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- SPRINGER
- Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
- Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
- MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
- La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
- Universidade Cornell
- California Institute of Technology
- Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
- UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
- Mais Publicadores...

## Performance evaluation of routing protocols for MANETs with known connectivity patterns using evolving graphs

Fonte: SPRINGER
Publicador: SPRINGER

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

36.46%

#Ad hoc wireless networks#Sensor networks#Evolving graphs#Routing protocols#Delay tolerant networks#Performance analysis#AD HOC#WIRELESS NETWORKS#SENSOR NETWORKS#Computer Science, Information Systems#Engineering, Electrical & Electronic

The assessment of routing protocols for mobile wireless networks is a difficult task, because of the networks` dynamic behavior and the absence of benchmarks. However, some of these networks, such as intermittent wireless sensors networks, periodic or cyclic networks, and some delay tolerant networks (DTNs), have more predictable dynamics, as the temporal variations in the network topology can be considered as deterministic, which may make them easier to study. Recently, a graph theoretic model-the evolving graphs-was proposed to help capture the dynamic behavior of such networks, in view of the construction of least cost routing and other algorithms. The algorithms and insights obtained through this model are theoretically very efficient and intriguing. However, there is no study about the use of such theoretical results into practical situations. Therefore, the objective of our work is to analyze the applicability of the evolving graph theory in the construction of efficient routing protocols in realistic scenarios. In this paper, we use the NS2 network simulator to first implement an evolving graph based routing protocol, and then to use it as a benchmark when comparing the four major ad hoc routing protocols (AODV, DSR, OLSR and DSDV). Interestingly...

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## Uso de grafos evolutivos no roteamento em redes dinâmicas: algoritmos, fluxos e limites; Using evolving graphs in routing of dynamic networks: algorithms, flows and bounds

Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP

Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Formato: application/pdf

Publicado em 13/07/2007
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

36.44%

#Ad hoc wireless networks#análise de performance#delay tolerant networks#evolving graphs#grafos evolutivos#performance analysis#protocolos de roteamento#redes de sensores#redes móveis#routing protocols#sensor networks

O comportamento dinâmico das redes sem fio as torna muito peculiares e de difícil análise. No entanto, algumas destas redes, como as de sensores com funcionamento intermitente, redes periódicas ou cíclicas e as do sistema de satélites de órbita baixa têm um comportamento dinâmico relativamente previsível, pois as variações da topologia da rede no tempo são quase que determinísticas. Recentemente, um modelo teórico -- grafos evolutivos -- foi proposto com o intuito de capturar o comportamento dinâmico destas redes e formalizar algoritmos de roteamento de custo mínimo, além de outros. Os algoritmos e idéias obtidos com este modelo são teoricamente muito eficientes, mas, no entanto, antes deste trabalho não existiam estudos do uso destes modelos em situações práticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a aplicabilidade da teoria de grafos evolutivos na construção de protocolos de roteamento eficientes em cenários realistas. Foram implementados dois protocolos de roteamento para redes móveis ad hoc baseados nos algoritmos de grafos evolutivos, são eles: Jornada que Chega Mais Cedo e Jornada Mais Curta. Extensivas simulações foram realizadas utilizando o simulador de redes NS2 e os resultados foram comparados com outros quatro protocolos clássicos para este tipo de rede: AODV...

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## Using Reputation Systems and Non-Deterministic Routing to Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 25/05/2009
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

46.37%

Security in wireless sensor networks is difficult to achieve because of the resource limitations of the sensor nodes. We propose a trust-based decision framework for wireless sensor networks coupled with a non-deterministic routing protocol. Both provide a mechanism to effectively detect and confine common attacks, and, unlike previous approaches, allow bad reputation feedback to the network. This approach has been extensively simulated, obtaining good results, even for unrealistically complex attack scenarios.

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## Relaxing Routing Table to Alleviate Dynamism in P2P Systems

Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: 85408 bytes; application/pdf

Português

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In dynamic P2P networks, nodes join and depart from the system frequently, which partially damages the predefined P2P structure, and impairs the system performance such as basic lookup functionality. Therefore stabilization process has to be done to restore the logical topology. This paper presents an approach to relax the requirement on routing tables to provide provably better stability than fixed structured P2P systems. We propose a relaxed Chord that keeps the O(logN) number of hops for greedy lookup, but it requires less stabilization overhead. It allows a tradeoff between lookup efficiency and structure flexibility without adding any overhead to the system. In the relaxed routing structure, each routing entry ("finger") of the node is allowed to vary within a set of values. Each node only needs to keep a certain number of fingers that point to nodes in its anchor set. This relaxation reduces the burden of state management of the node. The relaxed routing scheme provides an alternative structure other than randomized P2P and deterministic P2P, by relaxing on finger selection. It provides good flexibility and therefore extends the system functioning time.; Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA)

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## Selection, Sorting, and Routing on Mesh-Connected Processor Arrays

Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.

