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Análise experimental sobre o julgamento da relevância do valor justo em ativos biológicos; Experimental analysis on judgment of the relevance of fair value of biological assets.

Silva, José Marcos da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A utilização do valor justo, na avaliação de ativos biológicos, decorrentes da adoção de padrões internacionais de contabilidade, tem provocado efeitos econômicos significativos sobre o valor das empresas e, consequentemente, nos seus resultados correntes e futuros. Dessa maneira, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar se os usuários da informação contábil reconhecem a relevância do uso do valor justo na mensuração de ativos biológicos. Por meio de experimentos com alunos de MBA, sob a perspectiva da Teoria do Pensamento Contrafactual, foram considerados os seguintes estímulos sobre o julgamento da relevância do uso do valor justo para ativos biológicos: (i) se o resultado (perdas ou ganhos) decorrentes da avaliação a valor justo, (ii) se o tipo de ativo biológico (com ou sem liquidez) e (iii) se a decisão gerencial (manter o ativo até o vencimento ou disponibilizar para a venda) interferem no julgamento da relevância do uso do valor justo. Os resultados apontam que, mesmo com a presença dessas variáveis, o uso do valor justo é relevante para mensuração dos ativos biológicos.; The use of fair value in the measurement of biological assets resulting from the adoption of international accounting standards...

Pensamento contrafactual: Estudo do efeito de foco nos cenários e atribuição de culpa à vítima e agressor

Marques, João Amaral
Fonte: ISPA - Instituto Universitário Publicador: ISPA - Instituto Universitário
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicologia Clínica, apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; A presente dissertação, sobre o pensamento contrafactual, pretende analisar o efeito de foco de um cenário, quer nos pensamentos contrafactuais que são produzidos, quer na atribuição de culpa feita aos dois personagens principais (vitima e agressor). Procura-se desta forma colmatar uma lacuna apontada por Kahneman e Miller (1986), a de que os cenários habitualmente usados na investigação do pensamento contrafactual estão maioritariamente centrados na vítima, tornando as suas acções mais salientes e mutáveis e, portanto, o foco central dos pensamentos contrafactuais. Outra consequência que os autores referem é o elevado grau de atribuição de culpa à vítima, já que é mais fácil imaginar a vítima a agir de forma diferente e, assim, a ter evitado o que lhe aconteceu. Foram criadas três situações – acidente de viação, agressão e assalto – cada uma relatada segundo um foco distinto – vítima, agressor ou ambos. Foi esperado que o supracitado efeito produzisse resultados em termos dos contrafactuais gerados e das atribuições de culpa, conduzindo, por um lado, a um maior número de contrafactuais centrados na personagem principal do cenário e...

Counterfactual thinking : Study of the focus effect of scenarios and blame ascriptions to victim and perpetrator

Marques, João Amaral; Quelhas, Ana Cristina; Juhos, Csongor; Couto, Marta; Rasga, Célia
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada Publicador: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.561123%
In two different studies we examined the focus effect of a scenario (i.e., the fact that a given character is the protagonist of a story) on two interconnected domains: the generation of counterfactual thoughts and the ascription of blame. It was hypothesised that being the focal agent of a story would not only lead to more counterfactuals centred on him or her, but also to greater ascriptions of blame as it would be easier to imagine how that actor could have behaved differently had he chosen or wanted to, and thus avoided a deleterious outcome. Different negatively-valenced scenarios depicting a certain misfortune such as a mugging were created in which victim, perpetrator or both characters, were the centre of the story. Results showed that placing either victim or perpetrator as the protagonist of a scenario increases the number of counterfactual thoughts centred on that character, but does not necessarily increase the blame attributed to him or her as the perpetrator was always ascribed more blame than the victim, irrespective of who was the protagonist. Study 2’s findings replicate those of Study 1 even with a different experimental design, modified materials, and various counterbalancing measures, hence suggesting that being the protagonist enables one to easily consider counterfactual alternatives involving that actor...

