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## A Topological Framework for Local Structure Analysis in Condensed Matter

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 24/08/2015
Português

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#Condensed Matter - Other Condensed Matter#Condensed Matter - Materials Science#Physics - Computational Physics

Physical systems are frequently modeled as sets of points in space, each
representing the position of an atom, molecule, or mesoscale particle. As many
properties of such systems depend on the underlying ordering of their
constituent particles, understanding that structure is a primary objective of
condensed matter research. Although perfect crystals are fully described by a
set of translation and basis vectors, real-world materials are never perfect,
as thermal vibrations and defects introduce significant deviation from ideal
order. Meanwhile, liquids and glasses present yet more complexity. A complete
understanding of structure thus remains a central, open problem. Here we
propose a unified mathematical framework, based on the topology of the Voronoi
cell of a particle, for classifying local structure in ordered and disordered
systems that is powerful and practical. We explain the underlying reason why
this topological description of local structure is better suited for structural
analysis than continuous descriptions. We demonstrate the connection of this
approach to the behavior of physical systems and explore how crystalline
structure is compromised at elevated temperatures. We also illustrate potential
applications to identifying defects in plastically deformed polycrystals at
high temperatures...

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## Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking Out of Equilibrium: From Condensed Matter to QCD and the Early Universe

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 14/09/1999
Português

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The dynamics of symmetry breaking during out of equilibrium phase transitions
is a topic of great importance in many disciplines, from condensed matter to
particle physics and early Universe cosmology with definite experimental
impact. In these notes we provide a summary of the relevant aspects of the
dynamics of symmetry breaking in many different fields with emphasis on the
experimental realizations. In condensed matter we address the dynamics of phase
ordering, the emergence of condensates, coarsening and dynamical scaling. In
QCD the possibility of disoriented chiral condensates of pions emerging during
a strongly out of equilibrium phase transition is discussed. We elaborate on
the dynamics of phase ordering in phase transitions in the Early Universe, in
particular the emergence of condensates and scaling in FRW cosmologies. We
mention some experimental efforts in different fields that study this wide
ranging phenomena and offer a quantitative theoretical description both at the
phenomenological level in condensed matter, introducing the scaling hypothesis
as well as at a microscopic level in quantum field theories. The emergence of
semiclassical condensates and a dynamical length scale is shown in detail, in
quantum field theory this length scale is constrained by causality. The large N
limit provides a natural bridge to compare the solutions in different settings
and to establish similarities and differences.; Comment: 35 pages...

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## Quantum phase transition for the BEC--BCS crossover in condensed matter physics and CPT violation in elementary particle physics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

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#Condensed Matter - Strongly Correlated Electrons#Condensed Matter - Other Condensed Matter#Condensed Matter - Soft Condensed Matter#High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

We discuss the quantum phase transition that separates a vacuum state with
fully-gapped fermion spectrum from a vacuum state with topologically-protected
Fermi points (gap nodes). In the context of condensed-matter physics, such a
quantum phase transition with Fermi point splitting may occur for a system of
ultracold fermionic atoms in the region of the BEC-BCS crossover, provided
Cooper pairing occurs in the non-s-wave channel. For elementary particle
physics, the splitting of Fermi points may lead to CPT violation, neutrino
oscillations, and other phenomena.; Comment: 13 pages, 1 figure, v3: published version

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## Zoology of condensed matter: Framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 15/01/2015
Português

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#High Energy Physics - Theory#Condensed Matter - Other Condensed Matter#General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology

We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries
they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter
itself as any state in a Poincar\'e-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks
Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial
translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly,
the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking
pattern---the "framid"---does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead,
Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal
translational symmetries---and possibly rotational ones---and of spontaneously
breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving
unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the
infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and---if they
exist---supersolids. A third, "extra-ordinary", possibility involves replacing
these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the
Poincar\'e group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge
symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon
symmetry, the "galileids", for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity...

