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Bio-Dis and the Paddle Dissolution Apparatuses Applied to the Release Characterization of Ketoprofen from Hypromellose Matrices

PEZZINI, Bianca Ramos; FERRAZ, Humberto Gomes
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The purposes of this work were: (1) to comparatively evaluate the effects of hypromellose viscosity grade and content on ketoprofen release from matrix tablets, using Bio-Dis and the paddle apparatuses, (2) to investigate the influence of the pH of the dissolution medium on drug release. Furthermore, since direct compression had not shown to be appropriate to obtain the matrices under study, it was also an objective (3) to evaluate the impact of granulation on drug release process. Six formulations of ketoprofen matrix tablets were obtained by compression, with or without previous granulation, varying the content and viscosity grade of hypromellose. Dissolution tests were carried out at a fixed pH, in each experiment, with the paddle method (pH 4.5, 6.0, 6.8, or 7.2), while a pH gradient was used in Bio-Dis (pH 1.2 to 7.2). The higher the hypromellose viscosity grade and content were, the lower the amount of ketoprofen released was in both apparatuses, the content effect being more expressive. Drug dissolution enhanced with the increase of the pH of the medium due to its pH-dependent solubility. Granulation caused an increase in drug dissolution and modified the mechanism of the release process.

A percepção da nutriz sobre os (des)confortos da prática do aleitamento materno.; Nursing Mother´s Perception about the (dis)comforts of breastfeeding practice

Benedett, Alcimara
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/09/2013 Português
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O processo de amamentação, além de sua importância para a criança e benefícios de toda ordem, maternos, infantil e social, também pode representar um esforço físico e emocional para a mulher, sendo considerado um período no qual a nutriz enfrenta situações estressantes e de desconfortos. Considera-se que estes elementos, se não resolvidos devidamente, podem marcar negativamente a experiência de amamentar e levar à decisão materna de interromper o aleitamento. Com vistas a buscar a compreensão dessa experiência para a nutriz, quanto aos (des)confortos por ela experimentados, este estudo teve como objetivos: compreender a percepção da nutriz acerca dos (des)confortos identificados e expressos por ela, na prática da amamentação, e verificar a possível relação entre os (des)confortos percebidos pela nutriz com a sua prática da amamentação. Foi desenvolvida uma pesquisa qualitativa, que teve como referencial teórico a Teoria de Conforto de Kolcaba (1991) e a estratégia do DSC para organização dos dados. Participaram deste estudo vinte e quatro nutrizes primíparas, residentes em Chapecó (SC), maiores de 18 anos, entre 30 e 90 dias pós-parto, que estavam amamentando ou que amamentaram os filhos por pelo menos 30 dias. Foram construídos três temas emergidos dos dados: TEMA 1 A PRÁTICA DA AMAMENTAÇÃO: UMA BUSCA POR CONFORTO; TEMA 2 O SOFRIMENTO NA AMAMENTAÇÃO; TEMA 3 A SATISFAÇÃO DA AMAMENTAÇÃO. Os temas demonstram que a mulher está exposta aos vários contextos de (des)confortos descritos na Teoria do Conforto. Também...

The House of Usher and The House of Fisher: Towards an Architecture of (Dis)comfort

Duarte, José
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Anglísticos da Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Centro de Estudos Anglísticos da Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Six Feet Under (2000-2005), by Allan Ball, is clearly influenced by Edgar Allan Poe’s stories, from the opening credits (a reference to the poem ‘The Raven’) to the presence of ghosts and the gothic atmosphere displayed by most objects in the television series, especially the house. Both houses, the Fisher Funeral Home and the house of Usher in the story ‘The Fall of the House of Usher’ (1840), are symbolic spaces of death and, consequently, liminal spaces. If the Usher’s house, like its owner, is an isolated space representing the decadence and fall of the human being; the Fisher’s house, naturally a place of human finitude, seems to represent the opposite: albeit being a funeral house it offers some comfort. In this way, my aim is to analyse Poe’s story and the episode ‘Familia’, (1:5, 2000) from Six Feet Under in order to not only present Poe’s influence in the series, but also to compare both houses so as to show this architecture of (dis)comfort.

