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Perspectivas para conservação e reúso de água na indústria de alimentos - estudo de uma unidade de processamento de frangos.; Perspectives for water conservation and reuse in food industry - case study of a poultry processing plant.

Matsumura, Erika Myho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/04/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.349497%
Na presente pesquisa foi abordado o conceito de conservação e reúso de água na indústria alimentícia, buscando mostrar a potencialidade de redução do consumo desse recurso. Foram avaliadas questões relacionadas à disponibilidade hídrica nos mananciais superficiais e subterrâneos quanto à sua quantidade e qualidade adequadas para consumo, além da questão legal da cobrança pelo uso da água. Essas provavelmente passarão a ser relevantes num futuro próximo, pressionando as indústrias a buscar meios para minimizar o consumo e gerar menos efluente. O objeto de estudo foi uma indústria de abate de frangos e por tratar-se de setor alimentício, com relação ao reúso de água, a avaliação limitou-se aos usos não potáveis. Embora a prática de reúso de água potável seja permitida em alguns países e existam regulamentações internacionais a respeito, no Brasil o tema ainda é recente sendo que até o momento há somente uma legislação dando diretrizes ao reúso não potável. Inicialmente foi avaliado o uso racional da água, identificando falhas operacionais, propondo melhorias e identificando perdas físicas. Na seqüência foram identificados os setores e os locais com maior consumo de água e geração de efluentes para depois estudar a adoção de técnicas de reúso de água. Dessa metodologia...

Bonito para quem? Um estudo sobre um destino turístico no Mato Grosso do Sul: situação atual e perspectivas, Bonito, MS, Brasil; Bonito for whom? A study about a tourist destination in Mato Grosso do Sul: present situation and prospects. Bonito, MS, Brazil

Oliveira, Marcelo Teixeira Cesar de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.05085%
A região de Bonito, localizada no estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, tornou-se a mais visitada como turismo de natureza nos últimos anos no Brasil. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi o turismo praticado na região desde o seu surgimento na década de 1980 e avaliar alguns aspectos da sua gestão ambiental de sua implantação a seu desenvolvimento. O estudo abrangeu os municípios de Bonito, Jardim e Bodoquena onde a atividade turística se desenvolve. Bonito foi apresentado através da propaganda das operadoras e na mídia como um destino de ecoturismo. O crescimento deste produto de turismo nos últimos 20 anos, a facilitação dos acessos, a expansão dos meios de hospedagem e a recente construção do aeroporto sinalizam para um fluxo em massa que agrava um quadro preocupante que pode ampliar conflitos já existentes entre conservacionistas e o turismo. A experiência somada de 25 anos acompanhando diretamente a atividade de ecoturismo junto a grupos em atividades dirigidas em várias áreas naturais do Brasil serviu como referencial de partida para condução deste trabalho. As viagens a Bonito foram realizadas em quatro períodos nos anos de 1989, 1990, 2000, 2004 num total de 21 dias. Com auxílio de uma base teórica advinda de várias áreas do conhecimento trabalhouse com dados coletados em campo...

Preservação e sustentabilidade: restaurações e retrofits; Preservation and sustainability: restorations and retrofits

Silva, Roberto Toffoli Simoens da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.524326%
Os campos da Preservação de Monumentos Históricos e da Sustentabilidade na Construção Civil, apesar de distintos, apresentam certo grau de complementaridade. São áreas que dependem de processos eminentemente coletivos para seu avanço, e que se consagram como tradições culturais importantes no enfrentamento da deterioração dos espaços urbanos contemporâneos. A matéria é atual e urgente. Entretanto, o debate sobre o projeto arquitetônico como instrumento de valorização cultural e requalificação ainda é incipiente. Como analisar as intervenções atuais em edifícios degradados? Qual a relevância da Teoria da Restauração e da Sustentabilidade na construção no ideário cultural? Como reintegrar imóveis disfuncionais às dinâmicas urbanas? São questões complexas que merecem atenção. Por isso propomos a análise de três intervenções em edifícios ecléticos na cidade de São Paulo, e cujas estratégias de ocupação guardam intima relação com a adoção de usos e ocupações ordinárias. Debateremos, portanto, um projeto residencial - o condomínio Américo Simões, e dois acadêmicos - o Instituto Oscar Freire da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, e a FAU - Vila Penteado, da mesma universidade. Cada caso foi estudado através de sistema de valores...