Tipo: Technical Report; Thesis

Português

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#algorithms#lower bounds#off-line routing#multi-packet selection#optimal selection#selection#sorting#routing#median#grids#randomized

Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Computer Science, 1992. Simultaneously published in the Technical Report series.; The mesh-connected processor array has been the object of a great deal of attention in recent years, and several parallel computers have configurations based on the mesh topology. This thesis addresses the fundamental problems of selection, sorting, and routing on mesh-like networks. Sorting and selection are prototype problems, due both to their practical applications and to their role in inter-processor communication. The routing problem isolates the issue of communication between processors in an interconnection network. We show efficient randomized algorithms for selection on mesh-like networks. In particular, we show that there is a 1.22n step randomized algorithm that selects the element of rank k at the middle processor of the nxn mesh, and uses constant size queues, with high probability. In the deterministic setting, we devise a 1.44n step algorithm for selection at the middle processor. For the case when there are N elements distributed at the nodes of an nxn mesh (N > n^2), we show a deterministic algorithm that works in O(min{n^2 log (N/n^2), max{N/n^{4/3}, n}}) steps. We show optimal algorithms for selection in a variety of restricted settings: at specific locations in the mesh; when the inputs are chosen from a small domain; and for elements with specific ranks. We are able to show that adding the toroidal and/or diagonal connections to the mesh yields better algorithms for selection. We exhibit improved randomized and deterministic algorithms for selection in higher-dimensional meshes. The bounds for sorting and selection on the mesh seem to be very model-dependent. We define a general model of computation that has the queue size and the ability to replicate packets as parameters. We prove lower bounds for sorting and selection in some incarnations of this model. The architectures we consider are meshes and tori...

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## Control strategies for the vehicle routing problem applied to medical emergencies

Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma

Tipo: Tese de Doutorado

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

36.3%

#multi-vehicle routing#medical emergencies#Settori Disciplinari MIUR:Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione

This thesis deals with dynamic Multi-Vehicle
Routing Problem (MVRP) in both deterministic and stochastic scenarios. The objective of the MVRP is to find the best paths
for a fleet of vehicles, with the aim of visiting a set of targets.
Based on the Cooperative Receding Horizon (CRH) approach
proposed by Cassandras et al.(CRH) for the Euclidean case, this thesis: i) presents another algorithm that is more efficient with clustered targets (tCRH); ii) illustrates an algorithm that exploits CRH and tCRH strengths (aCRH); iii) extends CRH, tCRH and aCRH to realistic urban map case.

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## Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis

Fonte: MDPI
Publicador: MDPI

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 02/09/2015
Português

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Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition...

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## Online Permutation Routing in Partitioned Optical Passive Star Networks

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 25/02/2005
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

26.51%

This paper establishes the state of the art in both deterministic and
randomized online permutation routing in the POPS network. Indeed, we show that
any permutation can be routed online on a POPS network either with
$O(\frac{d}{g}\log g)$ deterministic slots, or, with high probability, with
$5c\lceil d/g\rceil+o(d/g)+O(\log\log g)$ randomized slots, where constant
$c=\exp (1+e^{-1})\approx 3.927$. When $d=\Theta(g)$, that we claim to be the
"interesting" case, the randomized algorithm is exponentially faster than any
other algorithm in the literature, both deterministic and randomized ones. This
is true in practice as well. Indeed, experiments show that it outperforms its
rivals even starting from as small a network as a POPS(2,2), and the gap grows
exponentially with the size of the network. We can also show that, under proper
hypothesis, no deterministic algorithm can asymptotically match its
performance.

