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Pheromone paths attached to the substrate in meliponine bees: helpful but not obligatory for recruitment success

SCHORKOPF, Dirk Louis P.; MORAWETZ, Linde; BENTO, Jose M. S.; ZUCCHI, Ronaldo; BARTH, Friedrich G.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
In contrast to marking of the location of resources or sexual partners using single-spot pheromone sources, pheromone paths attached to the substrate and assisting orientation are rarely found among flying organisms. However, they do exist in meliponine bees (Apidae, Apinae, Meliponini), commonly known as stingless bees, which represent a group of important pollinators in tropical forests. Worker bees of several Neotropical meliponine species, especially in the genus Scaptotrigona Moure 1942, deposit pheromone paths on substrates between highly profitable resources and their nest. In contrast to past results and claims, we find that these pheromone paths are not an indispensable condition for successful recruitment but rather a means to increase the success of recruiters in persuading their nestmates to forage food at a particular location. Our results are relevant to a speciation theory in scent path-laying meliponine bees, such as Scaptotrigona. In addition, the finding that pheromone path-laying bees are able to recruit to food locations even across barriers such as large bodies of water affects tropical pollination ecology and theories on the evolution of resource communication in insect societies with a flying worker caste.; Austrian Science Fund FWF[P17530]

O significado da ação de provocar o aborto na adolescência: uma abordagem da fenomenologia social sob a perspectiva de mulheres; The significance of the action of provoking abortion in adolescence: an approach of social phenomenology from the women perspective

Domingos, Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.11%
Por reconhecer que o aborto provocado é um importante problema de saúde pública e um evento marcante na vida de muitas mulheres, principalmente quando ocorre em uma fase de amadurecimento fisiológico, psíquico e social caracterizada pela adolescência, realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de compreender o significado da ação de provocar o aborto na adolescência sob a perspectiva de mulheres. Para tanto, optou-se pela pesquisa qualitativa, com a abordagem da fenomenologia social de Alfred Schütz. Os dados foram coletados no período de junho de 2010 a março de 2011, por meio de entrevistas abertas com as seguintes questões norteadoras: conte-me, como foi para você descobrir que estava grávida? Como você se sentiu? Como foi para você decidir pelo aborto e realizá-lo? Como você vivenciou esse momento? Quais são seus planos? Participaram da pesquisa sete mulheres que provocaram o aborto na adolescência, residentes em uma cidade do interior do leste mineiro. Três delas fizeram o aborto por imposição da mãe e as demais tiveram autonomia para tomar esta decisão, independentemente das pessoas e riscos envolvidos. O significado da ação de provocar o aborto, desde a descoberta da gravidez, incluindo sua decisão e realização foi desvelado por meio das categorias: o impacto da gravidez...

Identificação de alvos protéicos com potencial diagnóstico e prognóstico em doença arterial coronária; Identification of protein targets with potential diagnostic and prognostic in coronary artery disease

Silva, Gabriela Venturini da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.91%
Em todo o mundo, milhões de pacientes são atendidos em emergências por apresentarem dor torácica de início aguda, mas apenas uma parcela deve-se a síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA). Em situações como essa é de extrema importância distinguir quando a dor torácica é devido à isquemia do miocárdio, pois esta é de alto risco e o início do tratamento deve ser imediato. Novos biomarcadores são necessários para auxiliar no diagnóstico e conduta clínica a ser tomada diante de situações de emergência como esta. Recentemente a quantificação de troponinas através de ensaios ultrassensíveis tem sido amplamente utilizado para diagnósticos e prognóstico de isquemia cardíaca, porém esses ensaios não tiveram seus valores de referências estabelecidos e validados para diversas situações clínicas. O presente estudo identificou a troponina I cardíaca nitrada como um novo biomarcador para isquemia cardíaca. Através de experimentos de imunoluorecência, foi possível colocalizar a marcação de troponina I cardíaca e nitrotirosina em modelos celulares e murinos de isquemia cardíaca, sugerindo assim que a troponina I cardíaca é nitrada. A partir do soro de modelos porcinos de isquemia, foi realizado o enriquecimento de proteínas nitradas por imunoprecipitação seguido da identificação da troponina I cardíaca por western blot. Dessa maneira foi possível identificar a troponina I cardíaca nitrada no soro poucos minutos após o evento x isquêmico...

