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Gestão logística integrada à gestão de capital de giro de uma cadeia de suprimentos: um estudo de simulações estocásticas da demanda sobre um modelo dinâmico integrado logístico e financeiro; Integrated logistics/financial management of the working capital's cost of a supply chain: a stochastic simulation study over a logistics/financial integrated dynamic model

Andrade Junior, José Augusto Morais de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/04/2013 Português
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Este é um trabalho teórico-empírico que visa principalmente verificar o estado da literatura científica no que diz respeito à consideração dos custos de financiamento da necessidade de capital de giro (NCG) aplicado em mercadorias (NCGp), especialmente em relação aos aprimoramentos do modelo do lote econômico de compras/produção (LEC/LEP). A revisão de literatura mostra diversos modelos aprimorados do LEC/LEP que usam as técnicas de valor presente líquido e fluxos de caixa descontados para considerar o custo do capital no tempo, mas, segundo diversos autores, a diferença entre o LEC original e o uso de tais técnicas é desprezível. Além do mais, o uso destas técnicas não significa que tais modelos tenham incorporado o custo do financiamento da NCGp. Alguns trabalhos, mais recentes, já trazem simulações que levam em consideração o NCGp, outros até já exibem a fórmula NCGp = Estoquesp+Clientesp+Fornecedoresp. Neste trabalho foram feitas 128.000 simulações estocásticas de um modelo dinâmico, de onde se extraíram as variáveis da DRE de cada membro de uma cadeia de suprimentos (CS) hipotética. Foi testada a hipótese de ser este modelo aprimorado, porque incorpora o custo do capital de giro empregado nas mercadorias...

Produtos geradores e tomadores de caixa : análise avançada do capital de giro em uma indústria metalúrgica

Copat, Rafael; Martinewski, Andre Luis; Villela, Rogério Ventura
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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A fabricação e comercialização de um produto geram um resultado econômico, o qual irá permitir à empresa realizar investimentos e proporcionar retorno ao acionista. Entretanto, sob a ótica financeira, é possível que os pagamentos referentes à industrialização e à venda deste produto (como fornecedores de materiais, mão-de-obra, impostos, etc.) ocorram anteriormente ao recebimento da respectiva entrada de caixa. Isto faz com que a empresa necessite aplicar certo volume de recursos financeiros nas operações do produto a fim de manter seu nível de vendas. Diferentemente, um produto cujo recebimento dá-se antes dos pagamentos a si referentes possuirá uma necessidade de capital de giro negativa, ou seja, ao invés de exigir um investimento permanente para suas atividades, o mesmo disponibiliza recursos financeiros enquanto o seu nível de comercialização não for reduzido. Os recursos a serem investidos nas operações possuem um custo, seja de captação, seja de oportunidade, no caso da empresa estar capitalizada. Sendo assim, a necessidade de capital de giro de um produto acaba impactando sobre a própria rentabilidade. Este estudo tem por objetivo evidenciar como a necessidade de capital de giro de um produto afeta sua margem de contribuição. Para tanto...

Connecting Lagging and Leading Regions : The Role of Labor Mobility

Lall, Somik V.; Timmins, Christopher; Yu, Shouyue
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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How can policies improve the welfare of people in economically lagging regions of countries? Should policies help jobs follow people? Or should they enable people to follow jobs? In most countries, market forces have encouraged the geographic concentration of people and economic activities - policies that try to offset these forces to encourage balanced economic growth have largely been unsuccessful. However, policies that help people get closer to economic density have improved individual welfare. In this paper, the authors examine the migration decisions of working-age Brazilians and find that the pull of higher wages in leading regions has a strong influence on the decision to migrate. However, many people are also "pushed" to migrate, starved of access to basic public services such as clean water and sanitation in their hometowns. Although migration is welfare-improving for these individuals, the economy may end up worse off as these migrants are more likely to add to congestion costs in cities than to contribute to agglomeration benefits. Encouraging human capital formation can stimulate labor mobility for economic gain; and improving access to and quality of basic services in lagging regions will directly improve welfare as well as reduce the type of migration motivated by the search for life-supporting basic services.