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## RTXP : A Localized Real-Time Mac-Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

26.56%

Protocols developed during the last years for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
are mainly focused on energy efficiency and autonomous mechanisms (e.g.
self-organization, self-configuration, etc). Nevertheless, with new WSN
applications, appear new QoS requirements such as time constraints. Real-time
applications require the packets to be delivered before a known time bound
which depends on the application requirements. We particularly focus on
applications which consist in alarms sent to the sink node. We propose
Real-Time X-layer Protocol (RTXP), a real-time communication protocol. To the
best of our knowledge, RTXP is the first MAC and routing real-time
communication protocol that is not centralized, but instead relies only on
local information. The solution is cross-layer (X-layer) because it allows to
control the delays due to MAC and Routing layers interactions. RTXP uses a
suited hop-count-based Virtual Coordinate System which allows deterministic
medium access and forwarder selection. In this paper we describe the protocol
mechanisms. We give theoretical bound on the end-to-end delay and the capacity
of the protocol. Intensive simulation results confirm the theoretical
predictions and allow to compare with a real-time centralized solution. RTXP is
also simulated under harsh radio channel...

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## An Energy-Based Comparison of Long-Hop and Short-Hop Routing in MIMO Networks

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

26.49%

This paper considers the problem of selecting either routes that consist of
long hops or routes that consist of short hops in a network of multiple-antenna
nodes, where each transmitting node employs spatial multiplexing. This
distance-dependent route selection problem is approached from the viewpoint of
energy efficiency, where a route is selected with the objective of minimizing
the transmission energy consumed while satisfying a target outage criterion at
the final destination. Deterministic line networks and two-dimensional random
networks are considered. It is shown that when 1) the number of hops traversed
between the source and destination grows large or 2) when the target success
probability approaches one or 3) when the number of transmit and/or receive
antennas grows large, short-hop routing requires less energy than long-hop
routing. It is also shown that if both routing strategies are subject to the
same delay constraint, long-hop routing requires less energy than short-hop
routing as the target success probability approaches one. In addition,
numerical analysis indicates that given loose outage constraints, only a small
number of transmit antennas are needed for short-hop routing to have its
maximum advantage over long-hop routing...

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## Upper and Lower Bounds for Competitive Online Routing on Delaunay Triangulations

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 08/01/2015
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

26.71%

#Computer Science - Computational Geometry#Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics#Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms

Consider a weighted graph G where vertices are points in the plane and edges
are line segments. The weight of each edge is the Euclidean distance between
its two endpoints. A routing algorithm on G has a competitive ratio of c if the
length of the path produced by the algorithm from any vertex s to any vertex t
is at most c times the length of the shortest path from s to t in G. If the
length of the path is at most c times the Euclidean distance from s to t, we
say that the routing algorithm on G has a routing ratio of c.We present an
online routing algorithm on the Delaunay triangulation with competitive and
routing ratios of 5.90. This improves upon the best known algorithm that has
competitive and routing ratio 15.48. The algorithm is a generalization of the
deterministic 1-local routing algorithm by Chew on the L1-Delaunay
triangulation. When a message follows the routing path produced by our
algorithm, its header need only contain the coordinates of s and t. This is an
improvement over the currently known competitive routing algorithms on the
Delaunay triangulation, for which the header of a message must additionally
contain partial sums of distances along the routing path.We also show that the
routing ratio of any deterministic k-local algorithm is at least 1.70 for the
Delaunay triangulation and 2.70 for the L1-Delaunay triangulation. In the case
of the L1-Delaunay triangulation...

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## Optimal Deterministic Routing and Sorting on the Congested Clique

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

36.46%

Consider a clique of n nodes, where in each synchronous round each pair of
nodes can exchange O(log n) bits. We provide deterministic constant-time
solutions for two problems in this model. The first is a routing problem where
each node is source and destination of n messages of size O(log n). The second
is a sorting problem where each node i is given n keys of size O(log n) and
needs to receive the ith batch of n keys according to the global order of the
keys. The latter result also implies deterministic constant-round solutions for
related problems such as selection or determining modes.; Comment: 16 pages, no figures; published at PODC 2013

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## Exploring the Limits of Static Failover Routing

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

36.44%

We present and study the Static-Routing-Resiliency problem, motivated by
routing on the Internet: Given a graph $G$, a unique destination vertex $d$,
and an integer constant $c>0$, does there exist a static and destination-based
routing scheme such that the correct delivery of packets from any source $s$ to
the destination $d$ is guaranteed so long as (1) no more than $c$ edges fail
and (2) there exists a physical path from $s$ to $d$? We embark upon a
systematic exploration of this fundamental question in a variety of models
(deterministic routing, randomized routing, with packet-duplication, with
packet-header-rewriting) and present both positive and negative results that
relate the edge-connectivity of a graph, i.e., the minimum number of edges
whose deletion partitions $G$, to its resiliency.; Comment: 28 pages