Partial Restoration of Replication of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus by Point Mutations in either the Dimerization Initiation Site (DIS) or Gag Region after Deletion Mutagenesis within the DIS

Guan, Yongjun; Diallo, Karidia; Detorio, Mervi; Whitney, James B.; Liang, Chen; Wainberg, Mark A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 Português
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We used the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) molecular clone SIVmac239 to generate a deletion construct, termed SD2, in which we eliminated 22 nucleotides at positions +398 to +418 within the putative dimerization initiation site (DIS) stem. This SD2 deletion severely impaired viral replication, due to adverse effects on the packaging of viral genomic RNA, the processing of Gag proteins, and viral protein patterns. However, long-term culture of SD2 in either C8166 or CEMx174 cells resulted in restoration of replication capacity, due to two different sets of three compensatory point mutations, located within both the DIS and Gag regions. In the case of C8166 cells, both a K197R and a E49K mutation were identified within the capsid (CA) protein and the p6 protein of Gag, respectively, while the other point mutation (A423G) was found within the putative DIS loop. In the case of CEMx174 cells, two compensatory mutations were present within the viral nucleocapsid (NC) protein, E18G and Q31K, in addition to the same A423G substitution as observed with C8166 cells. A set of all three mutations was required in each case for restoration of replication capacity, and either set of mutations could be substituted for the other in both the C8166 and CEMx174 cell lines.

Role of the DIS hairpin in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Berkhout, B; van Wamel, J L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1996 Português
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The virion-associated genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 consists of a noncovalently linked dimer of two identical, unspliced RNA molecules. A hairpin structure within the untranslated leader transcript is postulated to play a role in RNA dimerization through base pairing of the autocomplementary loop sequences. This hairpin motif with the palindromic loop sequence is referred to as the dimer initiation site (DIS), and the type of interaction is termed loop-loop kissing. Detailed phylogenetic analysis of the DIS motifs in different human and simian immunodeficiency viruses revealed conservation of the hairpin structure with a 6-mer palindrome in the loop, despite considerable sequence divergence. This finding supports the loop-loop kissing mechanism. To test this possibility, proviral genomes with mutations in the DIS palindrome were constructed. The appearance of infectious virus upon transfection into SupT1 T cells was delayed for the DIS mutants compared with that obtained by transfection of the wild-type provirus (pLAI), confirming that this RNA motif plays an important role in virus replication. Surprisingly, the RNA genome extracted from mutant virions was found to be fully dimeric and to have a normal thermal stability. These results indicate that the DIS motif is not essential for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA dimerization and suggest that DIS base pairing does not contribute to the stability of the mature RNA dimer. Instead...

Cold-sensitive and caffeine-supersensitive mutants of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis genes implicated in sister chromatid separation during mitosis.

Ohkura, H; Adachi, Y; Kinoshita, N; Niwa, O; Toda, T; Yanagida, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1988 Português
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We isolated novel classes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cold-sensitive dis mutants that block mitotic chromosome separation (nine mapped in the dis1 gene and one each in the dis2 and dis3 genes). Defective phenotype at restrictive temperature is similar among the mutants; the chromosomes condense and anomalously move to the cell ends in the absence of their disjoining so that they are unequally distributed at the two cell ends. Synchronous culture analyses indicate that the cells can enter into mitosis at normal timing but become lethal during mitosis. In comparison with the wild-type mitosis, defects are found in the early spindle structure, the mitotic chromosome structure, the poleward chromosome movement by the spindle elongation and the telophase spindle degradation. The dis mutants lose at permissive temperature an artificial minichromosome at higher rates than occur in the wild type. We found that all the dis mutants isolated are supersensitive to caffeine at permissive temperature. Furthermore, the mutant cells in the presence of caffeine produce a phenotype similar to that obtained at restrictive temperature. We suggest that the dis genes are required for the sister chromatid separation at the time of mitosis and that caffeine might affect the dis gene expression. We cloned...