Modelagem da paisagem orientada ao processo decisório da gestão socioambiental na bacia hidrográfica do rio Manso (MT)

Amaral, Benedito Domingues do
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 249 f. : il., mapas, gráfs., tabs.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Geociências e Meio Ambiente - IGCE; o estudo buscou desenvolver uma modelagem da paisagem para a tomada de decisão na gestão socioambiental na bacia a montante do APM - Manso (MT). O banco de dados e as análises envolvidas na modelagem foram estruturados em SIG. As análises não espaciais foram delineadas com as ferramentas de qualidade, o processo hierárquico analítico (AHP) e o emprego das análises de correspondência (CA e DCA). A modelagem espacial foi realizada através da sobreposição, reclassificação, distância e custo/distância, das análises multi-critérios e similaridades. As demandas foram processadas pela AHP para os setores agropecuário, hidrelétrico e turístico e suscitou as matrizes de vetores de decisão. Os resultados das análises multi-critérios foram comparados entre si e em seguida com os usos do solo sugerido pelo Zoneamento Ecológico-Econômico (ZEE-MT). As similaridades entre os mapas de cenários se demonstram médias entre os setores hidrelétrico e turístico, bem como quando comparados às áreas da agropecuária. Já as similaridades entre os setores da agropecuária foram todos congruentes entre si...

Human and System Errors, Using Adaptive Turnaround Documents to Capture Data in a Busy Practice

Downs, Stephen M.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Anand, Vibha; Biondich, Paul G.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.05%
Capturing coded clinical data for clinical decision support can improve care, but cost and disruption of clinic workflow present barriers to implementation. Previous work has shown that tailored, scannable paper forms (adaptive turnaround documents, ATDs) can achieve the benefits of computer-based clinical decision support at low cost and minimal disruption of workflow. ATDs are highly accurate under controlled circumstances, but accuracy in the setting of busy clinics with untrained physician users is untested. We recently developed and implemented such a system and studied rates of errors attributable to physician users and errors in the system. Prompts were used in 63% of encounters. Errors resulting from incorrectly marking forms occurred in 1.8% of prompts. System errors occurred in 7.2% of prompts. Most system errors were failures to capture data and may represent human errors in the scanning process. ATDs are an effective way to collect coded data from physicians. Further automation of the scanning process may reduce system errors.

Assessment of Secondary School Students’ Game Performance Related to Tactical Contexts

Gutiérrez, David; Fisette, Jennifer; García-López, Luis Miguel; Contreras, Onofre
Fonte: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Katowicach Publicador: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Katowicach
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.23%
Certain limitations remain unaddressed when utilizing the Teaching Games for Understanding approach, suggesting the need for more research on authentic assessment of skill development and tactical awareness in order to guide the design of developmentally appropriate curriculum materials. This study investigated physical education students’ (n=19; age: 13.71 ± 0.4) game performance during an invasion game, specifically the relationship between their skill execution and decision-making ability. The purpose of the study was twofold: (a) to devise and implement a ‘game context’ approach to assess the game performance components and in doing so, (b) to provide information that could be used to design suitable learning progressions within tactical teaching approaches. Students’ game performance was videotaped, and measures of skill execution and decision-making were developed from observational analyses. Decision-making was measured at two levels: a) decision making restricted to the selection of technical-tactical skills (i.e., passing, moving with the ball, getting free, marking, tackling, double teaming and interception; and b) decision-making in the adaptation to the tactical contexts of the game. Participants played a 5 vs. 5 modified eight-minute team handball game. Participants scored significantly higher in penetrating-the-defense context adaptation than in keeping-the-ball context adaptation. Participants showed a higher efficiency in decision-making than in execution in most of the technical-tactical skills; including on-the-ball over off-the-ball decision-making...