Genetic resources: the basis for sustainable and competitive plant breeding

Nass,Luciano Lourenço; Sigrist,Mário Sérgio; Ribeiro,Cláudia Silva da Costa; Reifschneider,Francisco José Becker
Fonte: Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology Publicador: Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.09118%
Plant genetic resources are the fuel for breeding, which in the search for higher yield and adapted genotypes, manipulates genes in order to meet the needs of farmers, and especially, of the current market. However, the use of accessions available in germplasm banks is low. Topics discussed in this paper emphasize the importance of plant genetic resources, and warn about problems related to genetic vulnerability; also, they discuss about aspects of costs involved in conservation and suggest recommendations for strengthening the area in Brazil.

Natural Resources and the Poor : Introduction to a Special Issue of the Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research

Heltberg, Rasmus
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Natural resources, unless of commercial interest, are hardly a prominent concern of most policy-makers. A certain complacency seems to prevail in which too little is done to increase the productivity and sustainability of the natural resource base on which the rural poor continue to rely for low-productivity semi-subsistence livelihoods. Natural resources remain integral to the livelihoods of billions in developing countries, providing food, fuels, water, biodiversity, raw materials, spiritual fulfillment, and more; they are also vital for the development prospects of many countries. It is therefore surprising that not more attention is paid to them. The status quo is not sustainable. Traditional low-productivity natural resource-based livelihoods do not lift people out of poverty; such livelihoods offer little more than a precarious subsistence survival at the margins of the global economy.The five new research papers in this special issue describe an uneasy and sometimes unhealthy co-existence between natural resources and the poor.

Productivity Growth and Sustainability in Post-Green Revolution Agriculture : The Case of the Indian and Pakistan Punjabs

Murgai, Rinku; Ali, Mubarik; Byerlee, Derek
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.445425%
This article attempts to determine the long-term productivity and sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the Indian and Pakistan Punjabs by measuring trends in total factor productivity for production systems in both states since the advent of the green revolution. These measurements over time and across systems have resulted in three major findings. First, there were wide spatial and temporal variations between the two Punjabs. Although output growth and crop yields were much higher in the Indian Punjab, productivity growth was higher by only a small margin. Moreover, the lowest growth in productivity took place during the initial green revolution period and in the wheat-rice system in both states. The time lag between adoption of green revolution technologies and realization of productivity gains is related to learning induced efficiency gains, better utilization of capital investments over time, and problems with the standard methods of productivity measurement that downwardly bias estimate, particularly during the green revolution period. Second...

Lesotho Highlands Water Project : Communication Practices for Governance and Sustainability Improvement

Haas, Lawrence J. M.; Mazzei, Leonardo; O'Leary, Donal T.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The past decade has witnessed major shift thinking about water, including how water infrastructure development strategies can help advance sustainable development and the global fight against poverty. This reflects, in part, greater attention now being paid to governance reforms promoting integrated water resource management (IWRM), the efficient and wise use of water, and expanding access to water and energy services. In addition, the increased emphasis on developing and implementing anti-corruption strategies increases confidence that water infrastructure can be developed efficiently and equitably. There is also growing appreciation of the strong linkages between water, environment and energy security and climate change - impacting on decisions about the development and management of water infrastructure, especially in water-stressed regions, and of the central role that public, private sector and civil society partnerships can play in encouraging innovation, tackling challenges, promoting transparency and accountability and creating synergy. Communication is the thread that links these concerns and underpins achievements in sustainability and governance reform in water. Not only to ensure that up-front strategic assessments mobilize all viable options to meet the challenges unique to each situation...

Berg Water Project : Communication Practices for Governance and Sustainability Improvement

Haas, Lawrence J. M.; Mazzei, Leonardo; O'Leary, Donal T.; Rossouw, Nigel
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.33943%
The past decade has witnessed a major global shift in thinking about water, including the role that water infrastructure plays in sustainable development. This rethinking aims to better balance the social, economic, and environmental performance aspects in the development and management of large dams. Additionally, it reinforces efforts to combat poverty by ensuring more equitable access to water and energy services. There is also growing appreciation of how broad-based policy reforms come into play and influence decisions around issues related to dams. Apart from democratization of the development process itself, it is increasingly recognized that infrastructure strategies must complement strategies for water, environment, and energy security; they must also address emerging concerns to reduce vulnerability in water resource systems due to the probability of climate change. Communication comes to the forefront in modern approaches to dam planning and management in several respects. Communication is central to multi-stakeholder dialogue and partnerships at all levels needed to achieve sustainability and governance reform in water resource management and infrastructure provision. At the same time...