Primary T-lymphocytes rescue the replication of HIV-1 DIS RNA mutants in part by facilitating reverse transcription

Jones, Kate L.; Sonza, Secondo; Mak, Johnson
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The dimerization initiation site (DIS) stem-loop within the HIV-1 RNA genome is vital for the production of infectious virions in T-cell lines but not in primary cells. In comparison to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which can support the replication of both wild type and HIV-1 DIS RNA mutants, we have found that DIS RNA mutants are up to 100 000-fold less infectious than wild-type HIV-1 in T-cell lines. We have also found that the cell-type-dependent replication of HIV-1 DIS RNA mutants is largely producer cell-dependent, with mutants displaying a greater defect in viral cDNA synthesis when viruses were not derived from PBMCs. While many examples exist of host–pathogen interplays that are mediated via proteins, analogous examples which rely on nucleic acid triggers are limited. Our data provide evidence to illustrate that primary T-lymphocytes rescue, in part, the replication of HIV-1 DIS RNA mutants through mediating the reverse transcription process in a cell-type-dependent manner. Our data also suggest the presence of a host cell factor that acts within the virus producer cells. In addition to providing an example of an RNA-mediated cell-type-dependent block to viral replication, our data also provides evidence which help to resolve the dilemma of how HIV-1 genomes with mismatched DIS sequences can recombine to generate chimeric viral RNA genomes.

Fluorescent HIV-1 Dimerization Initiation Site (DIS): Design, properties and use for ligand discovery

Tam, Victor K.; Kwong, Denise; Tor, Yitzhak
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The HIV-1 Dimerization Initiation Site (DIS) is an intriguing, yet underutilized, viral RNA target for potential antiretroviral therapy. To study the recognition features of this target and to provide a quantitative, rapid, and real-time tool for the discovery of new binders, a fluorescence-based assay has been constructed. It relies on strategic incorporation of 2-aminopurine, an isosteric fluorescent adenosine analog, into short hairpin RNA constructs. These oligomers self-associate to form a kissing loop that thermally rearranges into a more stable extended duplex thereby mimicking the association and structural features of the native RNA sequence. We demonstrate the ability of two fluorescent DIS constructs, DIS272(2AP) and DIS273(2AP), to report the binding of known DIS binders via changes in their emission intensity. Binding of aminoglycosides such as paromomycin to DIS272(2AP) results in significant fluorescence enhancement, while ligand binding to DIS273(2AP) results in fluorescence quenching. These observations are rationalized by comparison to the sequence-analogous bacterial A-site, where the relative emission of the fluorescent probe is dependent on the placement of the flexible purine residues inside or outside the helical domain. Analysis of binding isotherms generated using DIS272(2AP) yields submicromolar EC50 values for paromomycin (0.5 ± 0.2 μM) and neomycin B (0.6 ± 0.2 μM). Other neomycin-family aminoglycosides are less potent binders with neamine...

Recombinant disintegrin (r-Cam-dis) from Crotalus adamanteus inhibits adhesion of human pancreatic cancer cell lines to laminin-1 and vitronectin

Suntravat, Montamas; Barret, Henriquez S; Jurica, Cameron A; Lucena, Sara E; Perez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E
Fonte: Library Publishing Media Publicador: Library Publishing Media
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/04/2015 Português
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Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer common worldwide having poor prognosis, even when diagnosed at its early stage. Cell adhesion plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Integrins are major mediators of cell adhesion and play an important role in invasion and metastatic growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. Snake disintegrins are the most potent ligands of several integrins and have potential therapeutic applications for cancers. We have previously cloned and expressed a new recombinant RGD-disintegrin from Crotalus adamanteus (r-Cam-dis). This recently published r-Cam-dis has an extra nine amino acids derived from the vector (SPGARGSEF) at the N-terminus end and has strong anti-platelet activity. However, this r-Cam-dis contains the contamination of the cleavage of the N-terminal end of the pET-43.1a cloning vector. In this study, we have cloned r-Cam-dis in a different cloning vector (pGEX-4T-1) showing five different amino acids (GSPEF) at the N-terminal part. This new r-Cam-dis was expressed and tested for inhibition of platelet aggregation, specific binding activity with seven different integrins, and inhibition of adhesion of three different pancreatic cancer cell lines on laminin-1 and vitronectin. The r-Cam-dis showed potent binding to αvβ3 integrin...