O pensamento contrafactual e a atribuição de culpa a vítimas de violação em cenários de stranger e acquaintance rape

Silva , Daniela Maria Da Costa Ferreira Muro E
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dissertação de mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; Cada vez mais a violação é perspetivada como o trauma que efectivamente constitui (Vidal & Petrak, 2007; Krahé, 1991). Ao impacto do crime per se, acresce o feedback da sociedade, que, se negativo, desencadeia um processo de vitimização secundária (Strómwall, Landstrom & Alfredsson, 2014), nomeadamente, a atribuição de culpa pelo crime à vítima. Uma das teorias que tem sido empregue na compreensão dos julgamentos de culpabilidade imputados a vítimas de violação é a teoria do pensamento contrafactual (Levy & Ben-David, 2008, pp. 7, 8) que concebe estes julgamentos como resultado do contraponto que se estabelece entre a realidade e as alternativas imaginadas (Roese, 1994; Roese, 2005, p. 17). O presente documento discute o fundamento e a viabilidade de implementação de uma investigação que enquadre a problemática dos julgamentos de culpa imputados a vítimas do crime de violação à luz do pensamento contrafactual, com uma metodologia que faz uso de vinhetas escritas e de listas de contrafactuais ascendentes focados na vítima. Adicionalmente, incorporamos a variável «tipo de relacionamento entre vítima e agente do crime» que, segundo nos constou...

Efeitos temporais no pensamento contrafactual

Jerónimo, Ana Teresa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 Português
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49.17259%
Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada; Ao longo da vida temos tendência a fazer balanços que nos permitem reflectir nas nossas opções e imaginarmos o que poderia ter ocorrido de forma diferente. A este processo de alterar cognitivamente um acontecimento dá-se o nome de pensamento contrafactual (contra os factos). Estes pensamentos incidem numa versão alterada da realidade, consistindo em cenários imaginários contrários ao sucedido, principalmente se tiverem sido adversos. ( e.g., Kahneman & Miller, 1986; Roese, 1994; Roese & Olson 1995a; Roese & Olson 1997). Ainda de acordo com estes autores, os contrafactuais têm uma direcção, que consiste na categorização que deles fazemos, com base na comparação feita entre os factos ocorridos e as alternativas percepcionadas. Desta forma, elaboramos um pensamento contrafactual ascendente, se percebemos a alternativa como algo melhor à realidade, e descendente se ocorrer o inverso. Aos contrafactuais ascendentes está associado o regret, onde lamentamos o que fizemos e correu mal, ou pelo contrário o que não fizemos (omissão) (Gilovich & Medvec, 1994; Gilovich & Medvec, 1995 a). Estes autores referem ainda, que a curto prazo lamentamos mais as acções cujo resultado não foi satisfatório...

The Functional Theory of Counterfactual Thinking

Epstude, Kai; Roese, Neal J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2008 Português
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Counterfactuals are thoughts about alternatives to past events, that is, thoughts of what might have been. This article provides an updated account of the functional theory of counterfactual thinking, suggesting that such thoughts are best explained in terms of their role in behavior regulation and performance improvement. The article reviews a wide range of cognitive experiments indicating that counterfactual thoughts may influence behavior by either of two routes: a content-specific pathway (which involves specific informational effects on behavioral intentions, which then influence behavior) and a content-neutral pathway (which involves indirect effects via affect, mind-sets, or motivation). The functional theory is particularly useful in organizing recent findings regarding counterfactual thinking and mental health. The article concludes by considering the connections to other theoretical conceptions, especially recent advances in goal cognition.

Counterfactual thinking and emotions: regret and envy learning

Coricelli, Giorgio; Rustichini, Aldo
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/01/2010 Português
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Emotions like regret and envy share a common origin: they are motivated by the counterfactual thinking of what would have happened had we made a different choice. When we contemplate the outcome of a choice we made, we may use the information on the outcome of a choice we did not make. Regret is the purely private comparison between two choices that we could have taken, envy adds to this the information on outcome of choices of others. However, envy has a distinct social component, in that it adds the change in the social ranking that follows a difference in the outcomes. We study the theoretical foundation and the experimental test of this view.

Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future

Van Hoeck, Nicole; Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van Overwalle, Frank
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. ‘If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my train.’) should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind.

Remembering what could have happened: Neural correlates of episodic counterfactual thinking

De Brigard, F; Addis, D.R.; Ford, J.H.; Schacter, D.L.; Giovanello, K.S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recent evidence suggests that our capacities to remember the past and to imagine what might happen in the future largely depend on the same core brain network that includes the middle temporal lobe, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the lateral temporal cortex. However, the extent to which regions of this core brain network are also responsible for our capacity to think about what could have happened in our past, yet did not occur (i.e., episodic counterfactual thinking), is still unknown. The present study examined this issue. Using a variation of the experimental recombination paradigm (Addis et al., 2009), participants were asked both to remember personal past events and to envision alternative outcomes to such events while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Three sets of analyses were performed on the imaging data in order to investigate two related issues. First, a mean-centered spatiotemporal partial least square (PLS) analysis identified a pattern of brain activity across regions of the core network that was common to episodic memory and episodic counterfactual thinking. Second, a non-rotated PLS analysis identified two different patterns of brain activity for likely and unlikely episodic counterfactual thoughts...