Cyclical Effects of Bank Capital Requirements with Imperfect Credit Markets

Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper analyzes the cyclical effects of bank capital requirements in a simple model with credit market imperfections. Lending rates are set as a premium over the cost of borrowing from the central bank, with the premium itself depending on firms effective collateral. Basel I- and Basel II-type regulatory regimes are defined and a capital channel is introduced through a signaling effect of capital buffers on the cost of bank deposits. The macroeconomic effects of various shocks (a drop in output, an increase in the refinance rate, and a rise in the capital adequacy ratio) are analyzed, under both binding and nonbinding capital requirements. Factors affecting the procyclicality of each regime (defined in terms of the behavior of the risk premium) are also identified and policy implications are discussed.

What Explains the Cost of Remittances? An Examination across 119 Country Corridor

Beck, Thorsten; Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Remittances are a sizeable source of external financing for developing countries. In the L Aquila 2009 G8 Summit, leaders pledged to reduce the cost of remittances by half in 5 years (from 10 to 5 percent). Yet, empirically, little is known about what drives the cost of remittances. Using newly gathered data across 119 country corridors, this paper explores the factors that determine the cost of remittances. Considering average costs across all types of institutions, the authors find that corridors with larger numbers of migrants and more competition among remittances service providers exhibit lower costs. By contrast, remittance costs are higher in richer corridors and in corridors with greater bank participation in the remittances market. Comparing results across all banks and all money transfer operators separately, the analysis finds few significant differences. However, estimations for Western Union, a leading player in the remittances business, suggest that this firm s prices are insensitive to competition.

Capital Requirements and Business Cycles with Credit Market Imperfections

Agénor, P.-R.; Alper, K.; Pereira da Silva, L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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55.81%
The business cycle effects of bank capital regulatory regimes are examined in a New Keynesian model with credit market imperfections and a cost channel of monetary policy. Key features of the model are that bank capital increases incentives for banks to monitor borrowers, thereby reducing the probability of default, and excess capital generates benefits in terms of reduced regulatory scrutiny. Basel I and Basel II-type regulatory regimes are defined, and the model is calibrated for a middle-income country. Simulations of supply and demand shocks show that, depending on the elasticity that relates the repayment probability to the capital-loan ratio, a Basel II-type regime may be less procyclical than a Basel I-type regime.

An Assessment of the Investment Climate in South Africa

Clarke, George R.G.; Habyarimana, James; Ingram, Michael; Kaplan, David; Ramachandran, Vijaya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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The objective of the South Africa Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in South Africa in all its operational dimensions and to promote policies to strengthen the private sector. The investment climate is made up of the many location-specific factors that shape opportunities and incentives for firms to invest productively, create jobs, and expand. These factors include macroeconomic and regulatory policies, the security of property rights and the rule of law, and the quality of supporting institutions such as physical and financial infrastructure. The main source of information for the ICA is a survey of over 800 formal private enterprises. The survey includes data on firm productivity, the cost of doing business, the regulatory environment, the labor market, the financial sector, the trade regime, and levels of investment. The analysis links business environment constraints to firm-level costs and productivity. Also, the investment climate and performance of firms in South Africa can be compared with those of firms in the more than 70 low- and middle income countries in which Investment Climate Surveys (ICSs) have been conducted.

The Cost of Adjustment to Green Growth Policies : Lessons from Trade Adjustment Costs

Porto, Guido
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Green growth policies confront firms and workers with adjustments that may create welfare costs for different segments of the population and cause reductions in near-term actual versus potential gross domestic product. There is little evidence on the cost of adjustment to climate change measures, and only limited evidence for more general environmental policies, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this paper canvasses the research on adjustment costs to trade policies to draw analogies and highlight differences compared with the potential impacts of green growth policies. Trade policies affect prices and work directly on technology choice. In the presence of adjustment costs, firms may experience impacts on wages, employment, and incentives to adopt alternative technologies. Both types of trade policy impacts may be amplified by technology availability and credit constraints. Many green growth policies are likely to work via the same mechanisms, that is, taxes on emissions or changes in technology requirements. However...

