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Transferência condicionada de renda e segurança alimentar em espaços rurais: uma análise do Programa JUNTOS na comunidade indígena de Pilpichaca no Peru; Conditional cash transfer and food security in rural areas: Analyze of the Program JUNTOS in Pilpichaca indigenous community in Peru

Huayta, Violeta Magdalena Rojas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/02/2011 Português
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As sociedades mundiais passam por mudanças substanciais que repercutem nas áreas da segurança alimentar e das políticas públicas sociais. Apesar de terem ocorrido significativas conquistas econômicas e sociais nos últimos anos, no Peru ainda existe dificuldade para oferecer segurança alimentar a toda sua população e isto se reflete na alta prevalência de subnutrição infantil concentrada principalmente nos espaços rurais, onde até o primeiro semestre de 2010, 30,9% das crianças são subnutridas. Esta situação representa uma ameaça para a sustentabilidade do desenvolvimento do Peru, devido aos efeitos irreversíveis da subnutrição na capacidade intelectual e física do indivíduo. Sendo a pobreza uma das principais causas da subnutrição, os programas de transferência condicionada de renda têm um grande potencial em favorecer a segurança alimentar dos beneficiados. Neste contexto o presente estudo tem como objetivo mostrar os reflexos na segurança alimentar dos beneficiados do programa de transferência condicionada de renda JUNTOS, na comunidade indígena de Pilpichaca, uma das comunidades mais pobres e com maior prevalência de crianças subnutridas do Peru. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo e quantitativo em uma amostra de 90 famílias. A escolha das famílias beneficiadas foi feita aleatoriamente em uma relação de todas as famílias beneficiadas com crianças menores de cinco anos. O levantamento dos dados foi feito através de questionário fechado apresentado as mães. Pretendia-se conhecer: a forma de acesso aos alimentos...

Uma análise da interrelação entre os programas de transferência condicionada de renda e as políticas de segurança alimentar implantadas em três países da América Latina : México, Brasil e Peru; An analysis of the interrelationship between conditional cash transfer programs and food security and nutritional policies implemented in three Latin American countries : Mexico, Bazil and Peru

Luciana Rosa de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/12/2011 Português
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Nesta tese foram comparadas as políticas de combate à pobreza em três países da América Latina: México, Brasil e Peru. Especificamente, o foco esteve nas políticas de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (SAN) e dos Programas de Transferência de Renda Condicionada (PTRC). A pesquisa mostrou o percurso teórico e prático vivenciado por estas políticas destacando que os três países apresentaram um ponto em comum na implantação e execução destas ações: a emergência das chamadas -estratégias de combate à pobrezaII, criadas no intuito de reduzir a pulverização e fragmentação presente no desenho e execução destas ações. Nos três países foram estudadas as políticas de SAN. No México foi analisado o programa -Progresa-Oportunidades- juntamente com as estratégias -Contigo e Vivir MejorII. No Brasil, o programa -Bolsa Família- e a estratégia -Fome Zero-, incluindo menção ao recém-criado programa -Brasil Sem MisériaII No Peru foram analisados o programa -JuntosII e a Estratégia -CrecerII.; The subject discussed in this thesis focused on the comparative analysis of poverty control policies in three Latin American countries Mexico, Brazil and Peru, specifically in the policies of Food and Nutritional Security (SAN) and Conditional Cash Transfer programs (CCT). Research has shown the way theory and practice experienced by these policies noting that the three countries had a common point in the implementation and execution of actions to against poverty policies that was the emergence of so-called -strategies for overcoming poverty- created in order to reduce spraying and fragmentation present in the design and implementation of these programs. In Mexico we study the -Progresa-Oportunidades- and the policies of SAN along with strategies -Vivir Mejor and ContigoII. In Brazil studied the -Bolsa Familia- program and policies of SAN...

The impact on consumption of more cash in conditional cash transfer programs

Loureiro,André Oliveira Ferreira; Holanda,Marcos Costa
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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This paper evaluates the impact of an increase in the value of the cash transfer paid to families by the Brazilian Bolsa Família program. The existence of a similar program in the state of Ceará, Bolsa Cidadão, that increases the value received by a sub-group of families, provides a unique dataset, enabling us to evaluate the effect of a higher value of transfer on the spending of comparable households. There is a significant increase in consumption, but it is smaller than the increment in the income, suggesting that the consumption of the households is not properly declared.

