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Formação continuada de professores para o atendimento educacional especializado: desafios e perspectivas; Continued training of specialized educational teachers: challenges and prospects

Queiroz Junior, Edison de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/09/2010 Português
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Os sistemas de ensino brasileiros, a partir das diretrizes nacionais para a educação inclusiva, viram-se frente à tarefa de se organizarem de modo a não apenas receber, mas atender, em suas necessidades, a todos os alunos matriculados em suas escolas. Entre outras ações, as diretrizes nacionais para a educação especial na educação básica, estabelecidas pelo Ministério da Educação, prevêem o atendimento educacional especializado, oferecido preferencialmente na rede regular de ensino. Para a realização desse atendimento, a Resolução CNE/CEB nº 2/2001, propõe a atuação de professores especializados em educação especial. O presente estudo objetivou identificar as necessidades formativas apontadas por professores especializados em deficiência intelectual, atuando na rede municipal de ensino de São Bernardo do Campo, em São Paulo, bem como analisar as propostas de formação continuada desenvolvidas pela Secretaria Municipal de Educação de São Bernardo do Campo, entre os anos de 2005 e 2009, destinadas à formação desses professores. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa optamos por desenvolver uma investigação de campo, com abordagem qualitativa, utilizando como procedimentos para coleta de dados entrevistas semidirigidas com dez professores que atuam no atendimento educacional especializado para alunos com deficiência intelectual no município...

A efetividade jurídica das normas de inclusão das pessoas com fissura labiopalatina no mercado de trabalho; The juridical effectiveness of regulations for the inclusion of persons with cleft lip and palate in the job market

Campos, Claudia Berbert
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.211562%
Objetivos: Investigar o percentual de pessoas com fissura labiopalatina inseridas ou não no mercado de trabalho e identificar as dificuldades vivenciadas nesse processo. Método: Estudo descritivo em 519 indivíduos com idade entre 18 e 35 anos com fissura de lábio e/ou palato, das diferentes regiões do Brasil, em tratamento no Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais da Universidade de São Paulo (HRAC/USP). O método baseou-se em abordagem quanti-qualitativa, utilizando como instrumento para a coleta de dados um formulário de entrevista com 30 questões divididas em domínios. O cálculo formal da amostra foi feito a partir de um universo de 9.109 indivíduos que se enquadravam nos critérios definidos para o presente trabalho, com uma margem de erro global de 4,2% e nível de confiança de 95%, chegando-se a uma amostra de 514 indivíduos a serem analisados que, ao final da pesquisa, totalizou 519 participantes. Os domínios levantados foram: perfil sócio-demográfico; situação profissional atual; experiências profissionais anteriores; conhecimento e acesso de direitos; dificuldades e facilidades para inserção social e mercado de trabalho. Resultados: Dados quantitativos aferidos a partir das respostas colhidas em cada um dos domínios do formulário de entrevista mostraram que um percentual significativo de indivíduos estudados não está sendo contemplado com a reserva de cotas no mercado de trabalho (89...

Descrição do conceito de deficiência a partir da mídia cinematográfica: uma análise comportamental

Cabral, Cibele Zanirato; Lotti, Beatriz; Cestari, Karla; Almeida-Verdu, Ana C. M.; Carrara, Kester
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 171-185
Português
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This work pointed out forming elements from the conception of special necessities that the media show the audience by the movies. An expression description has established special needs and they were identified as keywords on a search of movies (1994-2004) which were analyzed by two observers, according to a script. The results showed that 33 of the movies selected, 39.9% were classified in the ramacategory; 64% shows the disability as organic nature and 57% with predominant clinic diagnoses. Many labeled practices were identified (85%) and few accessibilities options (76%). In 85% of the movies the disability is said a manifestation of problems with few (58%) professionals intervention. The results are discussed by the media role on the concept formation of disabilities, offering interaction models with important role on social practice specification or unsuitable to the relation with the diversity and to the culture.

Implementation of the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in the Portuguese educational system: Attitudes and training needs of special education teachers’.