Philippines : Invigorating Growth, Enhancing Its Impact

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
Major fiscal adjustment during 2005-06, aided by abundant global liquidity, has turned around market sentiment on the Philippines. Stocks, the peso and reserves have all risen significantly, as have foreign direct investment and portfolio inflows, while interest costs and spreads for government borrowing have fallen along with inflation. Real GDP grew by 5.4 percent in 2006 and real GNP by 6.2 percent, marking the first time that three consecutive years of growth of 5 or more percent was recorded since the 1970s. Strong growth in business process outsourcing, electronics exports and remittance-driven consumption served as important props for higher growth. This paper includes the following headings: recent economic developments; how robust is present growth; invigorating growth, enhancing its impact; and maximizing the benefits of growth for the poor.

Curriculum decision making in a research university: an interplay between ideologies and influences

Roberts, Pamela Judith
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
This empirical study addresses the need to better understand how academics design undergraduate curricula and the influences that shape their decisions. The study draws on literatures from the perspectives of curriculum and the teaching-research nexus to identify a framework for investigating curriculum decisions that comprises all potential influences in the higher education context, including research. Interviews were held with 20 academics from a range of disciplines who were working at a research university and were both research active and committed to teaching. These participants were selected to represent a group who experienced the dynamics between research and teaching in their curriculum practice. The process of higher education curriculum decision making was found to be an iterative web, with multiple starting points and pathways. The common starting points, in order of frequency, were course content, learning outcomes, and teaching and learning activities. The findings suggest that there is no one best pathway for curriculum design, because the iterative process means that decisions are progressively revisited and refined. Beginning from learning outcomes is helpful for providing a framework for thinking about other curriculum decisions; however a focus on teaching and learning experiences leads to more innovative curriculum approaches. There is widespread awareness that students need to be engaged...

Attribution Decision Marking Regarding Chemical and Biological Weapons Use: Exploring and Defining Cross-Domain Science-Legal-Policy-Response Frameworks

Center on Contemporary Conflict
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Performer: Federation of American Scientists (FAS) Principal Investigator: Christopher Bidwell. FY: 2014-2015; Policymakers need options for dealing with accusations and/or allegations of suspicious chemical and biological weapons activities. Assigning attribution (“who is responsible and culpable?”) has inherent uncertainty associated with it due to the nature of acquiring, generating, and weighing the limited pieces of information that are available, as well as the nature of the policy decision making process itself.

Evolución de la toma de decisiones y la habilidad técnica en fútbol

González-Víllora, S.; García-López, L. M.; Contreras-Jordán, O. R.
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Comunidad Virtual Ciencias del Deporte Publicador: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Comunidad Virtual Ciencias del Deporte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.16%
Este artículo presenta como se desarrolla la toma de decisiones y la habilidad técnica en jugadores con alto nivel de pericia desde los 6-7 a 13-14 años. El marco teórico está basado en la perspectiva de los sistemas dinámicos y la enseñanza comprensiva de los deportes. Se tomó como muestra a 57 jugadores del primer equipo de cada categoría de edad del Albacete Balompié: prebenjamín, benjamín, alevín e infantil. El instrumento usado fue la Herramienta de Evaluación del Rendimiento de Juego (HERJ), que mide la toma de decisiones y la ejecución, incluyendo el análisis ecológico atendiendo a principios tácticos (Bayer, 1992), comparando la situación en el juego con la decisión aplicada. Los resultados se basan en el análisis inferencial y correlacional. La evolución del rendimiento de juego se orienta desde el ataque hasta la defensa. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas en las variables entre las cuatro categorías de formación estudiadas, especialmente en el principio táctico de progresar hacia la portería contraria y en el desmarque, así como en el marcaje y la ayuda en defensa.; This paper presents how decision-making and skills are developed in high level of expertise players from 6-7 to 13-14 years. The framework is based on the dynamical systems and teaching games for understanding approaches. Participants were 57 first team players of each age (n = 13 to 16) of Albacete Balompié: U-8...