How Do Ex Ante Simulations Compare with Ex Post Evaluations? Evidence from the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Leite, Phillippe; Narayan, Ambar; Skoufias, Emmanuel
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper compares the ex ante simulation of the impacts of conditional cash transfer programs against the ex post estimates of impacts obtained from experimental evaluations. Using data on program-eligible households in treatment areas from the same baseline surveys that are used for experimental evaluations of conditional cash transfer programs in Mexico and Ecuador, the authors use a micro-simulation model to derive ex ante estimates of the impact of the programs on enrollment rates and poverty. The estimates reveal that ex ante predictions of certain impacts of conditional cash transfer programs match up well against the benchmark estimates of ex post experimental studies. The findings seem to support the use of this model to assess the potential impact and cost efficiency of a conditional cash transfer program ex ante, in order to inform decisions about how the program would be designed.

Own and sibling effects of conditional cash transfer programs : theory and evidence from Cambodia

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Filmer, Deon; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Conditional cash transfers have been adopted by a large number of countries in the past decade. Although the impacts of these programs have been studied extensively, understanding of the economic mechanisms through which cash and conditions affect household decisions remains incomplete. This paper uses evidence from a program in Cambodia, where eligibility varied substantially among siblings in the same household, to illustrate these effects. A model of schooling decisions highlights three different effects of a child-specific conditional cash transfer: an income effect, a substitution effect, and a displacement effect. The model predicts that such a conditional cash transfer will increase enrollment for eligible children - due to all three effects - but have an ambiguous effect on ineligible siblings. The ambiguity arises from the interaction of a positive income effect with a negative displacement effect. These predictions are shown to be consistent with evidence from Cambodia, where the child-specific program makes modest transfers...

Conditional Cash Transfers and the Equity-Efficiency Debate

Das, Jishnu; Do, Quy-Toan; Özler, Berk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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During the past decade, the use of conditional cash transfers to increase investment in human capital has generated considerable excitement in both research and policy forums. Such schemes are being increasingly adopted in a number of contexts and countries to improve outcomes in health, education, and child labor as they aim to balance the goals of current and future poverty reduction. In this paper, the authors define any scheme requiring a specified course of action in order to receive a benefit as a conditional cash transfer. This definition includes cash transfers based on human capital investments, but is sufficiently broad to encompass other schemes such as work-fare programs or consumption transfers. The authors examine the rationales behind, the problems with, and the tradeoffs inherent to conditional cash transfer programs. They discuss two main concerns: low participation and fungibility. Low participation refers to the problem of program uptake. If individuals do not participate in the program...

Evaluating the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Rawlings, Laura B.; Rubio, Gloria M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Several developing economies have recently introduced conditional cash transfer programs, which provide money to poor families contingent on certain behavior, usually investments in human capital, such as sending children to school or bringing them to health centers. The approach is both an alternative to more traditional social assistance programs and a demand-side complement to the supply of health and education services. Unlike most development initiatives, conditional cash transfer programs have been subject to rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness using experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Evaluation results for programs launched in Colombia, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Turkey reveal successes in addressing many of the failures in delivering social assistance, such as weak poverty targeting, disincentive effects, and limited welfare impacts. There is clear evidence of success from the first generation of programs in Colombia, Mexico, and Nicaragua in increasing enrollment rates...

Reassessing Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Das, Jishnu; Do, Quy-Toan; Ozler, Berk
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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During the past decade, the use of conditional cash transfer programs to increase investment in human capital has generated considerable excitement in both research and policy forums. This article surveys the existing literature, which suggests that most conditional cash transfer programs are used for essentially one of two purposes: restoring efficiency when externalities exist or improving equity by targeting resources to poor households. The programs often meet their stated objectives, but in some instances there is tension between the efficiency and equity objectives. The overall impact of a program depends on the gains and losses associated with each objective.