Saragoça, M.; Candeias, A. A.; Rosário, A.
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Since 2008, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - ICF (WHO, 2001) is the framework of reference in the assessment and intervention process with students with SEN, in the Portuguese educational system. As a consequence special education teachers’ training needs emerged from it. In this study, we characterize the received training and the special education teachers’ attitudes and training needs towards ICF. The sample consisted of 913 Portuguese special education teachers who responded to Attitudes Towards Training Questionnaire in ICF - ATTQ-ICF. This study demonstrates that teachers’ training on the use of the ICF should occur as soon as possible in their training and it should be extended to other experts involved in the educational process of the student. The need for more knowledge about the tools and methods to assess functioning, the knowledge about the eligibility criteria for special education and the definition of qualifiers based on the ICF classification system also emerged. Finally the discussion of case studies is also considered crucial in the training process. In summary, a training model is needed that has a sufficient number of training hours; that includes training modalities which support teaching practice in a continuous way; that fosters discussion of the barriers to practical implementation of the ICF and finally...

The development and provision of educational services for children with intellectual disabilities in Egypt

Abdelhameed,Hala
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores em Educação Especial - ABPEE Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores em Educação Especial - ABPEE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 Português
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48.194863%
This paper aims to provide an overview of the development and provision of educational services for children with intellectual disabilities in Egypt. Intellectual disability is a significant sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behaviour and manifested during the developmental period. The education of children with intellectual disabilities is a right endowed and authorised by the Egyptian government. The Ministry of Education in Egypt is keen to provide those children who have intellectual disabilities, along with other children with special needs, with an appropriate education that addresses their needs and allows them to live in society using their full potential, as typically developing children. Observations and interviews were carried out to collect further information about the educational services the children with intellectual disabilities receive in Egypt. The findings of this study indicated that, despite the efforts exerted by the Ministry of Education, to provide advanced and new services for children with intellectual disabilities, the provision may still need improvements. A series of recommendations was suggested to improve the services that children with intellectual disabilities receive in Egypt.

Descriptive study of the patients treated at the clinic “Integrated Dentistry for Patients with Special Needs” at Complutense University of Madrid (2003-2012)

Monteserín-Matesanz, Marta; Esparza-Gómez, Germán C.; García-Chías, Begoña; Gasco-García, Carmen; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío
Fonte: Medicina Oral S.L. Publicador: Medicina Oral S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objectives: To study clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients treated at the clinic “Integrated Dentistry for Patients with Special Needs (Special Care Dentistry)” at Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), as well as to know the dental treatments performed in these patients and the modifications from the usual treatment protocol. The information obtained from the results could also be applied in order to assess the needs of dental students education about this type of patients. Study Design: Medical records review of all the patients referred to the clinic of “Integrated Dentistry for Patients with Special Needs”, performing a retrospective cross-sectional study analyzing their main pathology, ASA risk score (Classification system used by the American Society of Anesthesiologists to estimate the risk posed by the anesthesia for various patient conditions), pharmacological treatment, what kind of dental treatment was necessary, whether the patient was treated or not, and if it was required to change any procedure due to the patient health status (sedation or antibiotic prophylaxis). Results: The number of patients referred to the clinic was 447, of whom 426 were included in this study. Out of them, 52,35 % were men and 47...

HIDING IN PLAIN SIGHT- Sustainable Physical Activity Program Development and Evaluation for Youth with Special Needs: An Evaluative Case Study

Lappano, Elyse
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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The purpose of my research was to contribute to the improvement and sustainability of the Special Needs Activity Program, and develop program implementation strategies that had practical outcomes. I conducted an evaluative case study of S.N.A.P in order to determine what a quality adapted physical activity (APA) program is, why S.N.A.P is considered a quality APA program, and what institutional policies and practices exist to support it. Data was collected via interviews, questionnaires, and observations. Data analysis involved inductive and deductive methods, and a SWOTAR evaluation. Results indicate that quality APA programs include: ‘people’, ‘environment’, and ‘expectations’; there are benefits of experiential learning; activity stations that promote creativity are valuable; several stakeholders do not know the details about S.N.A.P but recognize its value; the institution values what S.N.A.P provides, yet, there is nothing being done to sustain it. Future research should investigate the feasibility of implementing S.N.A.P in various contexts.