Bank Lending to Small and Medium Enterprises : The Republic of Serbia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report presents findings of a study of Bank lending to small and medium enterprises (SME) in Serbia. The study uses methodology developed by the Bank and already used in a number of studies in South America. The study is based on answers to standard questionnaires and detailed on-site interviews with eight banks. The interviewed banks are the most active in SME lending in Serbia and account for about 70 percent of the total market. Banks are currently offering a fairly broad range of both tailored and standardized products and are increasingly flexible with product pricing. This includes checking, savings and time deposit accounts; export and import loans; overdrafts for working capital and investment loans; business credit cards; various types of payment services; Internet and phone banking. The report is organized as follows: section two describes the banking sector and markets in Serbia, reviews definition of SMEs and provides key characteristics of the SME finance market in Serbia. Section three discusses details of SME access to finance. It describes the drivers and obstacles...

Regulation, Renegotiation and Capital Structure : Theory and Evidence from Latin American Transport Concessions

Moore, Alexander; Straub, Stéphane; Dethier, Jean-Jacques
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The paper examines the capital structure of regulated infrastructure firms. The authors develop a model showing that leverage, the ratio of liabilities to assets, is lower under high-powered regulation and that firms operating under high-powered regulation make proportionally larger reductions in leverage when the cost of debt increases. They test the predictions of the model using an original panel dataset of 124 transport concessions in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru over 1992-2011, finding broad support for our predictions.

Financial Constraints, Working Capital and the Dynamic Behavior of the Firm

Chan, Rosanna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Financial constraints are widespread in developing countries, where even short-term credit is limited. Finance held by firms as working capital is a substantial proportion of sales revenue, yet the role of working capital is largely neglected by existing models of financial constraints. This paper presents a dynamic model of the firm that incorporates working capital by introducing a delay between factor payments and the receipt of revenue. In contrast with previous models, the working capital model predicts that firms under binding constraints will substitute between labor and capital in response to demand shocks, causing investment to be countercyclical. For firms near the margin of being constrained, constraints bind when positive production opportunities arise. Output growth is therefore constrained in response to positive shocks but not to negative shocks. Simulations suggest that models without working capital may understate the predicted effects of financial constraints on production efficiency, firm profit and growth over time. The predictions are tested with the Bangladesh Panel Survey data for manufacturing firms. Consistent with the theory...

Potentials and Constraints of Using Warehouse Receipts Financing

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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The paper starts with an overview of Cambodia’s rice sector, with a particular attention to aspects which affect its need for external working capital finance, and characteristics and constraints that could hinder access to such finance (e.g., warehousing capacity, processing constraints, logistics, and market risks). Chapter two describes the general conditions for crop-based financing in Cambodia’s rice sector. Chapter three discusses policy options for enhancing the use of paddy and rice as collateral for financing. The chapter sets out the two main modalities: collateral management, and public warehousing. Both collateral management and public warehousing work best when certain support structures are in place, in particular an indemnity system, a system for the electronic trading of warehouse receipts, and a facility for refinancing warehouse receipt loans (which could be managed by the Central Bank or outsourced to another competent entity such as an investment fund). These are discussed in separate sections. The various sections describe the situation as currently prevails in Cambodia...

The origin of the Department of the Navy's biofuel initiative and the volatility problem for defense energy

Blumberg, Gary A.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis presents three catalysts for the origins of the Department of the Navys biofuel initiative: (1) Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 effectively ended the Department of Defenses (DoDs) research program into synthetic fuels derived from fossil fuels; (2) the crude oil spot price reached a maximum daily price of $145.16 on July 14, 2008; and (3) the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 appropriated over one billion dollars for biomass research and development. Although cost volatility has impacted the DoDs budget, the DoD already has used the Defense Working Capital Fund to make perceived oil prices less volatile to DoD users. Drop-in replaceable biofuels would not remove petroleum price volatility because biofuels act as close substitutes. The governments of other countries reduce cost volatility by managing fuel price risk using futures contracts; opinions differ on whether the DoD should pursue this option. To mitigate cost volatility, the Defense Business Board recommended exploring intragovernmental transfers between the DoD and Department of the Interior on two occasions. Long-term contracts could reduce volatility, but the DoD risks losing competitors in supply.; Lieutenant Commander...