Evaluating the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs : Lessons from Latin America

Rawlings, Laura B.; Rubio, Gloria M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Unlike most development initiatives, conditional cash transfer programs recently introduced in the Latin America and the Caribbean region have been subject to rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness. These programs provide money to poor families, conditional on certain behavior, usually investments in human capital-such as sending children to school or bringing them to health centers on a regular basis. Rawlings and Rubio review the experience in evaluating the impact of these programs, exploring the application of experimental and quasi-experimental evaluation methods and summarizing results from programs launched in Brazil, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, and Nicaragua. Evaluation results from the first generation of programs in Brazil, Mexico, and Nicaragua show that conditional cash transfer programs are effective in promoting human capital accumulation among poor households. There is clear evidence of success in increasing enrollment rates, improving preventive health care, and raising household consumption. Despite this promising evidence...

Examining Conditional Cash Transfer Programs : A Role for Increased Social Inclusion?

de la Brière, Bénédicte; Rawlings, Laura B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Conditional Cash Transfer programs (CCTs) provide money to poor families contingent upon certain verifiable actions, generally minimum investments in children s human capital such as regular school attendance or basic preventative health care. They therefore hold promise for addressing the inter-generational transmission of poverty and fostering social inclusion by explicitly targeting the poor, focusing on children, delivering transfers to women, and changing social accountability relationships between beneficiaries, service providers and governments. CCT programs are at the forefront of applying new social policy theories and program administration practices. They address demand-side barriers, have a synergistic focus on investments in health, education and nutrition, and combine short-term transfers for income support with incentives for long-run investments in human capital. They also are public sector leaders in program administration, using modern targeting, registering, and monitoring systems along with strategic evaluations. Their impact depends on the supply of quality...

Can Conditional Cash Transfers Improve Education and Nutrition Outcomes for Poor Children in Bangladesh? Evidence from a Pilot Project

Ferre, Celine; Sharif, Iffath
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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There is an increasing recognition that investment in human development at an earlier age can have a significant impact on the lifetime earnings capacity of an individual. This notion is the basis for the popularity of conditional cash transfer programs to help boost child health and education outcomes. The evidence on the impact of conditional cash transfers on health and education outcomes, however, is mixed. This paper uses panel data from a pilot project and evaluates the impact of conditional cash transfers on consumption, education, and nutrition outcomes among poor rural families in Bangladesh. Given implementation challenges the intervention was not able to improve school attendance. However the analysis shows that the pilot had a significant impact on the incidence of wasting among children who were 10-22 months old when the program started, reducing the share of children with weight-for-height below two standard deviations from the World Health Organization benchmark by 40 percent. The pilot was also able to improve nutrition knowledge: there was a significant increase in the proportion of beneficiary mothers who knew about the importance of exclusively breastfeeding infants until the age of six months. The results also suggest a significant positive impact on food consumption...

Development strategies and law in Latin America: Argentine, Brazilian and Chilean conditional cash transfer programs in comparative perspective

Pierri, Gastón
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Instituto Universitario de Análisis Económico y Social
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Working from the observation that Latin America countries are developing ideas related to the field of Law and Development, this paper seeks to analyze the development strategies undertaken to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality by Argentina, Brazil and Chile during the years 1991-2011. the emphasis is on the particular characteristics present in the articulation of the development policies labeled Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCTs); Desde la observación de las estrategias de desarrollo elaboradas por los países de América Latina en el marco de movimiento denominada Law and Development (Derecho y Desarrollo), el presente artículo analiza parte de las estrategias desarrollo tomadas por Argentina, Brasil y Chile con el fin de eliminar la pobreza y reducir la inequidad social durante los años 1991 y 2011. El enfoque principal está dado por la artculación de estos países frente a las políticas de desarrollo económico denominadas Programas de Transferencias Condicionadas (PTC).