Examining Inclusion : Disability and Community Driven Development

Chaudhry, Vandana; Owen, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This note discusses the varied strategies adopted by Community Driven Development - CDD - programs to ensure the inclusion of disabled people. It is based on five case studies, which represent a wide spectrum of approaches ranging from micro interventions for building social capital and community-based rehabilitation, to macro strategies for policy reform and advocacy efforts based on a disability rights perspective. The note argues for an approach which integrates micro and macro interventions, and balances participatory processes with social protection mechanisms that are designed to include the needs of vulnerable groups. The importance of improved targeting, and building an appropriate enabling environment is also highlighted.

Poverty Reduction Strategies : Their Importance for Disability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report is an attempt to assess the validity of poverty reduction strategies as an effective tool to manage poverty brought about by disability, by reviewing the disability policy content of poverty reduction strategy papers. In doing so, the report focuses on whether the specific poverty dimensions of disabled persons are acknowledged and the critical interventions for improving the economic and social integration of disabled persons are included in poverty reduction strategy papers. There is a wide consensus that disabled persons, being disproportionately poor, are among the population groups that should benefit from the poverty reduction programs of poverty reduction strategy papers. The issue, however, is whether they are de facto excluded from benefiting from current poverty reduction strategies. Poverty reduction strategy papers do not meet the needs of disabled persons because they are based on a limited social protection policy that conveys a wrong impression about the abilities and aspirations of the majority of disabled persons. Furthermore...

Disability standards for including multimedia on the Web

Moreno, Lourdes; Martínez, Paloma; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
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This article shows how the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines adopted by several countries could be applied to make multimedia content accessible to those with special needs.; This research work has been supported by the Regional Government of Madrid under the Research Network MAVIR (S-0505/TIC-0267), by the Spanish Ministry of Education under the project BRAVO (TIN2007-67407-C03-01), and by The Spanish Centre of Captioning and Audio Description (see http://www.cesya.es).; 3 pages.-- Published in: IEEE Multimedia, n. 4 (October-December 2008).

Efeito da orientação domiciliar no desempenho funcional de crianças com necessidades especiais; The effect of in-home instruction on the functional performance of children with special needs

Pavão, Silvia Leticia; Silva, Fernanda Pereira dos Santos; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto
Fonte: Edições Desafio Singular Publicador: Edições Desafio Singular
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
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Crianças com necessidades especiais apresentam disfunções neuro-sensório-motoras que limitam sua funcionalidade e participação social. Os cuidados dispensados pelos cuidadores a essas crianças podem reduzir essas limitações aumentando o grau de participação. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito da orientação domiciliar na funcionalidade de crianças com necessidades especiais em atividades de vida diária. Trinta e um cuidadores de crianças foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Orientado (GO, n = 17) e Controle (GC, n = 14). Ambos os grupos foram submetidos ao PEDI (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory) no início do estudo e após três meses. Nesses três meses, o GO recebeu orientação domiciliar individualizada sobre banho, troca de roupas, alimentação e transporte da criança especial. A avaliação com o PEDI revelou aumento significativo nas pontuações do GO em auto-cuidado e função social na escala de habilidades funcionais, bem como em auto-cuidado na escala de assistência do cuidador. Sugere-se que a orientação domiciliar e individualizada a cuidadores seja eficaz para elevar o nível de funcionalidade de crianças com necessidades especiais em áreas de auto-cuidado e função social de acordo com o PEDI. Sendo...

Survey of UK computerised special needs registers

Hutchison, T.; Harpin, V.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1998 Português
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A postal survey of all computerised children's disability registers in the UK was undertaken in 1996. Information was returned from 155 of 166 districts (93%). The implementation of computerised special needs registers is a continuing nationwide trend. Although there is evidence of successful use of registers both as an individual and as a population service planning tool, a high percentage of existing registers are functioning in a way which is far short of their potential for research, audit, and planning. Registers which work well have been set up with expertise, have staff enthusiastic about data entry, and are well supported for data output and software modification. There should be continued cooperative work towards a national consensus on the categories of disability and definitions of severity of disability used in these registers.



