense (DOD) RDT&E laboratory activities

Idiosyncratic uncertainty, capacity utilization and the business cycle

Fagnart, Jean-Francois; Licandro, Omar; Portier, Franck
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1996 Português
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In a stochastic dynamic general equilibrium framework, we introduce the concept of variable capacity utilization (as opposed to the concept of capital utilization). We consider an economy where imperfectly competitive firms use a putty-clay technology and decide on their productive capacity level under uncertainty. An idiosyncratic uncertainty about the exact position of the demand curve facedby each firm explains why sorne productive capacities may remain idle in the sequel and why individual capacity utilization rates differ across firms. The capacity underutilization at the aggregate level thus hides a diversity of microeconomic situations. The variability of the capacity utilization allows for a good description of sorne of the main stylized facts of the business cycle, propagates and magnifies aggregate technological shocks and generates endogenous persistence (Le., the output growth rate displays positive serial correlation).

Input cost, capacity utilization and substitution in the short run

Delgado, Miguel A.; Jaumandreu, Jordi; Martín Marcos, Ana
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article studies the behavior of input cost shares in an environment where labor is costly to adjust, materials can be adjusted at no cost and capital is fixed. A model relating cost shares with relative prices and adjustment costs is proposed, allowing joint estimation of the elasticity of substitution and the adjustment cost function, which is an unknown function of the utilization capacity. Based on a panel of more than 700 manufacturing firms, we find evidence of strong input share variations according to the degree of capacity utilization. The estimated shapes of adjustment costs curves of labor are in agreement with our theoretical model, and we obtain sensible elasticities of substitution estimates. Based on such estimates, we find evidence of a negative (positive) bias in downturns (recoveries) in conventional productivity growth measures.

Input cost, capacity utilization and substitution in the short run

Delgado, Miguel A.; Jaumandreu, Jordi; Martín Marcos, Ana
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.43613%
This article studies the behavior of input cost shares in an environment where labor is costly to adjust, materials can be adjusted at no cost and capital is fixed. A model relating cost shares with relative prices and adjustment costs is proposed, allowing joint estimation of the elasticity of substitution and the adjustment cost function, which is an unknown function of the capacity utilization. Based on a panel of more than 700 manufacturing firms, we find evidence of strong input share variations according to the degree of capacity utilization. The estimated shapes of adjustment costs curves of labor are in agreement with our theoretical model, and we obtain sensible elasticities of substitution estimates. Based on such estimates, we find evidence of a negative (positive) bias in downturns (recoveries) in conventional productivity growth measures.

Input cost, capacity utilization and substitution in the short run

Delgado, Miguel A.; Jaumandreu, Jordi; Martín Marcos, Ana
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; text/plain
Publicado em //1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.26212%
This article studies the behavior of input cost shares, in an environment where labor is costly to variate, materials can variate at no cost and capital is fixed. A model relating cost shares with relative prices and adjustment costs is proposed, allowing joint estimation of the elasticity of substitution and the adjustment cost function, which is an unknown function of the capacity utilization. Based on a panel of more than 700 manufacturing firms we find evidence of strong input share variations according to the degree of capacity utilization. The estimated shapes of adjustment costs of labor are in agreement with our theoretical model, and we obtain sensible elasticities of substitution estimates. Based on such estimates, we find evidence of a negative (positive) bias in downturns (recoveries) in conventional productivity growth measures.

Capacity utilization dynamics and market power

Fagnart, Jean-Francois; Licandro, Omar; Sneessens, Henri
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.703506%
In an intertemporal general equilibrium model with imperfect competition, we settle a relationship between factor utilization and markups, via the effect of capacity utilization rate changes on firms' market power when the demand for goods is uncertain. When competition is imperfect, the existence of capacity constraints introduces a distinction between demand and sales price elasticities. At given demand price elasticity, the price elasticity of sales will be smaller the larger the aggregate capacity utilization rateo In such a framework, capacity utilization aifects the propagation mechanism of exogenous disturbances in two ways. The first effect is similar to the effect that bottlenecks and stockouts would have in a perfectly competitive setup; the second effect is related to imperfect competition and works through market power and optimal markup changes. We study these interactions and their implications for the dynamic behavior of sorne key macro variables in response to various "structural" changes. We show that the same shock can have quite different short run effects depending on the characteristics of the initial stationary state (low or high capacity utilization rate).

Capacity utilization and market power

Fagnart, Jean-Francois; Licandro, Omar; Sneessens, Henri
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.64169%
In a monopolistic competition framework, we propose a dynamic model in which capacity underutilization is a macroeconomic equilibrium feature relying on a diversity of microeconomic situations. Capacity underutilization follows from microeconomic uncertainty at the time firms must decide on their productive capacity. We settle a relationship between capacity utilization and markups via the effect of capacity utilization rate changes on firms' market power. We show that such a relationship influences significantly the short run response of the economy to exogenous shocks. In particular, the same shock can have quite different short run effects depending on the characteristics of the initial stationary state (low or high capacity utilization rate).