Remembering what could have happened: Neural correlates of episodic counterfactual thinking

De Brigard, Felipe; Addis, Donna R.; Ford, Jaclyn H.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Giovanello, Kelly S.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recent evidence suggests that our capacities to remember the past and to imagine what might happen in the future largely depend on the same core brain network that includes the middle temporal lobe, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the lateral temporal cortex. However, the extent to which regions of this core brain network are also responsible for our capacity to think about what could have happened in our past, yet did not occur (i.e., episodic counterfactual thinking), is still unknown. The present study examined this issue. Using a variation of the experimental recombination paradigm (Addis, Pan, Vu, Laiser, & Schacter, 2009. Neuropsychologia. 47: 2222–2238), participants were asked both to remember personal past events and to envision alternative outcomes to such events while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Three sets of analyses were performed on the imaging data in order to investigate two related issues. First, a mean-centered spatiotemporal partial least square (PLS) analysis identified a pattern of brain activity across regions of the core network that was common to episodic memory and episodic counterfactual thinking. Second...

Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: Intersections between memory and decisions

Schacter, Daniel L.; Benoit, Roland; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl
Fonte: Elsevier BV Publicador: Elsevier BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one’s personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one’s personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory...

Coming to Grips With the Past: Effect of Repeated Simulation on the Perceived Plausibility of Episodic Counterfactual Thoughts

De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl; Schacter, Daniel L.
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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When people revisit previous experiences, they often engage in episodic counterfactual thinking: mental simulations of alternative ways in which personal past events could have occurred. The present study employed a novel experimental paradigm to examine the influence of repeated simulation on the perceived plausibility of upward, downward, and neutral episodic counterfactual thoughts. Participants were asked to remember negative, positive, and neutral autobiographical memories. One week later, they self-generated upward, downward, and neutral counterfactual alternatives to those memories. The following day, they resimulated each of those counterfactuals either once or four times. The results indicate that repeated simulation of upward, downward, and neutral episodic counterfactual events decreases their perceived plausibility while increasing ratings of the ease, detail, and valence of the simulations. This finding suggests a difference between episodic counterfactual thoughts and other kinds of self-referential simulations. Possible implications of this finding for pathological and nonpathological anxiety are discussed.; Psychology

A Dual-Process Account of Reactions to General and Specific Events: The Roles of Counterfactual Thinking and Pre-Event Expectations

Petrocelli, John Virgil
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Psychology, 2007; On the basis of a dual-process account of reactions to general and specific cases, counterfactual thinking was hypothesized to occur more frequently in response to specific events than to general events. Cognitive reactions to general events were expected to be influenced by pre-event expectations, whereas reactions to specific events were expected to be influenced by counterfactual thinking. Such differences in processing may result in different comparison cases that ultimately influence reactions to the event as well as decisions regarding similar, future events. When people experience undesirable outcomes, counterfactual thoughts allow them to imagine more desirable possibilities, and thus greater confidence for future occurrences. Five experiments were designed to investigate these and other related hypotheses. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with general or specific outcomes of a golfing competition. Experiment 2 asked participants to complete a trivia test and provided them with global or specific performance feedback. Experiment 3 examined the impact of both upward and downward counterfactuals following the visual presentation of general or specific highlights of a tennis match. In Experiment 4...