Investing in Natural Capital for Eradicating Extreme Poverty and Boosting Shared Prosperity : A Biodiversity Roadmap for the WBG

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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The World Bank Group (WBG) has a long experience in engaging in biodiversity with world-class expertise in the field. It has been the single largest funder of biodiversity investments since the late 1980s. The WBG investments have largely been of two kinds: (1) investments in biodiversity, aimed at the conservation and sustainable use of species, habitats, and ecosystems that sustain healthy ecosystems, while enhancing people's livelihoods and safety nets. These investments have also been providing jobs and economic development in frequently impoverished rural areas for example by supporting protected areas and an increasingly important tourism industry; and (2) investments that add value to projects in other sectors, such as irrigation, hydropower, and infrastructure, by increasing their environmental sustainability. The WBG is a global center of excellence that provides economy wide technical and economic knowledge and expertise on biodiversity and ecosystems. It has the standing and convening power to facilitate participatory dialogue between client countries and networks of other relevant stakeholders on matters of biodiversity and climate change concern...

Vers une nouvelle définition du patrimoine : l'intégration du développement durable dans l'évaluation patrimoniale

Thiffault, Marie-Andrée
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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48.0848%
Devant le contexte actuel des crises environnementale et sociale, on ne peut que s’interroger sur la capacité du domaine de la conservation du patrimoine à intégrer les principes et les concepts liés au développement durable. Alors que plusieurs liens entre la conservation du patrimoine culturel et le développement durable existent, il devient nécessaire de solidifier cette union. Réalisée en amont du projet de conservation, l’évaluation patrimoniale basée sur l’approche par les valeurs permet d’établir la signification d’un lieu selon les valeurs qui lui sont associées. Il y a cependant lieu de se questionner : au-delà des valeurs historiques, esthétiques ou architecturales traditionnellement attribuées au patrimoine bâti, quel intérêt accorde-t-on aux dimensions environnementales, économiques et sociales? Le postulat de ce mémoire est qu’il est essentiel d’élargir l’évaluation patrimoniale afin d’y intégrer de nouvelles valeurs liées au développement durable. Nous nous proposons d’étudier la faisabilité de ceci en élaborant un modèle d’évaluation patrimoniale basé sur une approche par les valeurs qui prend en compte l’ensemble des valeurs inhérentes au patrimoine bâti, c’est-à-dire les aspects culturels...

Mapping the biosphere: exploring species to understand the origin, organization and sustainability of biodiversity

Wheeler, Q. D.; Knapp, S.; Stevenson, D. W.; Stevenson, J.; Blum, S. D.; Boom, B. M.; Borisy, G. G.; Buizer, J. L.; De Carvalho, M. R.; Cibrian, A.; Donoghue, M. J.; Doyle, V.; Gerson, E. M.; Graham, C. H.; Graves, P.; Graves, S. J.; Guralnick, R. P.; Ham
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD; ABINGDON Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD; ABINGDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.980015%
The time is ripe for a comprehensive mission to explore and document Earth's species. This calls for a campaign to educate and inspire the next generation of professional and citizen species explorers, investments in cyber-infrastructure and collections to meet the unique needs of the producers and consumers of taxonomic information, and the formation and coordination of a multi-institutional, international, transdisciplinary community of researchers, scholars and engineers with the shared objective of creating a comprehensive inventory of species and detailed map of the biosphere. We conclude that an ambitious goal to describe 10 million species in less than 50 years is attainable based on the strength of 250 years of progress, worldwide collections, existing experts, technological innovation and collaborative teamwork. Existing digitization projects are overcoming obstacles of the past, facilitating collaboration and mobilizing literature, data, images and specimens through cyber technologies. Charting the biosphere is enormously complex, yet necessary expertise can be found through partnerships with engineers, information scientists, sociologists, ecologists, climate scientists, conservation biologists, industrial project managers and taxon specialists...

Paisagem e sustentabilidade na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Sorocaba (SP); Landscape and sustainability in the Sorocaba River hydrographic basin\'s (SP)

Favero, Oriana Aparecida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/08/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.076016%
Diante do aumento constante e acelerado das transformações provocadas pelo ser humano na natureza, que têm acarretado inúmeros problemas ambientais de amplitude global, a humanidade assumiu para seu desenvolvimento e como seu principal desafio, o alcance da sustentabilidade. Considerando-se a sustentabilidade uma totalidade complexa formada por sustentabilidades componentes (da natureza, sócio-cultural, econômica e política) e que para seu alcance, portanto, as funções da natureza, base para a manutenção da vida como a conhecemos, deveriam ser conservadas, pois sem elas a sustentabilidade total não poderia ser alcançada, elaborou-se, uma proposta de ordenamento da paisagem, com base nos conceitos e métodos da Ciência da Paisagem, intitulada como \"mosaico heterogêneo de paisagens com sustentabilidade da natureza\". A proposta de ordenamento foi aplicada na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Sorocaba (SP), na qual unidades de paisagens, com potencialidades diferentes, indicariam recomendações para conservação ou preservação da natureza e por terem maior conservação ou alta sustentabilidade da natureza, estariam compensando a falta desta sustentabilidade em outras paisagens do mosaico que abarcariam os usos antrópicos degradadores e a ocupação da maior parte da população urbana para suprimento das outras componentes da sustentabilidade.; Coming across the accelerated and constantly increasing of transformations caused by human beings in nature...