Beyond the Income Effect : Impacts of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs on Private Investments in Human Capital

Cruz, Marcio; Ziegelhofer, Zacharias
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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In the past decade, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have become an important component of social policy in developing countries. While the impacts of these programs have been well researched with respect to their effectiveness to achieve intended outcomes, less is known about their impact on private expenditure decisions. This aspect has great policy relevance since changes in private household expenditures can either support or counteract the aim of the programs. This essay investigates the impact of a CCT program on private household expenditure decisions in nutrition, health and education which are seen as principal contributors to child human capital. First, household expenditure behavior under a CCT program is discussed based on Heckman's model on the technology of skill formation as a conceptual framework. The paper shows how intra-household preferences and perceptions on the substitutability or complementarity of investments can impact household resource allocation decisions. Subsequently...

Conditional Cash Transfer : Programs an Effective Tool for Reaching the Poorest and Most Vulnerable; Programas de transferencias condicionadas en efectivo : una herramienta eficaz para llegar a los grupos mas pobres y vulnerables

Vermehren, Andrea
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs give families cash to pay for basic health and school expenses (if children attend school and regularly visit health clinics). CCTs have two main objectives: to increase income and alleviate poverty in the short term, and to break the inter-generational cycle of poverty by increasing human capital. Various situations have led to their creation in different countries. The World Bank (WB) supports CCTs in Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle-East and Far East. In 2002, the Bank's Latin American and Caribbean Region and the Mexican government sponsored the first regional workshop on experiences with CCTs.. This article summarizes the lessons of experience in designing and operating CCTs shared by officials, donors and academics at the workshop.

Making Conditional Cash Transfer Programs More Efficient : Designing for Maximum Effect of the Conditionality

de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Journal Type; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article
Português
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Conditional cash transfer programs are now used extensively to encourage poor parents to increase investments in their children's human capital. These programs can be large and expensive, motivating a quest for greater efficiency through increased impact of the programs' imposed conditions on human capital formation. This requires designing the programs' targeting and calibration rules specifically to achieve this result. Using data from the Progresa randomized experiment in Mexico, this article shows that large efficiency gains can be achieved by taking into account how much the probability of a child's enrollment is affected by a conditional transfer. Rules for targeting and calibration can be made easy to implement by selecting indicators that are simple, observable, and verifiable and that cannot be manipulated by beneficiaries. The Mexico case shows that these efficiency gains can be achieved without increasing inequality among poor households.

Intrahousehold Time Allocation: An Impact Evaluation of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs

Canavire, Gustavo; Ospina, M??nica
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Econom??a y Finanzas Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Econom??a y Finanzas
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigaci??n; draf
Português
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This paper argues that exogenous changes in household income alter the allocation of time within the family. To examine this issue, we propose a theoretical framework that is an extension of the unitary model of intra-household time allocation where conditional cash transfers are received by the household and we test it empirically using non-parametric techniques. This allows us to study the effects of an exogenous shock, such as a conditional cash transfer program, on time allocated to various activities such as work, domestic labor, leisure, and school for children and adults. Using the exogenous change of a conditional cash transfer program in Colombia, "Familias en Accion", we find significant positive effects on work time as well as on leisure and school for children and smaller effects on adult schooling and domestic labor, which support our hypothesis. These results are crucial to fully understand other direct and indirect effects of the program.

On the design of education conditional cash transfer programs and non education outcomes: the case of teenage pregnancy

Cortés, Darwin; Gallego, Juan; Maldonado, Darío
Fonte: Facultad de Economía Publicador: Facultad de Economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/book; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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We investigate the effect of education Conditional Cash Transfer programs (CCTs) on teenage pregnancy. Our main concern is with how the size and sign of the effect may depend on the design of the program. Using a simple model we show that an education CCT that conditions renewal on school performance reduces teenage pregnancy; the program can increase teenage pregnancy if it does not condition on school performance. Then, using an original data base, we estimate the causal impact on teenage pregnancy of two education CCTs implemented in Bogot´a (Subsidio Educativo, SE, and Familias en Acci´on, FA); both programs differ particularly on whether school success is a condition for renewal or not. We show that SE has negative average effect on teenage pregnancy while FA has a null average effect. We also find that SE has either null or no effect for adolescents in all age and grade groups while FA has positive, null or negative effects for adolescents in different age and grade groups. Since SE conditions renewal on school success and FA does not, we can argue that the empirical results are consistent with the predictions of our model and that conditioning renewal of the subsidy on school success crucially determines the effect of the subsidy on teenage pregnancy

