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## Análise do comportamento sob irradiação do combustível nuclear a altas queimas com os programas computacionais FRAPCON e FRAPTRAN; Analysis of the behavior under irradiation of high burnup nuclear fuels with the computer programs FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN

Reis, Regis
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/08/2014 Português
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O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a validade e a acurácia dos resultados fornecidos pelos programas computacionais FRAPCON-3.4a e FRAPTRAN-1.4, utilizados no processo de simulação do comportamento de varetas combustíveis de reatores a água leve pressurizada PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor), sob situações operacionais de regimes permanente e transiente, em condições de alta queima (high burnup). Para realizar a verificação, foi utilizada a base de dados FUMEX-III, que fornece dados relativos a experimentos realizados com diversos tipos de combustíveis nucleares, submetidos a diversas condições operacionais. Através dos resultados obtidos nas simulações computacionais com os programas FRAPCON-3.4a e FRAPTRAN-1.4 e da sua comparação com os dados experimentais da base FUMEX-III, foi possível constatar que os programas empregados possuem um boa capacidade de predizer o comportamento operacional de varetas combustíveis de PWR em regime permanente a altas queimas e sob condição de transiente inicializado por reatividade (Reactivity Initiated Accident RIA).; The objective of this work is to verify the validity and accuracy of the results provided by the computer programs FRAPCON-3.4a and FRAPTRAN-1.4, used in the simulation process of the irradiation behavior of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) fuel rods in steady-state and transient operational conditions at high burnup. To perform the verification...

## A strategy of DNA sequencing employing computer programs.

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/06/1979 Português
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With modern fast sequencing techniques and suitable computer programs it is now possible to sequence whole genomes without the need of restriction maps. This paper describes computer programs that can be used to order both sequence gel readings and clones. A method of coding for uncertainties in gel readings is described. These programs are available on request.

## Focus on the patentability of computer programs

Perbal, Bernard
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Nuts and Bolts section of our Journal (mirrored on the ICCNS society web site), is meant to provide a very practical way to share useful information, that goes beyond the scope of cell signaling and basic CCN protein biology. Considering the number of requests we have had for information related to protection of Intellectual Property (IP), I am pleased to initiate what will be a series of articles that will focus on various IP topics. The inaugural topic is the protection of computer programs. Some colleagues may wonder how and why the patentability of computer programs is a topic of interest for scientists working on CCN proteins . . . As a matter of fact, to assist us in analyzing the potential involvement of CCN3 in human genetic diseases, we considered developing a computer program designed to analyze large amounts of data. Sharing the concepts and the computer program raised concerns regarding IP and protection of the software that we would handle. We believe that many colleagues have encountered similar problems. This article provides a short focus on computer program patentability. It is aimed to provide basic legal information, and to help our readers in understanding the process. It is not intended to replace IP counselors or technology transfer departments. Future articles will address other practical aspects of IP protection.

## Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs

Abelson, Harold; Sussman, Gerald Jay
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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"The Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs" is the entry-level subject in Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is required of all students at MIT who major in Electrical Engineering or in Computer Science, as one fourth of the "common core curriculum," which also includes two subjects on circuits and linear systems and a subject on the design of digital systems. We have been involved in the development of this subject since 1978, and we have taught this material in its present form since the fall of 1980 to approximately 600 students each year. Most of these students have had little or no prior formal training in computation, although most have played with computers a bit and a few have had extensive programming or hardware design experience. Our design of this introductory Computer Science subject reflects two major concerns. First we want to establish the idea that a computer language is not just a way of getting a computer to perform operations, but rather that it is a novel formal medium for expressing ideas about methodology. Thus, programs must be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute. Secondly, we believe that the essential material to be addressed by a subject at this level...

## Feasibility of GNU/Linux as the OS for a PC-based medical product; Feasibility of GNU/ Linux as the operating system for a personal computer -based medical product

Lustbader, Steven B. (Steven Benjamin), 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 21 leaves; 144286 bytes; 139806 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Steven B. Lustbader.; Thesis (M.Eng. and S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, June 2003.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 20-21).; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.