Booming markets for Moroccan argan oil appear to benefit some rural households while threatening the endemic argan forest

Lybbert, Travis J.; Aboudrare, Abdellah; Chaloud, Deborah; Magnan, Nicholas; Nash, Maliha
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.101064%
Morocco's argan oil is now the most expensive edible oil in the world. High-value argan markets have sparked a bonanza of argan activity. Nongovernmental organizations, international and domestic development agencies, and argan oil cooperatives aggressively promote the win–win aim of simultaneously benefiting local people and the health of the argan forest. This paper tests some of these win–win claims. Analysis of a panel of detailed household data suggests that the boom has enabled some rural households to increase consumption, increase their goat herds (which bodes poorly for the argan forest), and send their girls to secondary school. The boom has predictably made households vigilant guardians of fruit on the tree, but it has not incited investments in longer term tree and forest health. We evaluate landscape-level impacts of these changes using commune-level data on educational enrollment and normalized difference vegetation index data over the period from 1981 to 2009. The results of the mesoanalysis of enrollment are consistent with the microanalysis: the argan boom seems to have improved educational outcomes, especially for girls. Our normalized difference vegetation index analysis, however, suggests that booming argan prices have not improved the forest and may have even induced degradation. We conclude by exploring the dynamic interactions between argan markets...

Biomass management targets and the conservation and economic benefits of marine reserves

Yamazaki, Satoshi; Grafton, R Quentin; Kompas, Thomas; Jennings, Sarah
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.07141%
The establishment of no-take marine reserves has been increasingly promoted as a key measure to achieve conservation and sustainability goals in fisheries. Regardless of the wide range of benefits cited, the effectiveness of reserve establishment depends

AS INICIATIVAS SOCIAIS E DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL NA AMAZÔNIA; AS INICIATIVAS SOCIAIS E DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL NA AMAZÔNIA

Mello, Neli Aparecida de
Fonte: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia Humana. Universidade de São Paulo. Publicador: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia Humana. Universidade de São Paulo.
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.105747%
O presente artigo aborda iniciativas sociais e as atuais condições de sua realização na grande região amazônica, englobando as “Amazônias” dos diversos países signatários do Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica. O primeiro aspecto da abordagem é a valorização das políticas territoriais públicas, no contexto regional, relacionadas à conservação e uso sustentável dos recursos naturais renováveis; a demarcação, registro, homologação de territórios indígenas; formação de capacidades locais e iniciativas em projetos de assentamentos rurais. Como base metodológica, a análise é fundamentada na matriz ETPR (Estado – tendência – pressão – resposta), do PNUMA e IUCN, buscando ressaltar as pressões, tendências e respostas. No entanto, antecedeu a esta, a análise das informações das iniciativas sociais, orientando-se na visualização de cada projeto, dos atores envolvidos, dos meios utilizados e resultados obtidos, agregando-se a esta dinâmica os níveis e locais de realização dos mesmos. A estrutura do texto, em 3 partes, ressalta que o assunto é profundamente interrelacionado, onde causas resultam em conseqüências as quais se transformam em novas causas. A primeira parte trata de uma caracterização geral do contexto regional e como as situações nacionais o impulsionam...

Connecting Residents to Resources for Energy Efficiency, Water Conservation, and Household Level Sustainability in Flint, Michigan

Sanker, Leyla
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.31677%

The UM-Flint Urban Alternatives House (UAH) is a LEED Platinum certified residential property redevelopment project established in 2010 through a partnership between the Genesee County Land Bank Authority and the University of Michigan-Flint. UM-Flint with community partners seek to use the UAH as demonstration project that connects residents in Flint and Genesee County to programs and resources that support adoption of sustainability measures to increase community resilience. Population decline and economic challenges are evident in the metropolitan Flint area, and energy costs place a larger financial burden on low income households. The desire to connect residents to resources that reduce residential energy and water costs while advancing adoption of sustainable practices informed development of this study.