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## Source Routing and Scheduling in Packet Networks

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 28/03/2002
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

26.58%

#Computer Science - Networking and Internet Architecture#Computer Science - Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing#C.2.1#C.2.6#F.2.2

We study {\em routing} and {\em scheduling} in packet-switched networks. We
assume an adversary that controls the injection time, source, and destination
for each packet injected. A set of paths for these packets is {\em admissible}
if no link in the network is overloaded. We present the first on-line routing
algorithm that finds a set of admissible paths whenever this is feasible. Our
algorithm calculates a path for each packet as soon as it is injected at its
source using a simple shortest path computation. The length of a link reflects
its current congestion. We also show how our algorithm can be implemented under
today's Internet routing paradigms.
When the paths are known (either given by the adversary or computed as above)
our goal is to schedule the packets along the given paths so that the packets
experience small end-to-end delays. The best previous delay bounds for
deterministic and distributed scheduling protocols were exponential in the path
length. In this paper we present the first deterministic and distributed
scheduling protocol that guarantees a polynomial end-to-end delay for every
packet.
Finally, we discuss the effects of combining routing with scheduling. We
first show that some unstable scheduling protocols remain unstable no matter
how the paths are chosen. However...

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## A Little Prediction Goes a Long Way: Routing in Semi-Deterministic Delay Tolerant Networks

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

26.61%

Realizing delay-capacity in intermittently connected mobile networks remains
a largely open question, with state-of-the-art routing schemes typically
focusing either on delay or on capacity. We show the feasibility of routing
with both high goodput and desired delay constraints, with REAPER (for
Reliable, Efficient, and Predictive Routing), a fully distributed convergecast
routing framework that jointly optimizes both path length and path delay. A key
idea for efficient instantiation of REAPER is to exploit predictability of
mobility patterns, in terms of a semi-deterministic model which appropriately
captures several vehicular and human inter-contact patterns. Packets are thus
routed using paths that are jointly optimal at their time of arrival, in
contrast to extant DTN protocols which use time-average metrics for routing.
REAPER is also self-stabilizing to changes in the mobility pattern. A
simulation-based evaluation confirms that, across the spectrum of ultra-light
to heavy traffics, REAPER achieves up to 135% and 200% higher throughput and up
to 250% and 1666% higher energy efficiency than state-of-the-art single-copy
protocols MEED-DVR and PROPHET, which optimize a single metric only,
specifically, expected delay and path probability respectively.; Comment: This paper has been withdrawn by the authors. Withdrawn since
document intended to be anonymous

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## The Routing of Complex Contagion in Kleinberg's Small-World Networks

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 02/03/2015
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

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#Computer Science - Social and Information Networks#Computer Science - Computational Complexity#Physics - Physics and Society#J.4#G.2.2

In Kleinberg's small-world network model, strong ties are modeled as
deterministic edges in the underlying base grid and weak ties are modeled as
random edges connecting remote nodes. The probability of connecting a node $u$
with node $v$ through a weak tie is proportional to $1/|uv|^\alpha$, where
$|uv|$ is the grid distance between $u$ and $v$ and $\alpha\ge 0$ is the
parameter of the model. Complex contagion refers to the propagation mechanism
in a network where each node is activated only after $k \ge 2$ neighbors of the
node are activated.
In this paper, we propose the concept of routing of complex contagion (or
complex routing), where we can activate one node at one time step with the goal
of activating the targeted node in the end. We consider decentralized routing
scheme where only the weak ties from the activated nodes are revealed. We study
the routing time of complex contagion and compare the result with simple
routing and complex diffusion (the diffusion of complex contagion, where all
nodes that could be activated are activated immediately in the same step with
the goal of activating all nodes in the end).
We show that for decentralized complex routing, the routing time is lower
bounded by a polynomial in $n$ (the number of nodes in the network) for all
range of $\alpha$ both in expectation and with high probability (in particular...