Development of an Item Unique Identification strategy for the legacy components of the US Marine Corps M1A1 Abrams Tank

Blakiston, Edward Y.; Jennings, Richard A.; Punzel, Carl J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 85 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.13%
MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has mandated that every component that meets certain cost and management criteria in the Department of Defense's (DoD) tangible inventory must have a valid Item Unique Identification (IUID) mark by December 2010. The IUID program is expected to increase force readiness, enhance the lifecycle management of assets, and provide more accurate asset valuation to achieve unqualified audit opinions on DoD financial statements. One of the challenges of the program is to achieve IUID-marking saturation throughout in-use, or legacy, inventories with minimal interruption of operational readiness. The purpose of this project is to propose an effective implementation strategy for the legacy items that meet the DoD's requirements for IUID marking in the US Marine Corps M1A1 Abrams tank community. This plan could potentially serve as a model for other communities facing the challenge of IUID implementation. This project examines different implementation alternatives and identifies and develops the determined best course of action. In addition, an estimation of the costs to implement the chosen plan will be provided for comparison and decision-making purposes.; Outstanding Thesis

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia : Student Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.13%
In 2001, FYR Macedonia embarked on a new education policy agenda. One of the goals of this agenda was to improve the country's student assessment system. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, FYR Macedonia decided to benchmark this system using standardized tools developed under The World Bank's Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) program. SABER is an evidence-based program to help countries systematically examine and strengthen the performance of different aspects of their education systems. SABER-student assessment is a component of the SABER program that focuses specifically on benchmarking student assessment policies and systems. The goal of SABER-student assessment is to promote stronger assessment systems that contribute to improved education quality and learning for all. The importance of assessment is linked to its role in: providing information on levels of student learning and achievement in the system; monitoring trends in education quality over time; supporting educators and students with real-time information to improve teaching and learning; and holding stakeholders accountable for results. The SABER-student assessment framework is built on the available evidence base for what an effective assessment system looks like. The framework provides guidance on how countries can build more effective student assessment systems. The framework is structured around two main dimensions of assessment systems: the types/purposes of assessment activities and the quality of those activities. Assessment systems tend to be comprised of three main types of assessment activities...

Uma análise dos indicadores de desempenho das instituições federais de ensino superior, na visão de diferentes usuários

Soares, Yara Magaly Albano
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.11%
Dissertação (mestrado)-Universidade de Brasília, Departamento de Ciências Contábeis, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Contábeis, 2007.; Os indicadores de desempenho proferidos pelo Tribunal de Contas da União através de sua Decisão nº 408/2002 foi o foco desta pesquisa, que teve como objetivo geral verificar a utilidade desses indicadores, na visão dos seguintes usuários: Instituições Federais de ensino superior, Tribunal de Contas da União, Controladoria Geral da União e Ministério de Educação e Cultura através da sua Secretária de Ensino Superior. Para isso, foi utilizada a metodologia de análise de multicasos, observando analiticamente os conteúdos dos relatórios divulgados por esses usuários. As hipóteses de trabalho foram construídas sobre a seguinte sentença 1 - Os usuários utilizam esses indicadores para tomada de decisão em suas gestões; 2 - os usuários não utilizam esses indicadores para tomada de decisão em suas gestões. Discorreu-se sobre o referencial conceitual pertinente ao tema, e sobre uma analise na visão do pesquisador dos resultados apresentados por esses indicadores por cinco universidades no período de 2003 a 2005. A amostra selecionada foi composta pelas Universidades Federais da Bahia...

Fortalecimiento psicosocial en toma de decisiones en los niños, niñas y adolescentes del barrio el Bosque parte baja y la Institución Educativa Técnica Joaquín París con el lema TU VIDA ES TU ENTORNO “por un NO en la toma de decisiones”

Reyes Corral, Daveiva
Fonte: ecsah; UNAD Publicador: ecsah; UNAD
Tipo: Practica_Profesional_dirigida Formato: pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.05%
Formato SNIES, Formatos de Asistencia, Registro Fotográfico, Hoja de Vida; TU VIDA ES TU ENTORNO “por un NO en la toma de decisiones” es el lema con el cual se llega al barrio el Bosque parte baja de la comuna 11 y a la Institución Educativa Técnica Joaquín París de la comuna 4 en la ciudad de Ibagué, con el propósito de fortalecer psicosocialmente en la toma de decisiones a los niños, niñas y adolescentes. Se realizaron actividades teórico prácticas marcando temáticas como: autoestima, solución pacífica de conflictos, comunicación asertiva, proyecto de vida, prevención de abuso sexual y drogas, encaminada a decir “NO” a esas personas, situaciones y contextos que perjudiquen la integridad personal, contribuyendo a un “SI” a esas aspiraciones deseadas para mejorar o fortalecerse como personas.; YOUR LIFE IS YOUR ENVIRONMENT "by a NO at decision making" is the motto with which it reaches the bottom Forest neighborhood in the district 11 and the Technical Educational Institution Joaquin Paris Commune 4 in the city of Ibague, in order to strengthen psychosocially in decision-making to children and adolescents. Provided theoretical and practical issues such as marking self-esteem, peaceful conflict resolution...