Enhancing Fine Motor Skills of Wards with Special Needs Using Cluster Model of Cognition

Nair, T. R. Gopalakrishnan; Rao, N. Sowjanya; Bukkambudhi, Ananda
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/01/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.27043%
Technology offers great potential to overcome physical barriers of human race. This paper presents the methods of enhanced learning applicable to children having special needs using better human-computer interaction. The Audio-Visual (AV) effects that the graphic tools or animations help in achieving better learning, understanding, remembering and performance from such students. The 3L-R Cluster Program Model enable them to look into pictures and animated objects while listening to the related audio. It also motivates them to do the FMS development activities like drawing, coloring, tracing etc., certain types of games in the clustered model will help the children to improve concentration, thinking, reasoning, cognitive skills and the eye-to hand co-ordination. Here we introduced a novel cluster model along with the methodology described which provides an ample exposure to the effectiveness of the training. Classify the students with similar problems or disability and the associated curriculum of modified teaching methodology to meet their special needs is met through the specialized IT tool which form a part of the cluster model. It ensures effective learning in wards by enhancing multifaceted interaction. The main objective of this paper is to support the development of Fine Motor Skills (FMS) of wards with special needs.; Comment: 14 pages...

Inclusão social de pessoas com deficiências e necessidades especiais: cultura, educação e lazer; Social inclusion of people with disabilities and special needs: culture, education and leisure

Mazzotta, Marcos José da Silveira; D'Antino, Maria Eloísa Famá
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
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98.13104%
Este artigo tem o objetivo de discutir algumas questões envolvidas na compreensão e concretização da inclusão social das pessoas com deficiências. Elegeu-se, para tanto, o estudo sobre a importância da mediação da cultura, da educação e do lazer no desenvolvimento sociocultural, focalizando-se algumas implicações no desenvolvimento pessoal e social. Uma análise crítica, bibliográfica e documental, resultou na apresentação de discussões sobre a consolidação de espaços sociais e relacionamentos favorecedores ou limitadores da inclusão social e escolar de tais pessoas com vistas ao atendimento ou à ampliação de suas necessidades especiais. Importantes decisões políticas e normativas nacionais e internacionais foram discutidas. Destacaram-se valores e atitudes que, objetiva ou subliminarmente, constroem e consolidam mecanismos de inclusão ou exclusão, concluindo-se que a educação, a cultura e o lazer são espaços estruturados com fundamental poder de mediação para a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência assim como de todo e qualquer sujeito.; This article has the purpose of discussing issues involved in the understanding and materialization of the social inclusion of people with disabilities. To achieve this...

Estado e educação: implicações do liberalismo sobre a constituição da educação especial e inclusiva

Ross, Paulo Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2004 Português
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Este artigo busca compreender as relações entre Estado, educação e as pessoas com necessidades educacionais especiais, bem como as perspectivas das políticas educacionais a partir dos anos 90 e a construção da qualidade em educação. Do ponto de vista teórico-metodológico, as pessoas com necessidades especiais são tomadas como sujeitos da história, tendo em conta suas possibilidades e seus limites para intervenção nas políticas públicas para a educação no Brasil e na América Latina. A análise das novas formas de exclusão resultantes do neo-economicismo liberal é considerada condição fundamental para a compreensão do lugar, posição, valor, direitos das pessoas com história de deficiência e, ao mesmo tempo, os princípios, finalidades e ideologias implícitas e explícitas nas políticas educacionais e sociais. A qualidade da educação e as novas funções a serem exigidas da educação especial necessitam ser pensadas à luz desse contexto de reformulação do papel do Estado, reestruturação dos processos produtivos, globalização econômica, financeira e cultural. Enfim, este trabalho situa a Educação Especial e os sujeitos com necessidades especiais social, econômica e politicamente, considerando os papéis que vêm sendo chamados a desempenhar nesse contexto de reestruturação produtiva...

A grounded theory investigation into the philosophical and pedagogical theories of play by blind and visually impaired children

Hayhoe, Simon
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2014 Português
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57.77897%
This article presents a grounded theory investigation into the academic, social and cultural roots of the theory of play for cognitive and emotional development of blind and visually impaired children. Data is analysed through an epistemological model of disability, and through a notion of passive and active exclusion from cultural activities through institutional policy and practice. In common with the findings of a previous study on the development of theory and practice in art and museum education, it is argued that theories on the use of touch over other forms of perception were developed with negative consequences, and that theories were overly influenced by a form of reductionist philosophy of enlightenment from the 17th and 18th centuries. Furthermore, it is also argued that such philosophical and pedagogical theories were influenced by the cultural and religious predisposition of their authors. The pedagogical approaches that developed from the enlightenment philosophies, it is additionally argued, have done little to develop a full range of perceptual experiences during play, including visual stimuli of colour and tone, something that is particularly important for children with impaired vision. The study has two main conclusions. The first conclusion is that...