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## Better Online Deterministic Packet Routing on Grids

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 25/01/2015
Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

26.56%

We consider the following fundamental routing problem. An adversary inputs
packets arbitrarily at sources, each packet with an arbitrary destination.
Traffic is constrained by link capacities and buffer sizes, and packets may be
dropped at any time. The goal of the routing algorithm is to maximize
throughput, i.e., route as many packets as possible to their destination. Our
main result is an $O\left(\log n\right)$-competitive deterministic algorithm
for an $n$-node line network (i.e., $1$-dimensional grid), requiring only that
buffers can store at least $5$ packets, and that links can deliver at least $5$
packets per step. We note that $O(\log n)$ is the best ratio known, even for
randomized algorithms, even when allowed large buffers and wide links. The best
previous deterministic algorithm for this problem with constant-size buffers
and constant-capacity links was $O(\log^5 n)$-competitive. Our algorithm works
like admission-control algorithms in the sense that if a packet is not dropped
immediately upon arrival, then it is "accepted" and guaranteed to be delivered.
We also show how to extend our algorithm to a polylog-competitive algorithm for
any constant-dimension grid.

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## A Framework for Adaptive Routing in Multicomputer Networks

Fonte: California Institute of Technology
Publicador: California Institute of Technology

Tipo: Report or Paper; PeerReviewed
Formato: application/postscript; other

Publicado em 01/01/1989
Português

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26.51%

Message-passing concurrent computers, also known as multicomputers, such as the Caltech Cosmic Cube [47] and its commercial descendents, consist of many computing nodes that interact with each other by sending and receiving messages over communication channels between the nodes. The communication networks of the second-generation machines, such as the Symult Series 2010 and the Intel iPSC2 [2], employ an oblivious wormhole-routing technique that guarantees deadlock freedom. The network performance of this highly evolved oblivious technique has reached a limit of being capable of delivering, under random traffic, a stable maximum sustained throughput of ~~45 to 50% of the limit set by the network bisection bandwidth, while maintaining acceptable network latency. This thesis examines the possibility of performing adaptive routing as an approach to further improving upon the performance and reliability of these networks. In an adaptive multipath routing scheme, message trajectories are no longer deterministic, but are continuously perturbed by local message loading. Message packets will tend to follow their shortest-distance routes to destinations in normal traffic loading, but can be detoured to longer but less-loaded routes as local congestion occurs. A simple adaptive cut-through packet-switching framework is described...

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## Development of deterministic collision-avoidance algorithms for routing automated guided vehicles

Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia

Tipo: Tese de Doutorado

Português

Relevância na Pesquisa

46.46%

#Automated guided vehicles#Collision avoidance#Deterministic routing#TS191 .P34 2008#Automated guided vehicle systems--Collision avoidance systems#Transportation engineering--Data processing#Traffic safety--Data processing#Computer algorithms#Electronic traffic control--Data processing

A manufacturing job spends a small portion of its total flow time being processed on machines, and during the remaining time, either it is in a queue or being transported from one work center to another. In a fully automated material-handling environment, automated guided vehicles (AGV) perform the function of transporting the jobs between workstations, and high operational costs are involved in these material-handling activities. Consequently, the AGV route schedule dictates subsequent work-center scheduling.
For an AGV job transportation schedule to be effective, the issue of collisions amongst AGV during travel needs to be addressed. Such collisions cause stalemate situations that potentially disrupt the flow of materials in the job shop, adding to the non-value time of job processing, and thus, increase the material handling and inventory holding costs. The current research goal was to develop a methodology that could effectively and efficiently derive optimal AGV routes for a given set of transportation requests, considering the issue of collisions amongst AGV during travel.
As part of the solution approach in the proposed work, an integer linear program was formulated in Phase I with the capability of optimally predicting the AGV routes for a deterministic set of transportation requests. Collision avoidance constraints were developed in this model. The model was programmed using OPL / Visual Basic...

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## A Kind of New Multicast Routing Algorithm for Application of Internet of Things

Fonte: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico
Publicador: UNAM, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Formato: text/html

Publicado em 01/08/2013
Português

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36.3%

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is widely used as an effective medium to integrate physical world and information world of Internet of Things (IOT). While keeping energy consumption at a minimal level, WSN requires reliable communication. Multicasting is a general operation performed by the Base Station, where data is to be transmitted to a set of destination nodes. Generally, the packets are routed in a multi-hop approach, where some intermediate nodes are also used for packet forwarding. This problem can be reduced to the well-known Steiner tree problem, which has proven to be NP-complete for deterministic link descriptors and cost functions. In this paper, we propose a novel multicast protocol, named heuristic algorithms for the solution of the Quality of Service (QoS) constrained multicast routing problem, with incomplete information in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). As information aggregation or randomly fluctuating traffic loads, link measures are considered to be random variables. Simulation results show that the Hop Neural Networks (HNN) based heuristics with a properly chosen additive measures can yield to a good solution for this traditionally NP complex problem, when compared to the best multicast algorithms known.

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