The objectives of the study were to identify organizations and programs in Flint and Genesee County that provided resources or support to advance household level energy efficiency, water conservation, and sustainable development practices, to understand how these organizations are networked together, and to understand the opportunities and barriers they perceive relative to advancing efforts in the region. To meet this objective...

PROMOTING SUSTAINABILITY LITERACY AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS: A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY AT TEN OF THE LARGEST U.S. UNIVERSITIES

Ribble, Brent
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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All college students should experience and understand sustainability, but few universities have been able to perform an assessment of their students’ sustainability literacy. This comparative case study at ten of the largest U.S. universities relies on data from AASHE STARS reports, campus sustainability websites, and interviews with sustainability staff to determine what the Universities are (not) doing to promote sustainability literacy among their students. Generally, the Universities lack sustainability learning outcomes, lack incentives for faculty to develop sustainability curricula, and have few sustainability courses. Some sustainability outreach programs are common (those related to general/integrated sustainability issues, recycling, and residence hall competitions that promote energy conservation and/or recycling) while others are uncommon (those related to water conservation, alternative transportation, and nature/wildlife). Based on these findings, I propose recommendations aimed at developing sustainability courses, creating sustainability outreach programming that incorporates uncommon themes, improving sustainability communication/marketing, and evaluating students’ conceptions and attitudes using a sustainability literacy assessment.

Heterogeneity in Household Characteristics, Forest Resource Utilization and Sustainability in Hills of Uttaranchal: A Case Study

Pandey,Rajiv
Fonte: Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais Publicador: Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 Português
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The life of Jaunsaries, a tribal community of Jaunsar Bawar of Dehradun, India, is based on agriculture and forest. Forest utilization is the key for survival due to dependency of agriculture on rain. However, population pressure results into need to conserve forest. This study envisaged for exploring linkages between forest utilization and household characteristics for reducing pressure on forest for conservation. For this, data on relevant parameters were collected from 302 randomly selected households from 35 villages through multi-stage sampling. The regression analysis shows that forest utilization is directly related with farm size and livestock. The non-significance of relationship between forest access and utilization supports that forest utilization is integral part for livelihood of these household. The factor analysis results show that decision, economic, and forest access parameters are important for forest conservation. The non-significance of infrastructure is due to poor development. Therefore, infrastructure development is essential. As forest utilization is an essential component of these households, integrated attention to the requirements and facilities within the whole household production systems and forestry's role would be required to consider conservation and management of the forest. If conservation is a priority...

Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa

Hay,ER; Riemann,K; van Zyl,G; Thompson,I
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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The Department of Water Affairs (DWA) has embarked on a nationwide programme to develop water-reconciliation strategies for all towns across the country. Reconciliation strategies for the major metropolitan areas and systems (e.g. Johannesburg/Pretoria, East London, Cape Town and Durban) were developed next. The implementation of these strategies is monitored by strategy steering committees. The approach has now been extended to all other metropolitan areas as well as all towns and villages or clusters of villages. In order to prepare the actual strategies, regardless of the size of the town, thorough documentation, research and analysis of the available information was required, as well as evaluation of projected growth scenarios to assess water requirements over the next 25 years and identification of potential additional sources to meet this growing requirement. It has emerged that the poor operation and maintenance of water supply, treatment and reticulation infrastructure are resulting in significant losses, which, if corrected, can reverse the current water shortages being experienced. Similarly, the generally poor management of effluent remains a threat to surface water and groundwater quality downstream. It appears that many municipalities perceive groundwater as an unreliable resource; however...

The development of a municipal water conservation and demand management strategy and business plan as required by the Water Services Act, South Africa

Wegelin,WA; Jacobs,HE
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/30/2013 Português
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The implementation of water conservation and water demand management (WC/WDM) at municipal level has been inadequate for many years, despite South Africa being one of the driest countries in the world. This could be attributed to a lack of planning, and not realising the consequences and potential benefits of water restrictions. Many South African municipalities do not have a WC/WDM strategy and business plan although many books, publications and software packages have been produced to assist water supply managers. Most of the existing strategies are also vague and of little value, and the municipalities do not have the necessary financial, technical and institutional capacity to support such a strategy. Municipalities often fail to realise that most WC/WDM activities will pay for themselves and that financial institutions will fund these projects if a proper business case could be compiled. Ironically municipalities have complained that they are unable to obtain funding while most financial institutions complain that they cannot find bankable projects because of the poor quality of the applications and strategies. This guideline provides a simple and pragmatic approach to the development of a WC/WDM strategy and business plan which will enable municipalities to plan...