A Naval Shipyard optimal drydock loading and capacity utilization model

Brown, Richard A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 57 p.: ill.;28 cm.
Português
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The Naval Shipyard Optimal Drydock Loading and Capacity Utilization Model presented in this thesis is a tool to optimally load the Naval Shipyard's drydocks. The problem is constrained by the length, type and timing of each ship's required maintenance; current and projected capabilities of existing drydocks; current load of the drydocks; and the requirement to perform maintenance on the drydocks. Prior to this model, the Navy used a suboptimal, manual procedure that took one to two weeks to perform. This inefficiency became critical when an Assistant Secretary of the Navy requested a drydock capacity utilization study, requiring optimal loadings under numerous scenarios. An optimization model which lacks limiting assumptions, allows easy modification of input data and is capable of quick analysis of drydock loading scenarios was developed and executed fast enough to provide timely answers. It is implemented via the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). Data management and interface with the GAMS software is controlled via the Naval Shipyard Drydock Loading and Capacity Utilization Program (a stand-alone program written in Microsoft QBasic); Lieutenant, United States Navy

Optimizing the Long-Term Operating Plan of Railway Marshalling Station for Capacity Utilization Analysis

Zhou, Wenliang; Yang, Xia; Qin, Jin; Deng, Lianbo
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Not only is the operating plan the basis of organizing marshalling station's operation, but it is also used to analyze in detail the capacity utilization of each facility in marshalling station. In this paper, a long-term operating plan is optimized mainly for capacity utilization analysis. Firstly, a model is developed to minimize railcars' average staying time with the constraints of minimum time intervals, marshalling track capacity, and so forth. Secondly, an algorithm is designed to solve this model based on genetic algorithm (GA) and simulation method. It divides the plan of whole planning horizon into many subplans, and optimizes them with GA one by one in order to obtain a satisfactory plan with less computing time. Finally, some numeric examples are constructed to analyze (1) the convergence of the algorithm, (2) the effect of some algorithm parameters, and (3) the influence of arrival train flow on the algorithm.

Asymmetries In The Capacity-Inflation Trade-Off

Alvarez Lois, Pedro Pablo
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
Português
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This paper analyzes the joint dynamics of two key macroeconomic variables for the conduct of monetary policy: inflation and the aggregate capacity utilization rate. An econometric procedure useful for estimating dynamic rational expectation models with unobserved components is developed and applied in this context. The method combines the flexibility of the unobserved components approach, based on the Kalman recursion, with the power of the general method of moments estimation procedure. A 'hyb id' Phillips curve relating inflation to the capacity utilization gap and incorporating forward and backward looking components is estimated. The results show that such a relationship in non-linear: the slope of the Phillips curve depends significantly on the magnitude of the capacity gap. These findings provide support for studying the implications of asymmetricmonetary policy rules.

Endogenous capacity utilization and the asymmetric effects of monetary policy

Alvarez Lois, Pedro Pablo
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
Português
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57.525186%
This paper investigates the role of variable capacity utilization as a source of asymmetries in the relationship between monetary policy and economic activity within a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework. The source of the asymmetry is directly linked to the bottlenecks and stock-outs that emerge from the existence of capacity constraints in the real side of the economy. Money has real effects due to the presence of rigidities in households' portfolio decisions in the form of a Luces-Fuerst 'limited participation' constraint. The model features variable capacity utilization rates across firms due to demand uncertainty. A monopolistic competitive structure provides additional effects through optimal mark-up changes. The overall message of this paper for monetary policy is that the same actions may have different effects depending on the capacity utilization rate of the economy.; Financial support from the Ministerio de Educación y Cultura is gratefully acknowledged.

Endogenous capacity utilization and the asymmetric effects of monetary policy

Álvarez Lois, Pedro Pablo
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.487837%
This paper investigates the role of variable capacity utilization as a source of asymmetries in the relationship between monetary policy and economic activity within a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium framework. The source of the asymmetry is directly linked to the bottlenecks and stock-outs that emerge from the existence of capacity constraints in the real side of the economy. Money has real effects due to the presence of rigidities in households' portfolio decisions in the form of a Luces-Fuerst 'limited participation' constraint. The model features variable capacity utilization rates across firms due to demand uncertainty. A monopolistic competitive structure provides additional effects through optimal mark-up changes. The overall message of this paper for monetary policy is that the same actions may have different effects depending on the capacity utilization rate of the economy.

Um modelo macrodinâmico de abertura comercial, utilização da capacidade produtiva e crescimento econômico

Bertella, Mário Augusto; Lima, Gilberto Tadeu
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
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The paper develops a post-keynesian macrodynamic model to analyze the impact of quantitative changes in import tariffs on capacity utilization and growth. It is shown that even in case a tariff reduction happens to lead to a rise in labor produtivity and/or to a fall in mark-ups, it may well have a negative impact on capacity utilization and/or growth.; É desenvolvido um modelo macrodinâmico pós-keynesiano para analisar o efeito de variações quantitativas nas tarifas de importação sobre a utilização da capacidade e a taxa de crescimento da economia. Mostra-se que mesmo quando a redução tarifária promove um aumento na produtividade da mão-de-obra e/ou uma queda no mark-up, seu impacto sobre a utilização da capacidade e/ou a taxa de crescimento pode vir a ser negativo.

Ensuring a Reasonable Passenger Capacity Utilization Rate of a Train for Its Sustainably Efficient Transport

Feng,X.; Wang,Q.; Liu,Y.; Xu,B.; Liu,H.; Sun,Q.
Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.75388%
Based on simulations of the transports of a typically formed Chinese intercity passenger train hauled respectively by major types of the locomotives on a certain railway line in China, this research analyzes the changes of the traction energy cost intensity and passenger transport efficiency of the train with varying its passenger capacity utilization rate and target speed. It is found that if the passenger capacity utilization rate of such a train is higher than 60.00%, the effect of its passenger capacity utilization rate and target speed on its traction energy cost intensity and passenger transport efficiency is relatively very small. In contrast, if the passenger capacity utilization rate of the train is reduced from 40.00%, the efficiencies of its traction energy cost and passenger transport both decrease obviously and such decreases are evidently affected by its target speed. Therefore, strictly preventing the passenger capacity utilization rate of a conventional intercity passenger train from decreasing from 40.00% in particular and meanwhile striving to make its passenger capacity utilization rate higher than 60.00% as new evaluation benchmarking are able to effectively improve the railway passenger transport operation management in China.