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## Ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices: mimicking condensed matter physics and beyond

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

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We review recent developments in the physics of ultracold atomic and
molecular gases in optical lattices. Such systems are nearly perfect
realisations of various kinds of Hubbard models, and as such may very well
serve to mimic condensed matter phenomena. We show how these systems may be
employed as quantum simulators to answer some challenging open questions of
condensed matter, and even high energy physics. After a short presentation of
the models and the methods of treatment of such systems, we discuss in detail,
which challenges of condensed matter physics can be addressed with (i)
disordered ultracold lattice gases, (ii) frustrated ultracold gases, (iii)
spinor lattice gases, (iv) lattice gases in "artificial" magnetic fields, and,
last but not least, (v) quantum information processing in lattice gases. For
completeness, also some recent progress related to the above topics with
trapped cold gases will be discussed.; Comment: Review article. v2: published version, 135 pages, 34 figures

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## The Onset of Phase Transitions in Condensed Matter and Relativistic QFT

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 19/01/2000
Português

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Kibble and Zurek have provided a unifying causal picture for the appearance
of topological defects like cosmic strings or vortices at the onset of phase
transitions in relativistic QFT and condensed matter systems respectively.
There is no direct experimental evidence in QFT, but in condensed matter the
predictions are largely, but not wholly, supported in superfluid experiments on
liquid helium. We provide an alternative picture for the initial appearance of
strings/vortices that is commensurate with all the experimental evidence from
condensed matter and consider some of its implications for QFT.; Comment: 37 pages, to be published in Condensed Matter Physics, 2000

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## Exploiting Grids for applications in Condensed Matter Physics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 11/02/2010
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

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#Condensed Matter - Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics#Condensed Matter - Other Condensed Matter#Computer Science - Computational Engineering, Finance, and Science#Physics - Computational Physics

Grids - the collection of heterogeneous computers spread across the globe -
present a new paradigm for the large scale problems in variety of fields. We
discuss two representative cases in the area of condensed matter physics
outlining the widespread applications of the Grids. Both the problems involve
calculations based on commonly used Density Functional Theory and hence can be
considered to be of general interest. We demonstrate the suitability of Grids
for the problems discussed and provide a general algorithm to implement and
manage such large scale problems.

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## Theory of the colossal Van-der-Waals binding in soft and hard condensed matter

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 12/10/2005
Português

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A simple theory is proposed for the dispersive molecular binding of unusually
high magnitude due to an enhanced polarizability. Two alternative ways have so
far been considered in the literature leading to the polarizability
enhancement: (i) a vibronic energy level gap narrowing, as proposed by us with
regard to a hypothetical exciton matter, and (ii) a giant electric dipole in a
Rydberg state of constituent atoms, as proposed by Gilman with regard to an
enigmatic substance building the ball lightning. We now combine the two
mechanisms to obtain concrete expressions for the colossal binding energy. The
problem is exemplified for a three-level system coupled to the umbrella mode of
an ammonia molecule. Other possibilities for the design of
enhanced-polarizability molecules are also discussed. The colossal
Van-der-Waals binding is most likely to materialize in hard condensed matter
and perhaps less so in soft condensed matter.; Comment: 20 pages, 3 figures, pdf format

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## Proceedings of the 35th Annual Australian/New Zealand Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 18/07/2011
Português

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The 35th Australian/New Zealand Annual Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting
was held at the Charles Sturt University campus in Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia
from the 1st to the 4th of February 2011. The conference was attended by 92
delegates from a range of universities across Australia, New Zealand and
further afield.
There were a total of 9 invited and 21 contributed talks during the three
days of scientific sessions, as well as 2 poster sessions with a total of 49
poster presentations. All presenters were invited to submit a manuscript for
publication in the conference proceedings. The length limits where six pages
for invited papers and four pages for contributed papers. Each manuscript was
reviewed by two anonymous referees and 18 papers were accepted for publication.
The accepted manuscripts are also available at the online publication section
of the Australian Institute of Physics national web site
(http://www.aip.org.au/).; Comment: A.P. Micolich (Editor), ISBN 978-0-646-55969-8 (2011). 18 papers from
35th Australian/New Zealand Annual Condensed Matter and Materials Meeting, 85
pages