Estimating the Economic Opportunity Cost of Capital for Public Investment Projects : An Empirical Analysis of the Mexican Case

Coppola, Andrea; Fernholz, Fernando; Glenday, Graham
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper offers an assessment of the methodologies employed to estimate the economic opportunity cost of capital for public sector projects, relying on the Mexican case for an applied empirical exercise. The traditional weighted cost of capital (top-down) approach used in the estimation of Mexico's economic opportunity cost of capital is reviewed and compared to the supply price (bottom-up) approach. With respect to previous studies using the top-down approach, this paper explores the contribution of domestic savings and expands the analysis to include a more detailed examination of the available macroeconomic, labor, financial, and tax information. The re-estimated top-down economic opportunity cost of capital for Mexico comes to 10.4 percent. To confirm these results and provide additional insights regarding the alternative bottom-up approach, the economic opportunity cost of capital is estimated using the supply price plus externalities method. For the case of Mexico, this paper recommends using a combination of estimation models (both the top-down and bottom-up approaches) to check the consistency of results and re-estimating the economic opportunity cost of capital every five years to accommodate for macroeconomic and fiscal changes. More broadly...

Specification of Investment Functions in Sub-Saharan Africa

Bayraktar, Nihal; Fofack, Hippolyte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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It is a well-known fact that one of the most important determinants of growth is private investment. But in the developing country context of widespread poverty, the effects of initial conditions on the process of capital accumulation have seldom been investigated. This paper highlights heterogeneity in the process of capital accumulation across different countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and derives a formal specification of investment functions in the primary, industry, and service sectors in the region using a variation of the combined Tobin's Q Theory and the neoclassical models of investment. The results highlight a more rapid accumulation of capital in the relatively high income subpanel and a widening public-private capital accumulation gap. A functional specification points to the significance of aggregate profitability shocks, the financing cost of investment, and public capital stock in estimating the growth rate of private capital accumulation. These results are supported empirically, as highlighted by the relatively small absolute deviation between actual and predicted value distributions.

The Impact of Credit Information Sharing Reforms on Firm Financing?

Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad; Singh, Sandeep
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper analyzes the impact of introducing credit information-sharing systems on firms' access to finance. The analysis uses multi-year, firm-level surveys for 63 countries covering more than 75,000 firms over the period 2002-13. The results reveal that credit bureau reforms, but not credit registry reforms, have a significant and robust effect on firm financing. After the introduction of a credit bureau, the likelihood that a firm has access to finance increases, interest rates drop, maturity lengthens, and the share of working capital financed by banks increases. The effects of credit bureau reforms are more pronounced the greater the coverage of the credit bureau and the scope and accessibility of the credit information-sharing scheme. Credit bureau reforms also have a greater impact on firms' access to finance in countries where contract enforcement is weaker. Finally, there is some evidence that the effects of credit bureau reform are more pronounced for smaller, less experienced, and more opaque firms.

The Role of Natural Resources in Fundamental Tax Reform in the Russian Federation

Bosquet, Benoit
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The Russian Federation has one of the richest natural resource endowments in the world. Despite their importance in the Russian economy, natural resources do not contribute as much as they could to public revenues. Large resource rents (excess payments, or above-normal profits generated by natural resources in scarce supply) are dissipated through subsidies and wastage, or appropriated by private interests. Failure to tax this rent means that taxes must be levied elsewhere (on capital and labor) to sustain revenues, thereby depressing investment and employment, or that potential revenues are foregone. Failure to reinvest rent means that Russia perpetuates the tradition of exporting low value-added raw materials and excessive capital outflows, and retards its transition to sustainable economic development. The author provides estimates of the average and total current rent on crude oil, natural gas, and round wood in Russia. The sum of appropriated rent on oil and gas was estimated at US$9 billion in 1999 (in excess of $15 billion in 2000)...