Political Competition and the Diffusion of Conditional Cash Transfers in Brazil

Coêlho,Denilson Bandeira
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Ciência Política Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Ciência Política
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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What factors determine the diffusion of social policies? This article examines the launching of conditional cash transfer programs by Brazilian municipalities to explore this problem. The literature of political science asserts that such programs have been widely implemented because they correspond to an alternative policy strategy adopted by governments facing opposition to implement universal public policies. So, political competition would be at the root of CCT launching. This article presents an alternative explanation. From 1995 to 2001, local governments created or emulated the Bolsa Escola Program (BEP) in all regions of the country. Sucha a path continued after the lauching of the national Bolsa Escola by the federal government. Why did some local governments decide to adopt the national BEP and others did not? To answer these questions, the research tests the influence of structural, internal and external variables on the dissemination of CCT programs. Two main hypotheses are tested. The first asserts that local political competition is positive for policy diffusion. The second hypothesis claims that party alignment between the municipal and federal levels increases the likelihood of municipalities adopting the federal BEP. The research uses Event History Analysis to test statistically the impact of political incentives on policy diffusion among São Paulo State's municipalities. Two types of policy diffusion are examined: horizontal and vertical. The findings confirm that political competition influences the horizontal diffusion among municipalities. Unexpectedly...

Can conditional cash transfer programs generate equality of opportunity in highly unequal societies? Evidence from Brazil

Bohn,Simone; Veiga,Luciana Fernandes; Dalt,Salete Da; Brandão,André Augusto Pereira; Gouvêa,Victor Hugo de Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 Português
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This article examines whether the state, through conditional cash transfer programs (CCT), can reduce the poverty and extremely poverty in societies marred by high levels of income concentration. We focus on one of the most unequal countries in the globe, Brazil, and analyze the extent to which this country's CCT program - Bolsa Família (BF, Family Grant) program - is able to improve the life chances of extremely poor beneficiaries, through the three major goals of PBF: First, to immediately end hunger; second, to create basic social rights related to healthcare and education; finally, considering also complementary policies, to integrate adults into the job market. The analysis relies on a quantitative survey with 4,000 beneficiaries and a qualitative survey comprised of in-depth interviews with 38 program's participants from all the regions of the country in 2008, it means that this study is about the five first years of the PBF. In order to answer the research questions, we ran four probit analyses related: a) the determinants of the realization of prenatal care; b) the determinants of food security among BF beneficiaries, c) the determinants that adult BF recipients will return to school, d) the determinants that a BF beneficiary will obtain a job. Important results from the study are: First...

Análise de programas de transferência de renda no Brasil sob a ótica e prática de atores federais e estaduais; Income transfer programs in Brazil: the perspectives and practice of federal and state stakeholders

Pasquim, Elaine Martins; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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A pobreza, a fome e a desnutrição possuem múltiplos e complexos determinantes. A necessidade de uma renda capaz de garantir o direito humano fundamental à alimentação, essencial para a vida, há muito vem sendo discutida. No Brasil, experiências locais deram suporte à criação de programas nacionais de transferência de renda com condicionalidades. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar de modo qualitativo, aspectos da percepção e prática dos atores envolvidos direta ou indiretamente nos programas Bolsa Escola, Bolsa Alimentação e Cartão Alimentação em nível nacional e estadual. Realizou-se entrevistas com gestores e informantes-chaves, além de análise de Atas de Conselhos e de pronunciamentos de parlamentares no Congresso. As metas dos programas indicam uma aparência universalizante, porém sua essência mostrou-se fragmentada e seletiva entre os já focalizados. Apesar de relevantes na redução da pobreza, esses programas deveriam ser articulados e intersetoriais, reunindo diversas ações em diferentes áreas para conseguir melhorar a qualidade de vida de seus beneficiários, pois isoladamente não são capazes de solucionar a pobreza e a fome.; Causes of poverty, hunger and malnutrition are multiple and complex. Current and past discussions promote the idea of an income able to guarantee the human right to adequate food...