Seminole Rock's Domain

Stephenson, Matthew Caleb; Pogoriler, Miri
Fonte: George Washington Law Review Publicador: George Washington Law Review
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.11%
In carrying out their duties, federal administrative agencies must often interpret statutes and regulations that are not entirely clear. Sometimes an agency’s interpretation of an ambiguous legal text may not seem like the best or most natural interpretation of that text. Nonetheless, a staple of modern federal administrative law doctrine is the principle of judicial deference to administrative interpretations of both congressional statutes and agency regulations. The seminal case on judicial deference to reasonable agency statutory interpretations is, of course, Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. In the context of administrative interpretations of the agency’s own regulations, the leading authority is the Supreme Court’s 1945 decision in Bowles v. Seminole Rock & Sand Co., which held that an agency’s construction of its own regulation should be given “controlling weight unless it is plainly erroneous or inconsistent with the regulation.” More recent Supreme Court cases—including Thomas Jefferson University v. Shalala and Auer v. Robbins—have reaffirmed the Seminole Rock principle of judicial deference to an agency’s reasonable construction of its own regulations. Although Chevron deference and Seminole Rock deference are closely related...

Modified essay question (MEQ) paper: perestroika.

Lockie, C.; McAleer, S.; Mulholland, H.; Neighbour, R.; Tombleson, P.
Fonte: Royal College of General Practitioners Publicador: Royal College of General Practitioners
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.24%
Traditionally the modified essay question (MEQ) paper has attempted to test problem solving and decision making based on an on-going family saga using seven or eight questions to be answered in 90 minutes. Candidates' scripts are double marked by two College examiners. This format imposes constraints on the range of questions asked and results in contrived scenarios. It is possible to be 'coached' for this and double marking is expensive in examiner time. Recent studies show that validity and reliability are improved by increasing the number and range of questions in a 'surgery type' paper. Single marking has been instituted and the MEQ paper will in future consist of 10 or more questions to be answered in 2 hours. Examiners' marking performance is monitored by senior examiners. Technical and statistical considerations are discussed, as are implications for candidates and course organizers.

Assessment of written performance: tracing raters' decision making process

Bukta, Katalin
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
Written performance assessment is mostly carried out using direct tasks the marking of which involves trained raters. Thus, the final judgement is a result of interplay between the task, the measurement instrument, and the rater. The present study gives an insight into the way raters arrive at a decision. Five Hungarian teachers of German and English took part in rating compositions in a nationwide survey in Hungary. They were asked to produce think-aloud protocols during the rating process, which were later transcribed and analysed. The presented data show the procedure that raters followed in marking the scripts.; La valoraci??n de la expresi??n escrita se realiza mayormente con ejercicios directos cuya evaluaci??n necesita evaluadores entrenados. De esta manera, la decisi??n final refleja la relaci??n entre el ejercicio, el instrumento de medida y el evaluador. El presente estudio permite analizar y conocer el pensamiento de varios evaluadores donde se observa el tipo de decisiones que toman. Cinco profesores hungaros de alem??n e ingl??s evaluaron composiciones en un estudio nacional. Durante la evaluaci??n grabamos lo que ellos pensaban en voz alta, despu??s los datos fueron analizados. Todo el proceso de la evaluaci??n se puede seguir por los datos presentados.