Why Liquidity Matters to the Export Decision of the Firm

Chan, Rosanna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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65.9%
Under financial constraints, exporting may have less to do with productivity and more to do with financial resources. The established relationship between exporting and productivity would differ when examined through the lens of the working capital needs of the firm. The hypothesis that working capital matters in the firm's exporting decision is explored in two ways: first, by articulating a dynamic working capital model of the firm that incorporates the firm's export decision. Secondly, by testing the hypothesis empirically using a unique firm level dataset from Bangladesh, where issues of financial constraints are particularly acute. The model shows that productivity determines export status of the firm as long as it is not under financial constraints. However, under financial constraints, export status is less dependent on productivity and more dependent on the availability of working capital. Empirical results support the model's prediction. The relationship between exporting time and the need for greater liquidity is also borne out empirically as shown by a positive and significant correlation between the amount of working capital and the distance of export destination. An important policy implication from the analysis is that short term liquidity is critical in allowing productive firms to export and that access to finance may prevent the benefits of trade liberalization within a country to be fully realized.

Aplicabilidade da análise dinâmica do capital de giro como instrumento de avaliação da gestão financeira em cooperativas agropecuárias; Applicability of the dynamic analysis of the working capital as an evaluation instrument of the financial administration in agricultural cooperatives

GIMENES, Régio Marcio Toesca; GIMENES, Fátima Maria Pegorini
Fonte: Instituto de Economa da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Instituto de Economa da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar a origem dos recursos que financiaram as necessidades líquidas de capital de giro de uma amostra de 64 cooperativas agropecuárias localizadas em oito estados brasileiros, no período 1999 a 2004. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que a demanda por capital de giro das cooperativas não foi financiada, de uma forma geral, com recursos permanentes (exigíveis a longo prazo e patrimônio líquido), havendo, assim, a necessidade de captação de recursos onerosos de curto prazo para complementar o financiamento do seu ciclo financeiro, geralmente de custo e risco mais elevados do que as demais fontes de financiamento.; This study has as purpose to investigate the origin of the funds that financed the net working capital needs of a sample of 64 located agricultural cooperatives in eight Brazilian states, in the period 1999 to 2004. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that cooperatives' demand for working capital has not been financed, in general, with permanent funds (long term liabilities and stockholders' equity). So, there is a need to raise short-term burdensome funds to complement the financing of its financial cycle, generally, with higher cost and risks than the other sources of funds.

Contabilização das variações da necessidade de capital de giro

Seidel, André; Kume, Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2003 Português
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Quando se deseja iniciar uma atividade ou mesmo expandi-la, muito se analisa a necessidade de aplicações em ativos permanentes, mas pouca atenção é dedicada ao "investimento em clientes e estoques". Dessa forma a concessão de prazo para clientes ou a opção por um aumento nos níveis dos estoques, ambos valores contabilizados no ativo circulante, pode significar uma decisão de investimento tão ou mais duradoura do que aquela efetuada em ativos permanentes. A Necessidade de Capital de Giro (NCG), e suas variações, podem levar à falência muitas empresas, principalmente pequenas e médias. Além da preocupação monetária, uma empresa necessita garantir a manutenção de sua estrutura física, permanente e operacional, necessária para suas atividades. O lucro contabilizado através do Custo Corrente Corrigido (CCC), precisa de ajustes para ser considerado totalmente distribuível; sob nosso ponto de vista, as variações da NCG fazem parte desses ajustes. A idéia central deste artigo é a criação de uma Reserva de Capital denominada Reserva das Variações da Necessidade de Capital de Giro (RVNCG) como forma de garantir a manutenção do capital físico da empresa, ajustando o lucro passível de distribuição através da contabilização das variações da NCG. Esse artigo está dividido em quatro partes. Na primeira...