Powerful and Thoughtful: How Social Power Affects Reflection during Goal Pursuit; Machtvoll und umsichtig: Wie soziale Macht die Reflexion beim Zielstreben beeinflusst

Scholl, Annika
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertation; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
Português
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Soziale Strukturen sind oftmals durch soziale Macht gekennzeichnet, so dass einige Personen die Ergebnisse anderer bestimmen, während andere sich von diesen leiten lassen. Soziale Macht beeinflusst, wie Personen denken, sich fühlen, und beim Verfolgen ihrer Ziele verhalten. Eine ganze Reihe an Forschung zeigt, dass soziale Macht die Bereitschaft zu schnellem Handeln fördert. Diese Handlungsbereitschaft ist oftmals Teil der eigenen Machtrolle und somit zielführend, da durch schnelles Handeln wenig Gelegenheiten zur Zielerreichung versäumt werden. Hingegen muss das eigene Handeln in manchen Situationen gut durchdacht sein; dies trifft besonders dann zu, wenn vorherige Misserfolge die Notwendigkeit signalisieren, die eigenen Strategien zu überdenken und anzupassen. Die Reflexion über eigene Verhaltensweisen vor dem (erneuten) Handeln kann entsprechend das Lernen aus vergangenen Misserfolgen und so die zukünftige Zielerreichung fördern. Diese Dissertation beschäftigte sich daher mit der Frage, wie soziale Macht die Reflexion über mögliche Alternativen zum eigenen Verhalten vor einer Handlung beeinflusst, insbesondere im Fall vorheriger Misserfolge. Soziale Macht fördert nicht nur die Handlungsbereitschaft, sondern geht auch mit variablerem und effektiverem Verhalten bei der Zielverfolgung einher...

Dever fazer ou querer fazer, eis a questão : Como as crianças raciocinam sobre as intenções: Inferências de falsas crenças e contrafactuais

Rasga, Célia Maria Batalha Silva
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.561123%
Tese de Doutoramento apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário; O nosso trabalho propõe explorar a compreensão das crianças acerca das razões que os outros têm para as acções. Trabalhos anteriores mostraram que as pessoas tendem a pensar sobre as acções de forma diferente quando têm conhecimento sobre as razões para uma acção. Um passo importante para a compreensão das acções de outras pessoas é o raciocínio sobre as suas intenções (Walsh & Byrne, 2007; Juhos, Quelhas & Byrne, 2015). Ao longo de seis experiências, pretendemos explorar este efeito do conhecimento sobre as razões para as acções, aquando de raciocínios contrafactuais e de falsas crenças, ampliando-o ao desenvolvimento das crianças.Transversal a todas as experiências, as crianças foram testadas com uma nova tarefa:a tarefa de mudança de intenções, a qual analisou cenários onde um actor tem uma razão inicial (desejo ou obrigação) para uma acção, que é posteriormente alterada. A primeira experiência demonstrou que crianças de 6 anos não compreendem que os outros podem ter falsas crenças sobre as razões de um actor para uma acção, enquanto aos 8 anos evidenciam uma compreensão de falsas crenças sobre intenções. Adicionalmente...

“No pior dos mundos possíveis”: O pensamento contrafactual e a percepção do crime de violação contra as mulheres

Martins, Ana Cristina Carvalho
Fonte: ISPA - Instituto Universitário das Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida Publicador: ISPA - Instituto Universitário das Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.03124%
Tese submetida como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Doutoramento em Psicologia Área de especialidade de Psicologia Social; Tese apresentada para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Doutor em Psicologia na área de especialização de Psicologia Social, no ISPA – Instituto Universitário, no ano de 2011, ao abrigo do Artigo 33.º do Decreto-Lei n.º74/2006 de 24 de Março.; A avaliação do desenlace de determinada situação, por nós experienciada ou observada, é realizada, boa parte das vezes, com base em alternativas imaginadas para a mesma, alternativas que concorrem para um outro remate final e que podem consistir em eliminar, substituir ou distorcer os seus antecedentes temporais ou causais (e.g., Nario- Redmond & Branscombe, 1996; Roese & Olson, 1993; Wells & Gavanski, 1989). Estas simulações mentais são designadas, na literatura, de pensamentos contrafactuais e decorrem da nossa propensão para gerar, espontaneamente, vários mundos possíveis nos quais os eventos se configuram com um desfecho diferente, principalmente, ainda que não só, quando esses eventos nos são adversos, provocando-nos, nomeadamente, reacções afectivas negativas (e.g., Kahneman & Miller, 1986; Miller...