Qualidade de vida das pessoas surdas que se comunicam pela língua de sinais: construção da versão em libras dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS; Quality of life of the deaf people that communicate through sign languages: construction of the LIBRAS version of the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS instruments

CHAVEIRO, Neuma
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias da Saude; Ciencias da Saude Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias da Saude; Ciencias da Saude
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Introduction: The evaluation of the quality of life of the deaf community is limited by the difficulties of communication in the oral and written language, thence the necessity of developing reliable instruments in sign language with methodological strictness that includes particular characteristics of the deaf people. Among the cultural lines of the deaf community, sign language is the most emphasized one: besides being a linguistical system, it is an element of constitution of the deaf person identity. In Brazil, it is legally assured the deaf the right to communicate in his natural language, that is, Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS), with no imposition of the usage of the majority language of the country. This doctoring thesis is part of the WHOQOL-LIBRAS project, a result of a partnership between Federal University of Goiás, World Health Organization and Brazil´s WHOQOL group in Federal University of Rio Grande Do Sul. In order to perform the WHOQOL-LIBRAS project, it was divided into two sub-projects with distinct but interdependent stages: Project 1 - Construction of the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS versions in LIBRAS; Project 2 - Application/validation of the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS instruments in the LIBRAS version. This thesis comprises Project 1. General Objective: Build the LIBRAS version of the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS instruments to evaluate the brazilian deaf community quality of life. Methods: A transversal and exploratory study...

Análise por grupos focais do instrumento para avaliação da qualidade de vida de pessoas com deficiências intelectuais e físicas (WHOQOL-DIS) traduzido para língua brasileira de sinais; Analysis of focus group instrument for assessing quality of life (WHOQOL-DIS) translated into Brazilian sign language

FREITAS, Adriana Ribeiro de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciências da Saúde; Ciências da Saúde - Medicina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciências da Saúde; Ciências da Saúde - Medicina
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The assessment of quality of life using instruments that address differences in language and culture of deaf people, contributes to support public policies related to health and effectiveness of care provided to this population. This thesis project consists WHOQOL-LIBRAS. This project is a partnership between the Federal University of Goiás, the World Health Organization and the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. For their implementation was divided into two sub-projects: 1) Project 1 - Construction of the version of the LIBRAS WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL DIS, 2) Project 2 - Implementation / validation of the LIBRAS version of WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL - DIS. The realization of the project 1 was guided by a methodology developed by WHO, adapted by the WHOQOL GROUP in Brazil, which consisted of thirteen steps. This study complies with the Stage 7 Project 1 with the completion of a three focus groups to analyze the LIBRAS version of WHOQOL-DIS. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the understanding and relevance of the instrument WHOQOL-DIS translated to Brazilian Sign Language and perform integrative literature review to identify public policies for health care of the person checking the recognition of Deaf people as language and cultural minority in Brazilian legislation. Cross-sectional study...

An evaluation of B-ISDN for the communication architecture requirements of Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS)

Arias, Christopher V.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Distributive Interactive Simulation (DIS) requires a communication architecture to support large scale simulations (100,000 entities). The communication architecture requirements for DIS are now being defined. DIS will require a wide area network that supports high data rates, multicasting and low latency. DoD can no longer afford unique solutions for the their wide area networking needs and must align their service requirements with the services provided by common carriers. An analysis is presented on how the future Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network(B-ISDN) and its technology standard, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), could help meet the WAN communication architecture requirements of DIS. The requirements of DIS are presented and mapped into a format compatible with international standards for common carrier services. Quality of Services (QoS) parameter values for DIS information types are estimated and compared to those of B-ISDN, Conclusions reveal that B-ISDN and its underlying technology, ATM, will help meet the DIS WAN communication architecture needs. Also, QoS parameter values for DIS require further definition and specificity to enable DoD to take advantage of the future common carrier services. DoD needs to define its future application requirements that are compatible with common carrier services