## Modeling the scalability of acrylic stream programs; Characterizing the streaming application domain

Wong, Jeremy Ng, 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 p.; 6072218 bytes; 6085525 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Despite the fact that the streaming application domain is becoming increasingly widespread, few studies have focused specifically on the performance characteristics of stream programs. We introduce two models by which the scalability of stream programs can be predicted to some degree of accuracy. This is accomplished by testing a series of stream benchmarks on our numerical representations of the two models. These numbers are then compared to actual speedups obtained by running the benchmarks through the Raw machine and a Magic network. Using the metrics, we show that stateless acyclic stream programs benefit considerably from data, parallelization. In particular, programs with low communication datarates experience up to a tenfold speedup increase when parallelized to a reasonable margin. Those with high communication data rates also experience approximately a twofold speedup. We find that the model that takes synchronization communication overhead into account, in addition to a cost proportional to the communication rate of the stream, provides the highest predictive accuracy.; by Jeremy Ng Wong.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 109-110).

## The design of a conservative logic computer and a graphical editor simulator

Ressler, Andrew Lewis
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 leaves; 7002152 bytes; 7001908 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Andrew Lewis Ressler.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1981.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING.; Bibliography: leaf 128.

## MintEra : a testing environment for Java programs; Mint Era : a testing environment for Java programs

Al-Naffouri, Basel Y
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 100 p.; 4492942 bytes; 4498330 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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We introduce MintEra, an automatic testcase generator and verifier. Using an simple, easy-to-read yet expressive language called AAL, users can specify representation- invariants and assertions within programs. MintEra uses the representation-invariant to generate testcases and translates assertions into Java run-time checks, which verify testcases. The tool then graphically visualize failed testcases to help users debug their code. MintEra encourages documentation of programs by using specification to test and verify code. Effectively, the tool checks code and specification against each other. Thus, MintEra helps users ensure correctness of their programs as well as their specification. In this thesis, we provide a number of extra features that we hope would develop MintEra into an effective tool that could be used by the general software engineering community.; by Basel Y. Al-Naffouri.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 99-100).

## 6.001 Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Fall 2002; Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs

Grimson, Eric; Lozano-Perez,Tomas; Szolovits, Peter; Boning, Duane
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Control of complexity in large programming systems. Building abstractions: computational processes; higher-order procedures; compound data; and data abstractions. Controlling interactions: generic operations; self-describing data; message passing; streams and infinite data structures; and object-oriented programming. Meta-linguistic abstraction: interpretation of programming languages; machine model; compilation; and embedded languages. Substantial weekly programming assignments are an integral part of the course. Enrollment may be limited.

## C-Flow : a compiler for statically scheduled message passing in parallel programs; Compiler for statically scheduled message passing in parallel programs

Griffin, Patrick (Patrick Robert)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 96 p.
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Performance improvement in future microprocessors will rely more on the exploitation of parallelism than increases in clock frequency, leading to more multi-core and tiled processor architectures. Despite continuing research into parallelizing compilers, programming multiple instruction stream architectures remains difficult. This document describes C-Flow, a compiler system enabling statically-scheduled message passing between programs running on separate processors. When combined with statically-scheduled, low-latency networks like those in the MIT Raw processor, C-Flow provides the programmer with a simple but comprehensive messaging interface that can be used from high-level languages like C. The use of statically-scheduled messaging allows for fine-grained (single-word) messages that would be quite inefficient in the more traditional message passing systems used in cluster computers. Such fine-grained parallelism is possible because, as in systolic array machines, the network provides all of the necessary synchronization between tiles. On the Raw processor, C-Flow reduces development complexity by allowing the programmer to schedule static messages from a high-level language instead of using assembly code. C-Flow programs have been developed for arrays with 64 or more processor tiles and hve demonstrated performance within twenty percent of hand-optimized assembly.; by Patrick Griffin.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

## A comparison of two computer-assisted remedial reading programs for adolescent unskilled readers : component reading skills and repeated reading

Clapp, Matilda M.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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This study compared the relative effectiveness of two computerized remedial reading programs in improving the reading word recognition, rate, and comprehension of adolescent readers demonstrating significant and longstanding reading difficulties. One of the programs involved was Autoskill Component Reading Subskills Program, which provides instruction in isolated letters, syllables, and words, to a point of rapid automatic responding. This program also incorporates reading disability subtypes in its approach. The second program, Read It Again. Sam, delivers a repeated reading strategy. The study also examined the feasibility of using peer tutors in association with these two programs. Grade 9 students at a secondary vocational school who satisfied specific criteria with respect to cognitive and reading ability participated. Eighteen students were randomly assigned to three matched groups, based on prior screening on a battery of reading achievement tests. Two I I groups received training with one of the computer programs; the third group acted as a control and received the remedial reading program offered within the regular classroom. The groups met daily with a trained tutor for approximately 35 minutes, and were required to accumulate twenty hours of instruction. At the conclusion of the program...

