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Radiocarbon-dated archaeological record of early first millennium B.C. mounted pastoralists in the Kunlun Mountains, China

Wagner, Mayke; Wu, Xinhua; Tarasov, Pavel; Aisha, Ailijiang; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede; Gresky, Julia
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Pastoral nomadism, as a successful economic and social system drawing on mobile herding, long-distance trade, and cavalry warfare, affected all polities of the Eurasian continent. The role that arid Inner Asia, particularly the areas of northwestern China, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia, played in the emergence of this phenomenon remains a fundamental and still challenging question in prehistoric archaeology of the Eurasian steppes. The cemetery of Liushiu (Xinjiang, China) reveals burial features, bronze bridle bits, weaponry, adornment, horse skulls, and sheep/goat bones, which, together with paleopathological changes in human skeletons, indicate the presence of mobile pastoralists and their flocks at summer pastures in the Kunlun Mountains, ∼2,850 m above sea level. Radiocarbon dates place the onset of the burial activity between 1108 and 893 B.C. (95% probability range) or most likely between 1017 and 926 B.C. (68%). These data from the Kunlun Mountains show a wider frontier within the diversity of mobile pastoral economies of Inner Asia and support the concept of multiregional transitions toward Iron Age complex pastoralism and mounted warfare.

Monitoring the Transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in Potential Risk Regions of China, 2008 – 2012

Dang, Hui; Xu, Jing; Li, Shi-Zhu; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Huang, Yi-Xin; Wu, Cheng-Guo; Tu, Zu-Wu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by Schistosoma japonicum infection, remains a major public health concern in China, and the geographical distribution of this neglected tropical disease is limited to regions where Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of the causative parasite, is detected. The purpose of this study was to monitor the transmission of S. japonicum in potential risk regions of China during the period from 2008 through 2012. To monitor the transmission, 10 fixed surveillance sites and 30 mobile sentinel sites were selected in 10 counties of four provinces, namely Anhui, Jiangsu, Chongqing and Hubei. There were 8, 9, 6, 2 and 3 cases infected with S. japonicum detected in the 30 mobile sentinel sites during the 5-year study period, while 27 subjects were positive for the antibody-based serum test in the 10 fixed sentinel sites; however, no infection was found. In addition, neither local nor imported livestock were found to be infected. No O. hupensis snails were detected in either the fixed surveillance or the mobile sentinel sites; however, the snail host was found to survive and reproduce at Chaohu Lake, inferring the potential of transmission of the disease. It is suggested that the continuous surveillance of schistosomiasis japonica should be carried out in both the endemic foci and potential risk regions of China...

Risk-based Prioritization among Air Pollution Control Strategies in the Yangtze River Delta, China

Fu, Joshua S.; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhou, Ying; Levy, Jonathan Ian
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China is a densely populated region with recent dramatic increases in energy consumption and atmospheric emissions. Objectives: We studied how different emission sectors influence population exposures and the corresponding health risks, to inform air pollution control strategy design. Methods: We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System to model the marginal contribution to baseline concentrations from different sectors. We focused on nitrogen oxide (NOx) control while considering other pollutants that affect fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter (leq 2.5 mu m (PM_{2.5}))] and ozone concentrations. We developed concentration–response (C-R) functions for (PM_{2.5}) and ozone mortality for China to evaluate the anticipated health benefits. Results: In the YRD, health benefits per ton of emission reductions varied significantly across pollutants, with reductions of primary (PM_{2.5}) from the industry sector and mobile sources showing the greatest benefits of 0.1 fewer deaths per year per ton of emission reduction. Combining estimates of health benefits per ton with potential emission reductions, the greatest mortality reduction of 12,000 fewer deaths per year [95% confidence interval (CI)...