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## Multipurpose High Frequency Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometer for Condensed Matter Research

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 29/10/2009
Português

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We describe a quasi-optical multifrequency ESR spectrometer operating in the
75-225 GHz range and optimized at 210 GHz for general use in condensed matter
physics, chemistry and biology. The quasi-optical bridge detects the change of
mm wave polarization at the ESR. A controllable reference arm maintains a mm
wave bias at the detector. The attained sensitivity of 2x10^10 spin/G/(Hz)1/2,
measured on a dilute Mn:MgO sample in a non-resonant probe head at 222.4 GHz
and 300 K, is comparable to commercial high sensitive X band spectrometers. The
spectrometer has a Fabry-Perot resonator based probe head to measure aqueous
solutions, and a probe head to measure magnetic field angular dependence of
single crystals. The spectrometer is robust and easy to use and may be operated
by undergraduate students. Its performance is demonstrated by examples from
various fields of condensed matter physics.; Comment: submitted to Journal of Magnetic Resonance

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## Atomistic misconception of current model for condensed matter evaporation and new formulation

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 20/05/2014
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

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Even though the phenomenon of evaporation is omnipresent and has immense
scientific and technological importance, the research effort to unveil its
fundamentals remains inadequately low. As one particular consequence, the
textbooks and educational courses are lacking detailed explanation of
evaporation and its effects. In order to advance fundamental theory of
evaporation and increase accuracy of evaporation simulation a novel evaporation
theory is presented. This integrated Atomistic(Molecular)-Kinetics-Gasdynamics
theoretical model that combines statistical mechanics, gas dynamics and
thermodynamics approaches opens a path to detailed description of
nonstationary, nonequilibrium evaporation of condensed matter. The main
innovation of the proposed approach is that, unlike all previous and current
models of evaporation that are based on the assumption of evaporation as
emission of the particles that are not bound within the condense phase, the
described new model treats evaporation of condensed phase as escape of the
particles of sufficient kinetic energy out of potential well located at the
boundary of condensed and gaseous phases. Correspondingly, the re-condensation
of the vapor onto the surface is treated as entrapment of the vapor particles
with kietic energy lower than the depth of the potential well. The described
novel research will open new opportunities to substantially advance our
knowledge and provide needed contributions to chemical...

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## What can gauge-gravity duality teach us about condensed matter physics?

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

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I discuss the impact of gauge-gravity duality on our understanding of two
classes of systems: conformal quantum matter and compressible quantum matter.
The first conformal class includes systems, such as the boson Hubbard model
in two spatial dimensions, which display quantum critical points described by
conformal field theories. Questions associated with non-zero temperature
dynamics and transport are difficult to answer using conventional field
theoretic methods. I argue that many of these can be addressed systematically
using gauge-gravity duality, and discuss the prospects for reliable computation
of low frequency correlations.
Compressible quantum matter is characterized by the smooth dependence of the
charge density, associated with a global U(1) symmetry, upon a chemical
potential. Familiar examples are solids, superfluids, and Fermi liquids, but
there are more exotic possibilities involving deconfined phases of gauge fields
in the presence of Fermi surfaces. I survey the compressible systems studied
using gauge-gravity duality, and discuss their relationship to the condensed
matter classification of such states. The gravity methods offer hope of a
deeper understanding of exotic and strongly-coupled compressible quantum
states.; Comment: 34 pages...