## A computer simulation study of rule-based control of an autonomous underwater vehicle

MacPherson, David L.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Man has an ever-increasing desire for machines to do his work for him. Unmanned vehicles that perform routine or hazardous tasks are receJ.vJ.ng a great deal of attention. Vehicles for unmanned submersible applications are becoming more feasible as strides are made in very large scale integration of computer hardware. This work focuses on development of algorithms and ideas for the computer control of military Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). Both a Lisp machine and a graphics workstation, communicating via an Ethernet network, were used in this thesis to develop AUV simulator software. The emphasis has been placed on developing a computer graphic simulation of the control panel of an AUV and on a family of programs that define AUV missions. An AUV mission is a complete. software plan designed to control an AUV as it executes the steps to achieve '" some goal or objective. AUV missions are executed by this simulator in a fully autonomous mode once certain mission parameters are supplied by a human user.; http://archive.org/details/computersimulati00macp; This thesis is prepared in conjunction with research funded by the Naval Postgraduate School under the cognizance of the Naval Surface Weapons Center...

## Automated verification of model-based programs under uncertainty

Mahtab, Tazeen, 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 91 p.; 4340049 bytes; 4350214 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Highly robust embedded systems have been enabled through software executives that have the ability to reason about their environment. Those that employ the model-based autonomy paradigm automatically diagnose and plan future actions, based on models of themselves and their environment. This includes autonomous systems that must operate in harsh and dynamic environments, like, deep space. Such systems must be robust to a large space of possible failure scenarios. This large state space poses difficulties for traditional scenario-based testing, leading to a need for new approaches to verification and validation. We propose a novel verification approach that generates an analysis of the most likely failure scenarios for a model-based program. By finding only the lost likely failures, we increase the relevance and reduce the quantity of information the developer must examine. First, we provide the ability to verify a stochastic system that encodes both off-nominal and nominal scenarios. We incorporate uncertainty into the verification process by acknowledging that all such programs may fail, but in different ways, with different likelihoods. The verification process is one of finding the most likely executions that fail the specification. Second...

## Patent and Copyright Aspects of Medical Computer Programs

Novick, Harold L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/11/1980 Português
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Medical computer programs are proliferating at an acceleration exceeded only by that of the hardware systems on which they run. Huge amounts of time and money are being invested in the programs' development and management. That investment can be legally protected by one or more of trade secrets, copyrights and patents. However, only copyrights and patents can provide protection for a computer program that is publicly known. Copyrights and patents protect different things, have different costs, vary in their availability, and begin and end at different times. The selection of the form of protection depends upon the owner of the computer program and upon economic, programming and legal considerations. Whatever form is selected, valuable medical computer programs must have some protection so that their development is encouraged.

## Simulation of geological domains using the plurigaussian model: New developments and computer programs

Emery, Xavier
Tipo: Artículo de revista
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Publicación ISI; The plurigaussian model is currently used for simulating geological domains (facies) in petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, with the aim of assessing the uncertainty in the domain boundaries and of improving the geological controls in the characterization of quantitative attributes. This paper discusses the main aspects of the model and provides a set of computer programs to perform its inference and conditional simulation. Two types of conditioning information are allowed: hard data for which one has an exact knowledge of the actual domain at sample locations, and soft data consisting of inequality constraints on the local domain proportions (probabilities of occurrence) at control points chosen by the mining or reservoir geologist. An application to a Chilean porphyry copper deposit is finally presented, in which three Gaussian fields are used to simulate the spatial distribution of five mineralogical domains: gravels, leached capping, oxides, primary and secondary sulfides. The model is constructed so as to honor the topological contacts between mineralogical domains, their spatial continuity, the information logged at exploration drill holes, as well as the vertical proportion curves that indicate the mineralization profile with depth. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