Fingerprinting with Minimum Distance Decoding

Lin, Shih-Chun; Shahmohammadi, Mohammad; Gamal, Hesham El
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/10/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.13%
This work adopts an information theoretic framework for the design of collusion-resistant coding/decoding schemes for digital fingerprinting. More specifically, the minimum distance decision rule is used to identify 1 out of t pirates. Achievable rates, under this detection rule, are characterized in two distinct scenarios. First, we consider the averaging attack where a random coding argument is used to show that the rate 1/2 is achievable with t=2 pirates. Our study is then extended to the general case of arbitrary $t$ highlighting the underlying complexity-performance tradeoff. Overall, these results establish the significant performance gains offered by minimum distance decoding as compared to other approaches based on orthogonal codes and correlation detectors. In the second scenario, we characterize the achievable rates, with minimum distance decoding, under any collusion attack that satisfies the marking assumption. For t=2 pirates, we show that the rate $1-H(0.25)\approx 0.188$ is achievable using an ensemble of random linear codes. For $t\geq 3$, the existence of a non-resolvable collusion attack, with minimum distance decoding, for any non-zero rate is established. Inspired by our theoretical analysis, we then construct coding/decoding schemes for fingerprinting based on the celebrated Belief-Propagation framework. Using an explicit repeat-accumulate code...

Proposição de um Protocolo para Estudo sobre a Intuição e o Processo de Tomada de Decisão.; Proposal of a Protocol for the Study of Intuition and the Decision-Marking Process.; Proposición de un Protocolo para Estudio sobre la Intuición y el Proceso de Tomada de Decisión.

Andriotti, Fernando Kuhn; Freitas, Henrique Mello Rodrigues de; Martens, Cristina Dai Prá
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
El actual contexto donde ejecutivos y gestores están inseridos es dinámico y exigente en la demanda de resultados. Decisiones rápidas y precisas son necesarias, apoyadas por modelos de tomada de decisión y por aspectos más subjetivos, como lo es el ejemplo de la intuición. Aunque la intuición sea un tópico ya largamente estudiado, hay escasez de investigaciones sobre su papel en la tomada de decisión, especialmente en la realidad brasileña. Este artículo tiene el objetivo de hacer una reflexión a respecto de la intuición en el contexto de tomada de decisión y presentar una propuesta de modelo de investigación para la realidad brasileña, procurando comprender cómo la intuición y la decisión interactúan. Por medio de un abordaje teórico, esa proposición toma como base otras investigaciones que se realizaron en el área de gestión, buscando las principales contribuciones, para entonces elaborar un escenario que sea más amplio en su alcance de observación, sumándose de forma complementar a lo que ya fue desarrollado. La conclusión es que un estudio sobre intuición no puede colocarla en oposición al proceso racional de tomada de decisión, mas sí como algo complementar. Por esa razón, los instrumentos presentados en la literatura dejan lagunas...

Essays on corporate finance under information asymmetry.

Liu, Xuewen
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Essay 1: Stage Financing and Syndication in Venture Capital Investment: The combined use of stage financing and syndication is one of the most remarkable characteristics of venture capital financing. In particular, the majority of later-stage venture capital investments rather than early-stage are syndicated. The paper presents a theoretical rationale for this financial arrangement. The model shows that tight control (i.e. efficient refinancing or continuation/liquidation decision) of the venture capitalist by stage financing can achieve ex-post efficiency but may disincentivize the entrepreneur's effort provision ex-ante. Hence, the project value is not maximized. I show that the combined use of later-stage syndication with stage financing is a mechanism that can realize the optimal tradeoff between high effort ex ante and efficient continuation ex post thus maximizing project value. The model offers testable empirical predictions. Essay 2: The Capital Structure of Private Equity-backed Firms: In this paper I study one fundamental tension between venture capitalist and management in private equity-backed firms and show capital structure (of private equity-back firms) is a mechanism to resolve the tension. The paper gives rationale for several financial arrangements in private equity investment. (1) Private equity deals are typically partially outside financed even though the private equity fund may not be financially constrained at the deal level. (2) The optimal security for outside financing is debt. (3) The maturity of outside security is long-term. The insight of the paper has applications outside of private equity. Essay 3: Market Transparency and the Accounting Regime: We model the interaction of financial market transparency and different accounting regimes. This paper provides a theoretical rationale for the recently proposed shift in accounting standards from historic cost accounting to marking to market. The paper shows that marking to market can provide investors with an early warning mechanism while historical cost gives management a "veil" under which they can potentially mask a firm's true economic performance. The model provides new explanations for several empirical findings and has some novel implications. We show that greater opacity in financial markets leads to more frequent and more severe crashes in asset prices (under a historic-cost-accounting regime). Moreover...