Counterfactual thinking in moral judgment: an experimental study

Migliore, Simone; Curcio, Giuseppe; Mancini, Francesco; Cappa, Stefano F.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/05/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Counterfactual thinking is thinking about a past that did not happen. This is often the case in “if only…” situations, where we wish something had or had not happened. To make a choice in a moral decision-making situation is particularly hard and, therefore, may be often associated with the imagination of a different outcome. The main aim of the present study is to investigate counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning. We used a modified version of Greene's moral dilemmas test, studying both the time needed to provide a counterfactual in the first and third person and the type of given response (in context-out of context) in a sample of 90 healthy subjects. We found a longer response time for personal vs. impersonal moral dilemmas. This effect was enhanced in the first person perspective, while in the elderly there was an overall slowing of response time. Out of context/omissive responses were more frequent in the case of personal moral dilemmas presented in the first person version, with females showing a marked increase in this kind of response. These findings suggest that gender and perspective have a critical role in counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning, and may have implications for the understanding of gender-related inclinations as well as differences in moral judgment.

Counterfactual Thinking in Tourette's Syndrome: A Study Using Three Measures

Zago, Stefano; Delli Ponti, Adriana; Mastroianni, Silvia; Solca, Federica; Tomasini, Emanuele; Poletti, Barbara; Inglese, Silvia; Sartori, Giuseppe; Porta, Mauro
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.85077%
Pathophysiological evidence suggests an involvement of frontostriatal circuits in Tourette syndrome (TS) and cognitive abnormalities have been detected in tasks sensitive to cognitive deficits associated with prefrontal damage (verbal fluency, planning, attention shifting, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and social reasoning). A disorder in counterfactual thinking (CFT), a behavioural executive process linked to the prefrontal cortex functioning, has not been investigated in TS. CFT refers to the generation of a mental simulation of alternatives to past factual events, actions, and outcomes. It is a pervasive cognitive feature in everyday life and it is closely related to decision-making, planning, problem-solving, and experience-driven learning—cognitive processes that involve wide neuronal networks in which prefrontal lobes play a fundamental role. Clinical observations in patients with focal prefrontal lobe damage or with neurological and psychiatric diseases related to frontal lobe dysfunction (e.g., Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia) show counterfactual thinking impairments. In this work, we evaluate the performance of CFT in a group of patients with Tourette's syndrome compared with a group of healthy participants. Overall results showed no statistical differences in counterfactual thinking between TS patients and controls in the three counterfactual measures proposed. The possible explanations of this unexpected result are discussed below.

Possible Uses of counterfactual thought experiments in History; Possible uses of counterfactual thought experiments in history

Maar, Alexander; University of Auckland, New Zealand; Capes Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/05/2014 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p87 Counterfactual thought experiments in history have become increasingly popular in the last two decades, and a new and controversial branch of history has originated from their use: counterfactual history, also known as virtual history. Despite its popularity amongst the general public, most academic historians consider historical counterfactuals as having little epistemic value. This paper investigates three alleged uses of counterfactual thinking in historical explanations: (1) the claim that counterfactual thinking gives historians useful insights; (2) that it is a useful tool to evaluate an event’s causal significance; (3) that it shows much of history to be essentially ‘chaotic’. I argue that only (2) convincingly justifies the use of counterfactual thought experiments in history, as it allows historians to illustrate how they perceive events’ degrees of sensitivity to changes to their causal history, being an important part of providing a causal explanation.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n1p87 Experimentos contrafactuais em história tornaram-se populares nas últimas duas décadas, dando origem a um novo e controverso ramo historiográfico: a história contrafactual...

Counterfactual thinking: Study of the focus effect of scenarios and blame ascriptions to victim and perpetrator

Marques,João; Quelhas,Ana Cristina; Juhos,Csongor; Couto,Marta; Rasga,Célia
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada Publicador: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In two different studies we examined the focus effect of a scenario (i.e., the fact that a given character is the protagonist of a story) on two interconnected domains: the generation of counterfactual thoughts and the ascription of blame. It was hypothesised that being the focal agent of a story would not only lead to more counterfactuals centred on him or her, but also to greater ascriptions of blame as it would be easier to imagine how that actor could have behaved differently had he chosen or wanted to, and thus avoided a deleterious outcome. Different negatively-valenced scenarios depicting a certain misfortune such as a mugging were created in which victim, perpetrator or both characters, were the centre of the story. Results showed that placing either victim or perpetrator as the protagonist of a scenario increases the number of counterfactual thoughts centred on that character, but does not necessarily increase the blame attributed to him or her as the perpetrator was always ascribed more blame than the victim, irrespective of who was the protagonist. Study 2’s findings replicate those of Study 1 even with a different experimental design, modified materials, and various counterbalancing measures, hence suggesting that being the protagonist enables one to easily consider counterfactual alternatives involving that actor...