DIS-XML: Moving DIS to Open Data Exchange Standards

McGregor, Don; Brutzman, Don; Armold, Adrian; Blais, Curtis L.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
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The Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) IEEE-1278.1 standard is used in many military simulations. The binary data format for DIS does not lend itself to use in emerging web services standards or data analysis and storage tools because the data format is not recognized by most general purpose data manipulation tools. We examine an alternate XML-based representation of DIS information. An XML representation unlocks legacy data by placing it in a standard data format, and thereby integrates with the many XML data transformation, storage, and analysis tools. An XML-based approach also allows easy generation of programming language Application Program Interfaces (APIs). The information contained in DIS PDUs can shift between any of several representations, including the binary IEEE- 1278.1 standard, XML, or programming language objects. The XML representation can be used in web services applications or passed over instant messaging channels. Initial tests demonstrate satisfactory performance.

An automated approach to Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) protocol entity development

Canterbury, Michael G.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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One problem associated with the Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) architecture is its limited ability to support real time, simulated engagements of more than 1000 entities. To solve this problem, it is necessary to refine the existing DIS protocol and optimize the form and content of DIS network traffic. Fundamental to this solution is the need to (1) adopt a structured grammar to be used in describing the protocol, (2) provide a means to author and edit refined DIS data elements, and (3) expedite the coding and implementation of related protocol improvements. In simple terms, the problem addressed by this thesis is to meet each of these requisite needs. The approach was to design and build a protocol development tool. This was accomplished in three phases. First, a modified Backus Naur Form (BNF) grammar was formulated for use in modeling DIS data elements. Next, this grammar was applied to the Protocol Data Units (PDU) and data types specified in the current DIS standard. Finally, a tool, the DIS Protocol Support Utility, was developed as a means to automate the process of authoring, editing, and implementing refinements to the DIS protocol. As a result of this effort, the data elements depicted in the current DIS standard have been specified using a BNF- Irke grammar. The Protocol Support Utility has been used to process this grammar and automatically generate the program source code associated with each data element...

Development of a web-based distributed interactive simulation (DIS) environment using javascript

Hsiao, Chen-Fu
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis investigated the current infrastructure for web-based simulations using the DIS network protocol. The main technologies studied were WebSockets, WebRTC and WebGL. This thesis sought readily available means to establish networks for interchanging DIS message (PDUs), so the WebSocket gateway server from Open-DIS project was used to construct a Client-Server structure and PeerJS API was used to construct a peer-to-peer structure. WebGL was used to create a scene and render 3D models in browsers. A first-person-shooter tank game was used as a test application with both WebSocket and WebRTC infrastructures. Experiments in this thesis included measuring the rate of sending and receiving DIS packets and analysis of the tank game by profiling tools. All the experiments were run on Chrome and Firefox browsers in a closed network. The experimental results showed that both WebSocket and WebRTC infrastructures were competent enough to support web-based DIS simulation. The results also found the significant differences of performance between Chrome and Firefox. Currently, the best performance is provided by the combination of Firefox using the WebRTC framework. The analysis of the tank game showed that most of the browser’s computational resources were spent on the WebGL graphics...

X3D Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Implementation and Run-Time Discovery of New Entities using X3DOM

McGregor, Don; Harder, Byron; Brutzman, Don
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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New capabilities in web browser JavaScript implementations including networking, improved graphics performance, and improved speed allow the implementation of Networked Virtual Environments (NVEs) inside the web browser. An NVE can be written in JavaScript, which enables deployment in the enterprise entirely from a web server without the use of browser plugins. We discuss one implementation of this idea using X3DOM, an opensource implementation of the X3D standard written in JavaScript. The Open-DIS library for the IEEE Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) network protocol is used to create a partial implementation of the X3D standard’s DIS profile. Mechanisms for using the X3D DIS Profile DISEntityTypeMapping and DISEntityManager to enable run-time discovery and launching of new entities are discussed. Measurements of the capabilities and performance aspects of Websockets for network transport demonstrate excellent results.