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## Thermodynamic QED Coherence in Condensed Matter: Microscopic Basis of Thermal Superradiance

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 26/09/2002
Português

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Electromagnetic superradiant field coherence exists in a condensed matter
system if the electromagnetic field oscillators undergo a mean displacement.
Transitions into thermal states with ordered superradiant phases have been
shown to theoretically exist in Dicke-Preparata models. The theoretical
validity of these models for condensed matter has been called into question due
to non-relativistic diamagnetic terms in the electronic Hamiltonian. The
microscopic bases of Dicke-Preparata thermal superradiance for realistic
macroscopic systems are explored in this work. The impossibility of diaelectric
correlations in condensed matter systems (via the Landau-Lifshitz theorem)
provides a strong theoretical basis for understanding the physical reality of
condensed matter thermodynamic superradiant phases.; Comment: 11 pages, no figures, LaTeX format

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## Superfluid Helium 3: Link between Condensed Matter Physics and Particle Physics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 05/12/2000
Português

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The discovery of the superfluid phases of Helium 3 in 1971 opened the door to
one of the most fascinating systems known in condensed matter physics.
Superfluidity of Helium 3, originating from pair condensation of Helium 3
atoms, turned out to be the ideal testground for many fundamental concepts of
modern physics, such as macroscopic quantum phenomena, (gauge-)symmetries and
their spontaneous breakdown, topological defects, etc. Thereby the superfluid
phases of Helium 3 enriched condensed matter physics enormously. In particular,
they contributed significantly - and continue to do so - to our understanding
of various other physical systems, from heavy fermion and high-Tc
superconductors all the way to neutron stars, particle physics, gravity and the
early universe. A simple introduction into the basic concepts and questions is
presented.; Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures; to be published in Acta Physica Polonica B
[Proceedings of the XL Jubilee Cracow School of Theoretical Physics on
"Quantum Phase Transitions in High Energy and Condensed Matter Physics"; 3-11
June, 2000, Zakopane, Poland]

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## Random First Order Theory concepts in Biology and Condensed Matter physics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 15/12/2014
Português

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The routine transformation of a liquid, as it is cooled rapidly, resulting in
glass formation, is remarkably complex. A theoretical explanation of the
dynamics associated with this process has remained one of the major unsolved
problems in condensed matter physics. The Random First Order Transition (RFOT)
theory, which was proposed over twenty five years ago, provides a theoretical
basis for explaining much of the phenomena associated with glass forming
materials. It links or relates multiple metastable states, slow or glassy
dynamics, dynamic heterogeneity, and both a dynamical and an ideal glass
transition. Remarkably, the major concepts in the RFOT theory can also be
profitably used to understand many spectacular phenomena in biology and
condensed matter physics, as we illustrate here. The presence of a large number
of metastable states and the dynamics in such complex landscapes in biological
systems from molecular to cellular scale and beyond leads to behavior, which is
amenable to descriptions based on the RFOT theory. Somewhat surprisingly even
intratumor heterogeneity arising from variations in cancer metastasis in
different cells is hauntingly similar to glassy systems. There are also deep
connections between glass physics and electronically disordered systems
undergoing a metal-insulator transition...

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## An Introduction to Gauge Gravity Duality and Its Application in Condensed Matter

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 22/04/2013
Português

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The past few years have witnessed a remarkable crossover of string
theoretical ideas from the abstract world of geometrical forms to the concrete
experimental realm of condensed matter physics. The basis for this ---
variously known as holography, the AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge-gravity
duality --comes from notions right at the cutting edge of string theory.
Nevertheless, the insights afforded can often be expressed in ways very
familiar to condensed matter physicists, such as relationships between response
functions and new sum rules.
The aim of this short, introductory review is to survey the ideas
underpinning this crossover, in a way that -- as far as possible -- strips them
of sophisticated mathematical formalism, whilst at the same time retaining
their fundamental essence. I will sketch the areas in which progress has been
made to date and highlight where the challenges and open questions lie.
Finally, I will attempt to give a perspective upon these ideas. What
contribution can we realistically expect from this approach and how might it be
accommodated into the canon of condensed matter theory? Inevitably, any attempt
to do this in such a rapidly evolving field will be superseded by events.
Nevertheless, I hope that this will provide a useful way to think about
gauge-gravity duality and the uncharted directions in which it might take us.; Comment: Unedited version of article published in Contemporary Physics.
Intended for advanced final-year undergraduates