New Industries from New Places : The Emergence of the Software and Hardware Industries in China and India

Gregory, Neil; Nollen, Stanley; Tenev, Stoyan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Stanford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Stanford University Press
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China and India have grown rapidly in importance in the global economy over the past two decades the same period in which hardware and software have become important tradable products in the global economy. China has reached global scale in the hardware industry but not in software; India has achieved the reverse. These recent developments offer new insights into the ways in which new industries can take root and flourish within the broader context of developing economies. This progress has attracted widespread comment, most of it anecdotal or based on partial explanations of industrial growth. This study seeks to provide a fuller explanation based on an empirical analysis of the macro and micro underpinnings of these contrasting growth stories. In doing so, the study sheds a broader light on the economic development paths that China and India have taken since 1990, and also on the process by which developing economies can enter and succeed in new markets.

Fostering a Digitally Inclusive Aging Society in China : The Potential of Public Libraries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The World Bank has been supporting this policythrough theprogram China Rural Information and Communications: Technical Assistance on Design and Impact Evaluation, which aims to support the government make decisions about potential scaling up of innovative ICT pilot projects and to generate and disseminate knowledge about the impacts of ICT in rural China. Three activities were undertakenwith a focus on a trio of provinces (Guizhou, Jilin, and Shandong): (a) a demand survey to assess rural ICT access and attitudes; (b) a library study including scoping the status of ICT use in rural libraries; and (c) a limited impact evaluation to examine how ICT interventions have affected rural users.

China Mobile Telecom, China Mobile. www.monternet.com. Reaching out from the heart. Beijing Mobile Communication Co., Ltd.

Fonte: Asian Studies, Baker Institute for Public Policy, Rice University Publicador: Asian Studies, Baker Institute for Public Policy, Rice University
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The origin of the image is Domestic. Watermark Unknown.

The effects of China entering the World Trade Organization on the South Korean wireless telecommunication industry; The effects of China entering the World Trade Organization on the South Korean telecommunication industry

Conner, William J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xii, 69 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; This thesis investigates the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization on the South Korean wireless telecommunication industry. Of particular interest, this thesis explores whether the South Korean wireless telecom industry will benefit from China's accession into the WTO. The working hypothesis of the thesis is that South Korean wireless telecom companies will receive far-reaching economic benefit from China's entry into the WTO. Additionally, this thesis explores the effects the entry in the WTO will have on China's telecom policy toward allowing foreign companies to own and operate parts of the network.; Captain, United States Marine Corps

Constraints of grassland science, pastoral management and policy in Northern China: anthropological perspectives on degradational narratives

Taylor, J.
Fonte: Emerald Group Publishing Group Ltd Publicador: Emerald Group Publishing Group Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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PURPOSE – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the implications of policies, practices and new “non-equilibrium” management approaches in mobile grassland management. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – The author takes an actor-oriented perspective on the narrative of land-use practices, notional sustainable stocking rates and the problematic of state policy interventions in local context. The paper is based on two years in the field on a bilateral aid-funded grassland management project at Xing'an League, Inner Mongolia and follow-up among selected informants. FINDINGS – The constitution of grasslands “degradation” is in fact contested by resource users. Most grassland scientists, Party and Government officials in China have tended to associate ethnic “minority” mobile pastoralists with destructive cultural practices that, they argue, have led to ecological decline on the steppes. This argument is integral to the “degradation narrative” that underpins the discourse on grassland science. The conventional bio-ecology emphasis on species dominance (growth-form), in fact says little about the extent of anthropogenic impacts on above-ground biomass and whether these factors have been the cause of degradation. The paper suggests that greater consideration is given to specific changes in human activity...

Market Integration in China

Chen, Qingqing; Goh, Chor-Ching; Sun, Bo; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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Over the last three decades, China's product, labor, and capital markets have become gradually more integrated within its borders, although integration has been significantly slower for capital markets. There remains a significant urban-rural divide, and Chinese cities tend to be under-sized by international standards. China has also integrated globally, initially through the Special Economic Zones on the coast as launching grounds to connect with world markets, and subsequently through the accession to the World Trade Organization. For future policy considerations, this paper argues that its economic production needs to be spatially concentrated, and its social services need to be spread out to the interior to ensure harmonious development and domestic integration (through inclusive rural-urban transformations and effective territorial development).