## Signatures of small-world and scale-free properties in large computer programs

de Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Motter, Adilson E.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2003 Português
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A large computer program is typically divided into many hundreds or even thousands of smaller units, whose logical connections define a network in a natural way. This network reflects the internal structure of the program, and defines the information flow'' within the program. We show that, (1) due to its growth in time this network displays a scale-free feature in that the probability of the number of links at a node obeys a power-law distribution, and (2) as a result of performance optimization of the program the network has a small-world structure. We believe that these features are generic for large computer programs. Our work extends the previous studies on growing networks, which have mostly been for physical networks, to the domain of computer software.; Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, to appear in Phys. Rev. E

## Monoids with tests and the algebra of possibly non-halting programs

Jackson, Marcel; Stokes, Tim
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/08/2014 Português
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We study the algebraic theory of computable functions, which can be viewed as arising from possibly non-halting computer programs or algorithms, acting on some state space, equipped with operations of composition, {\em if-then-else} and {\em while-do} defined in terms of a Boolean algebra of conditions. It has previously been shown that there is no finite axiomatisation of algebras of partial functions under these operations alone, and this holds even if one restricts attention to transformations (representing halting programs) rather than partial functions, and omits {\em while-do} from the signature. In the halting case, there is a natural "fix", which is to allow composition of halting programs with conditions, and then the resulting algebras admit a finite axiomatisation. In the current setting such compositions are not possible, but by extending the notion of {\em if-then-else}, we are able to give finite axiomatisations of the resulting algebras of (partial) functions, with {\em while-do} in the signature if the state space is assumed finite. The axiomatisations are extended to consider the partial predicate of equality. All algebras considered turn out to be enrichments of the notion of a (one-sided) restriction semigroup.; Comment: To appear in Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming

## Axiomatic Synthesis of Computer Programs and Computability Theorems

Volkstorf, Charlie
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/03/2000 Português
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We introduce a set of eight universal Rules of Inference by which computer programs with known properties (axioms) are transformed into new programs with known properties (theorems). Axioms are presented to formalize a segment of Number Theory, DataBase retrieval and Computability Theory. The resulting Program Calculus is used to generate programs to (1) Determine if one number is a factor of another. (2) List all employees who earn more than their manager. (3) List the set of programs that halt no on themselves, thus proving that it is recursively enumerable. The well-known fact that the set of programs that do not halt yes on themselves is not recursively enumerable is formalized as a program requirement that has no solution, an Incompleteness Axiom. Thus, any axioms (programs) which could be used to generate this program are themselves unattainable. Such proofs are presented to formally generate several additional theorems, including (4) The halting problem is unsolvable. Open problems and future research is discussed, including the use of temporary sort files, programs that calculate statistics (such as counts and sums), the synthesis of programs to solve other well-known problems from Number Theory, Logic, DataBase retrieval and Computability Theory...

## Discovering novel computer music techniques by exploring the space of short computer programs

Heikkilä, Ville-Matias
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/12/2011 Português
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Very short computer programs, sometimes consisting of as few as three arithmetic operations in an infinite loop, can generate data that sounds like music when output as raw PCM audio. The space of such programs was recently explored by dozens of individuals within various on-line communities. This paper discusses the programs resulting from this exploratory work and highlights some rather unusual methods they use for synthesizing sound and generating musical structure.

## GSD - An interactive window oriented debugger

Bricault, Gary S.
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Each computer program, no matter how carefully designed, may contain code entry mistakes, errors in logic, and/or anomalies that can result in unexpected outcome (also known as bugs). In order to find and correct these problems, a software tool known as a debugger can be utilized by a programmer as an aid in isolating and correcting computer programs. The purpose of this thesis is to design and create such a tool for the AT&T UNIX-PC CU that will allow the user to function interactively within a window-oriented environment. This new debugger will be referred to as GSD (Graphic Symbolic Debugger). A study of prior art has been made in order to learn various debugger implementation techniques, their advantages and shortcomings, and to gain an understanding of methods that may be utilized within the UNIX environment for such a tool to be effective.