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## The Fermi Gases and Superfluids: Short Review of Experiment and Theory for Condensed Matter Physicists

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 09/02/2012
Português

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The study of ultracold atomic Fermi gases is a rapidly exploding subject
which is defining new directions in condensed matter and atomic physics. Quite
generally what makes these gases so important is their remarkable tunability
and controllability. Using a Feshbach resonance one can tune the attractive
two-body interactions from weak to strong and thereby make a smooth crossover
from a BCS superfluid of Cooper pairs to a Bose-Einstein condensed superfluid.
Furthermore, one can tune the population of the two spin states, allowing
observation of exotic spin-polarized superfluids, such as the Fulde Ferrell
Larkin Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase. A wide array of powerful characterization
tools, which often have direct condensed matter analogues, are available to the
experimenter. In this Chapter, we present a general review of the status of
these Fermi gases with the aim of communicating the excitement and great
potential of the field.; Comment: 34 pages, 15 figures. To appear as a chapter in "Contemporary
Concepts of Condensed Matter Science", Elsevier

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## Shock (Blast) Mitigation by "Soft" Condensed Matter

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

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It is a common point that "soft" condensed matter (like granular materials or
foams) can reduce damage caused by impact or explosion. It is attributed to
their ability to absorb significant energy. This is certainly the case for a
quasistatic type of deformation at low velocity of impact where such materials
are widely used for packing of fragile devices. At the same time a mitigation
of blast phenomena must take into account shock wave properties of "soft"
matter which very often exhibit highly nonlinear, highly heterogeneous and
dissipative behavior. This paper considers applications of "soft" condensed
matter for blast mitigation using simplified approach, presents analysis of
some anomalous effects and suggestions for future research in this exciting
area.; Comment: 12 pages, 12 figures

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## Non-equilibrium phase transitions in condensed matter and cosmology: spinodal decomposition, condensates and defects

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 30/03/1999
Português

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These lectures address the dynamics of phase ordering out of equilibrium in
condensed matter and in quantum field theory in cosmological settings,
emphasizing their similarities and differences. In condensed matter we describe
the phenomenological approach based on the Time Dependent Ginzburg-Landau
(TDGL) description. After a general discussion of the main experimental and
theoretical features of phase ordering kinetics and the description of linear
(spinodal) instabilities we introduce the scaling hypothesis and show how a
dynamical correlation length emerges in the large N limit in condensed matter
systems. The large N approximation is a powerful tool in quantum field theory
that allows the study of non-perturbative phenomena in a consistent manner. We
study the exact solution to the dynamics after a quench in this limit in
Minkowski space time and in radiation dominated Friedman-Robertson-Walker
Cosmology. There are some remarkable similarities between these very different
settings such as the emergence of a scaling regime and of a dynamical
correlation length at late times that describe the formation and growth of
ordered regions. In quantum field theory and cosmology this length scale is
constrained by causality and its growth in time is also associated with
coarsening and the onset of a condensate. We provide a density matrix
interpretation of the formation of defects and the classicalization of quantum
fluctuations.; Comment: 23 pages (revtex)...

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## Planetary Atmospheres as Non-Equilibrium Condensed Matter

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

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#Condensed Matter - Statistical Mechanics#Physics - Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics#Physics - Fluid Dynamics

Planetary atmospheres, and models of them, are discussed from the viewpoint
of condensed matter physics. Atmospheres are a form of condensed matter, and
many interesting phenomena of condensed matter systems are realized by them.
The essential physics of the general circulation is illustrated with idealized
2-layer and 1-layer models of the atmosphere. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium
statistical mechanics are used to directly ascertain the statistics of these
models.; Comment: 23 pages, 10 figures, to appear in Annual Reviews of Condensed Matter
Physics (2012). Rhines scale (Eq. 25) corrected, one reference moved, and
updates to other citations

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