Rural Informatization in China

Zhen-Wei Qiang, Christine; Bhavnani, Asheeta; Hanna, Nagy K.; Kimura, Kaoru; Sudan, Randeep
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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China's recent economic growth has expanded industrialization and urbanization, upgraded consumption, increased social mobility, and initiated a shift from an economy based on agriculture to one based on industry and services. Still more than half of China's people still live in rural areas where average income per capita is less than a third of the urban average, a gap that is among the largest in the world. Reducing these differences is critical to building a harmonious, inclusive society. This report draws from background research conducted by the advisory committee for state informatization, and attempts to provide an overview of China's rural information and communications technology (ICT) development primarily in the past 15 years. The report first describes the status of China's rural informatization infrastructure. It then reviews existing rural ICT initiatives in China and summarizes them by organizational models. International examples are included to draw lessons from. Finally, the challenges of rural informatization are examined...

China's Information Revolution : Managing the Economic and Social Transformation

Qiang, Christine Zhen-Wei
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This report presents a comprehensive overview of the information, communication and technological sector in China, and the role it has played during economic and social transformation in the past decade. It provides guidance on the kind of reforms policy makers in China may wish to consider in pursuing the country's quest for continued ICT development. It also combines local perspectives with international experiences on how issues in areas such as legal and regulatory environment, telecommunications infrastructures, and IT industry have been addressed by other countries.

Transit ITS Implementation Guidance : Part 2. Transit ITS Projects in China--Lessons Learned

World Bank
Fonte: Beijing Publicador: Beijing
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
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There has been increased interest throughout the world in improving transit services through the introduction of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). ITS can be defined as a set of technologies intended to improve the quality or efficiency of transit services primarily by providing the appropriate information at the appropriate time in an appropriate form to transit staff and transit customers. The World Bank has participated in the financing of several ITS systems in China. Given the complexity of these projects and their potential for dramatic transformation of transit operating agencies, it is worthwhile to provide some guidance to senior staff from transit systems contemplating ITS projects as well as decision-makers external to the transit operating organizations The World Bank commissioned a series of three papers to assist in this effort. This first paper is a description of the key ITS applications for transit operations and where they are most beneficial. This second paper reviews a number of previous installations and reports on lessons learned...

Customer value assessment of Sichuan Mobile

Wang, Yingjie
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Thesis submitted as partial requirement for the conferral of Doctor of Management / JEL: L86, L96, M31; The present research aims to contribute with the evaluation and a segmentation index criterion of the customer group value in order to improve knowledge to the telecommunication industry, in value assessment and in market subdivision based on customer value. This thesis gives practical instrument measure and guiding suggestions to a deeper customer value assessment, combining characteristics of the communication industry in China, based on outstanding domestic and foreign research results and taking the group customers of China Mobile Sichuan Company. A first brief crossing between theoretical backgrounds of customer value assessment, segmentation concept and group customer, allowed the selection and choices of the methodology and the variables that influence group customer value. The following empirical step complemented the development of the assessment index system to calculate the group customer value and the following cluster analysis. The results obtained included the industry experts' experience, which help the identification of the 14 factors that influence the group customer value and the data analysis from 2000 group customers...