Uma nova (des) ordem nas cidades: o movimento dos sujeitos não desejados na ocupação dos espaços urbanos das capitais do cerrado - Goiânia, Brasília e Palmas; A new (dis) order in the cities: the movement of not welcomed subject occupation of urban spaces in the capital of the cerrado - Goiânia, Brasília and Palmas

Pelá, Márcia Cristina Hizim
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia (IESA); Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais - IESA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Geografia (IESA); Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais - IESA (RG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The main objective of this thesis is to analyze the spatialization process of not welcomed subjects in the planned capitals of Brazilian Cerrado. Goiânia, Brasília and Palmas. The proposition is that the dialectical relationship between the norm and the life, through work and social-cultural practices, promotes landslidings of meaning both in form and content of the urban spaces, thus, provoking a new (Dis)order in these cities. The term “not welcomed subjects” was coined by the author of this paper on her master’s degree dis sertation as a way of referring to the capital Goiânia builders, once that, despite these workers represented a bigger contingent on the city building process, there wasn’t even a reserved space for them on the original planning. This fact allowed the relationship assessment of what was once imputed to the workers, the time elapsed on the city building wasn’t counted as well as the right to live over the edifications they crafted. This phenomenon, that has also happened in the city building of Brasília and Palmas, goes on until today, revealing that the not welcomed subjects on cities planned spaces are not only the builders. Another huge contingent of workers is added to the “not welcomed” group forced out of their homes for numerous reasons like...

The beneficial endophyte Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b promotes growth and delays the onset of the drought response in Theobroma cacao

Bae, Hanhong; Sicher, Richard C.; Kim, Moon S.; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Strem, Mary D.; Melnick, Rachel L.; Bailey, Bryan A.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Theobroma cacao (cacao) is cultivated in tropical climates and is exposed to drought stress. The impact of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b on cacao's response to drought was studied. Colonization by DIS 219b delayed drought-induced changes in stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, and green fluorescence emissions. The altered expression of 19 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (seven in leaves and 17 in roots with some overlap) by drought was detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. Roots tended to respond earlier to drought than leaves, with the drought-induced changes in expression of seven ESTs being observed after 7 d of withholding water. Changes in gene expression in leaves were not observed until after 10 d of withholding water. DIS 219b colonization delayed the drought-altered expression of all seven ESTs responsive to drought in leaves by ≥3 d, but had less influence on the expression pattern of the drought-responsive ESTs in roots. DIS 219b colonization had minimal direct influence on the expression of drought-responsive ESTs in 32-d-old seedlings. By contrast, DIS 219b colonization of 9-d-old seedlings altered expression of drought-responsive ESTs, sometimes in patterns opposite of that observed in response to drought. Drought induced an increase in the concentration of many amino acids in cacao leaves...

Nuclear corrections in neutrino-nucleus DIS and their compatibility with global NPDF analyses

Kovarik, K.; Schienbein, I.; Olness, F.; Yu, J. Y.; Keppel, C.; Morfin, J. G.; Owens, J. F.; Stavreva, T.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We perform a global chi^2-analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions using data from charged current neutrino-nucleus deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), charged-lepton-nucleus DIS, and the Drell-Yan (DY) process. We show that the nuclear corrections in nu-A DIS are not compatible with the predictions derived from l^+A DIS and DY data. We quantify this result using a hypothesis-testing criterion based on the chi^2 distribution which we apply to the total chi^2 as well as to the chi^2 of the individual data sets. We find that it is not possible to accommodate the data from nu-A and l^+A DIS by an acceptable combined fit. Our result has strong implications for the extraction of both nuclear and proton parton distribution functions using combined neutrino and charged-lepton data sets.; Comment: 5 pages

Compatibility of global NPDF analyses of neutrino DIS and charged-lepton DIS data

Kovarik, K.; Schienbein, I.; Olness, F. I.; Yu, J. Y.; Keppel, C.; Morfin, J. G.; Owens, J. F.; Stavreva, T.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/11/2011 Português
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The neutrino deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data is very interesting for global analyses of proton and nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs) since they provide crucial information on the strange quark distribution in the proton and allow for a better flavor decompositon of the PDFs. In order to use neutrino DIS data in a global analysis of proton PDFs nuclear effects need to be understood. We study these effects with the help of nuclear PDFs extracted from global analyses of charged-lepton DIS, Drell-Yan and neutrino DIS data at next-to-leading order in QCD.; Comment: Contribution to the XXIst International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics, 21-27 July 2011, Grenoble, France