MOMCC: Market-Oriented Architecture for Mobile Cloud Computing Based on Service Oriented Architecture

Abolfazli, Saeid; Sanaei, Zohreh; Gani, Abdullah; Shiraz, Muhammad
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/06/2012 Português
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The vision of augmenting computing capabilities of mobile devices, especially smartphones with least cost is likely transforming to reality leveraging cloud computing. Cloud exploitation by mobile devices breeds a new research domain called Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC). However, issues like portability and interoperability should be addressed for mobile augmentation which is a non-trivial task using component-based approaches. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a promising design philosophy embraced by mobile computing and cloud computing communities to stimulate portable, complex application using prefabricated building blocks called Services. Utilizing distant cloud resources to host and run Services is hampered by long WAN latency. Exploiting mobile devices in vicinity alleviates long WAN latency, while creates new set of issues like Service publishing and discovery as well as client-server security, reliability, and Service availability. In this paper, we propose a market-oriented architecture based on SOA to stimulate publishing, discovering, and hosting Services on nearby mobiles, which reduces long WAN latency and creates a business opportunity that encourages mobile owners to embrace Service hosting. Group of mobile phones simulate a nearby cloud computing platform. We create new role of \textit{Service host} by enabling unskilled mobile owners/users to host Services developed by skilled developers. Evidently...

SAMI: Service-Based Arbitrated Multi-Tier Infrastructure for Mobile Cloud Computing

Sanaei, Zohreh; Abolfazli, Saeid; Gani, Abdullah; Shiraz, Muhammad
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/06/2012 Português
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Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) is the state-ofthe- art mobile computing technology aims to alleviate resource poverty of mobile devices. Recently, several approaches and techniques have been proposed to augment mobile devices by leveraging cloud computing. However, long-WAN latency and trust are still two major issues in MCC that hinder its vision. In this paper, we analyze MCC and discuss its issues. We leverage Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to propose an arbitrated multi-tier infrastructure model named SAMI for MCC. Our architecture consists of three major layers, namely SOA, arbitrator, and infrastructure. The main strength of this architecture is in its multi-tier infrastructure layer which leverages infrastructures from three main sources of Clouds, Mobile Network Operators (MNOs), and MNOs' authorized dealers. On top of the infrastructure layer, an arbitrator layer is designed to classify Services and allocate them the suitable resources based on several metrics such as resource requirement, latency and security. Utilizing SAMI facilitate development and deployment of service-based platform-neutral mobile applications.; Comment: 6 full pages, accepted for publication in IEEE MobiCC'12 conference, MobiCC 2012:IEEE Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing...

Mobile Revolution: How Migrant Workers in China Use Social Media to Defend Their Rights

Gao, Fei
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 18/05/2014 Português
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In recent years, the level of rights awareness and labor unrest has been heightened through the sharing of activism knowledge and experiences across different regions of China and of the world. This is made possible by the surge of technological developments in China that took place in the past two decades. With information communication technologies (ICTs), such as the Internet and the mobile phone, the younger generation of migrants is able to access information and learn about their own rights. Additionally, ICTs are helpful in organizing spontaneous protests and bringing about social change. Finally, technology usage allows for people with different backgrounds from various sectors of society to connect and work together in the fight for workers’ rights. Whether it is migrants collaborating with professionals to seek legal redress or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) sharing organizing strategies, the crucial role technology plays in China’s contemporary labor activism scene is indisputable. In other words, ICTs have obliterated spatial-temporal boundaries so everyone can be unified and accessible in a way that has never been possible before. This study combines reports on the working conditions in the manufacturing sector...

Politics of Tranquility: Religious Mobilities and Material Engagements of Tibetan Buddhist Nuns in Post-Mao China

Cho, Yasmin
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015 Português
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This dissertation ethnographically examines the lives of Tibetan Buddhist nuns in Yachen, a mega-sized Tibetan Buddhist encampment in eastern Tibet that emerged in the 1980s and is now a leading center of Tibetan Buddhist revivalism in post-Mao China. Over 10,000 nuns make up the vast majority of the permanent residents in this community (approximately 2,000 monks live there as well), but few scholarly discussions have taken place regarding the lives and practices of the nuns in Yachen or in Tibetan Buddhist revivals in China in general. This dissertation, therefore, calls attention first to the lack of proper research on these nuns by providing ethnographic accounts of their everyday lives in “China’s Tibet.” By placing the nuns and their lives at the center of discussion, I was able to realize the significance of examining the material, sensory, and mobile events and occasions through which alternative political logics and possibilities appear in the practice of Buddhism and in Sino-Tibetan politics. This alternative politics—which I call the politics of tranquility—presents itself through the mobilities and material engagements of the nuns in Yachen, and offers a stark contrast to the existing dichotomous understanding of Sino-Tibet relationships. Therefore...

Mobile Ethnicity: The Formation of the Korean Chinese Transnational Migrant Class

Kwon, June Hee
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
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This dissertation, Mobile Ethnicity, examines the formation of a transnational ethnic working class and the dynamics of remittance development in the context of Korean Chinese labor migration between China and Korea. I conducted multi-sited field research for over two years, mainly in Seoul, South Korea, and the Korean Chinese Autonomous Prefecture of Yanbian, China, the ethnic zone bordering North Korea. My ethnography is built on a local saying: "Everybody is gone with the Korean Wind." The Korean Wind is the popular name for the massive Korean Chinese transnational labor migration to South Korea that occurred mostly during the 1990s and 2000s, at the intersection of post-Cold War and post-socialist cultures. I especially highlight the Korean Wind as a unique product of China's economic reform and open economy (gaigekaifang), which has affected not only Korean Chinese but also Han Chinese in Yanbian and elsewhere in the region.

Through the lenses of kinship, development, money, love, bodies, and time, I analyze the new affect and materiality, new forms of belonging and dwelling, and new hopes and frustrations of mobile ethnicity. On the one hand, I trace the reconstituted subjectivity of Korean Chinese as a particular ethnic working class in a transnational setting. On the other hand...

The Current state of paying for digital news content

Zhang, Haizhen
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The economic recession of 2008 and the growth of digital content delivery had changed the revenue streams in the newspaper industry. Some news publishers favored charging readers for online content, while others did not. For those who had already built the pay wall or who planned to build one in the near future, there were various methods of doing so. The purpose of this research was to assess the payment models for digital content in news organizations. A survey of 1,100 daily newspaper publishers in the US--all members of the Newspaper Association of America (NAA) --was conducted in June 2010 to assess the status of policies for charging for digital news content across a variety of digital delivery platforms. The response rate of the U.S. survey was 10 percent. Additionally, interviews were conducted with ten major Chinese news organizations in August 2010 in order to obtain a cross-cultural understanding by comparing the responses between the two countries. The results revealed that the general polices in both countries were similar. Seventy percent of news organizations in the US and 80% of respondents in China provided free access to news on their websites. However, 42% of U.S. respondents and 30% of Chinese respondents indicated that they planned to change their payment model in the near future. Of those planning to change their payment model...

Use of mobile phones in an emergency reporting system for infectious disease surveillance after the Sichuan earthquake in China

Yang,Changhong; Yang,Jun; Luo,Xiangshu; Gong,Peng
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2009 Português
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PROBLEM: Quick detection and response were essential for preventing outbreaks of infectious diseases after the Sichuan earthquake. However, the existing public health communication system in Sichuan province, China, was severely damaged by the earthquake. APPROACH: The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention set up a mobile phone emergency reporting system. In total, 495 light-powered mobile phones were delivered to local health-care agencies in earthquake affected areas. All phones were loaded with software designed for inputting and transmitting cases of infectious disease directly to a national database for further analysis. LOCAL SETTING: The emergency reporting system was set up in 14 counties hit hardest by the earthquake in Sichuan province, China. RELEVANT CHANGES: One week after delivering mobile phones to earthquake-affected areas, the number of health-care agencies at the township level that had filed reports returned to the normal level. The number of cases reported by using mobile phones accounted for as much as 52.9% of the total cases reported weekly from 19 May to 13 July in those areas LESSONS LEARNED: The mobile phone is a useful communication tool for infectious disease surveillance in areas hit by natural disasters. Nevertheless...