Convergence or divergence?: a longitudinal analysis of behaviour problems among disabled and non-disabled children aged 3 to 7 in England

Fauth, Rebecca; Parsons, Samantha; Platt, Lucinda
Fonte: Institute of Education, University of London Publicador: Institute of Education, University of London
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2014 Português
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This study sets out to identify the incidence and development of disabled children’s problem behaviours, including conduct, peer, hyperactivity and emotional problems during the early years using the Millennium Cohort Study, a large-scale, nationally representative UK study. We track the behaviour problems from age 3 to 7 to examine the emergence of problems and whether disabled girls’ and boys’ behaviour converges or diverges from non-disabled children over time. Childhood disability is assessed using three broad measures: developmental delay (DD), long standing limiting illness (LSLI), and special educational needs (SEN) to ascertain the implications of particular constructions of disability. Finally, we examine whether parenting and the home environment moderate any associations between disability and behaviour. Estimating linear growth models, we find that disabled children exhibit more behaviour problems than non-disabled children across disability measures. We find no evidence that trajectories converge for disabled and non-disabled children; rather, children with LSLI and SEN show a greater increase in peer problems, hyperactivity and emotional problems over time. We find little evidence that parenting moderates associations between disability and behaviour. The findings suggest that further in-school support for disabled children may be warranted given persistence in problem behaviour well after school entry.

Inclusive basic education in South Africa: Issues in its conceptualisation and implementation

Murungi,LN
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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Education is one of the most topical issues in South Africa. In recent years, particularly in the period after the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) (hereinafter CRPD), the discourse on the education of children with disabilities has mainly focused on the potential of White Paper 6 on Special Needs Education (2001) (hereinafter WP 6) and its implementing programmes to facilitate the realisation of the right to education for children with disabilities. The CRPD proposes inclusive education as the appropriate way of ensuring the right to education for children with disabilities, and sets out a framework for the implementation thereof. In addition, the CRPD sets out other principles which essentially redefine the approach to the interpretation and implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities. One such principle is the principle of non-discrimination, which demands that all rights be implemented on a basis of equality between all people, disability notwithstanding. Arguably, the legal and policy frameworks on education in South Africa reflect the standards proposed under the CRPD to some extent, and other instruments on the right to education. However, there are still considerable challenges in the conceptualisation and implementation of inclusive education...

Mothers' life-worlds in a developing context when a child has special needs

Hemming,Eve; Akhurst,Jacqui
Fonte: Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology Publicador: Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2009 Português
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This South African study investigates the lived experiences of a group of isiZulu mothers of children diagnosed with multiple disabilities. Data collection from regular focus group discussions proceeded with the assistance of a translator skilled in working in isiZulu and English. The phenomenological approach employed revealed the mothers' philosophical acceptance of their child's disability. Issues of concern to the women that emerged include the effects of the child's disability on their lives, the treatment options for their children, and their perceptions of the causes of the disability. The women reflect on both traditional and Western treatment options and articulate the constraints they experience as caregivers, with limited child-care facilities preventing them from finding employment, difficulties in accessing social service grants exacerbating their position, and various levels of family and community support experienced. The study underlines the need for more adequate service provision for children with special needs and their families, and for intervention programmes to be informed by an understanding of the contexts and ways of making meaning of those whose needs they are intended to serve.

Latin American and Caribbean dental schools: teaching about special needs

Smitley,Michelle G.; Waldman,H. Barry; Perlman,Steven P.; Ocanto,Romer A.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 Português
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OBJECTIVES: Assess the extent of the teaching of care for individuals with special needs in schools of dentistry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and deans and program directors' willingness to introduce such programmatic modules into the curricula. METHODS:The survey instrument (a short-answer questionnaire modeled from the U.S. Curriculum Assessment of Needs Project) was delivered to a survey sample gleaned from all LAC dental schools listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Directory of Medical Schools through a Web-based survey tool that delivered the questionnaire via e-mail and stored and displayed responses graphically and in real time. Schools with incorrect or insufficient e-mail/contact information or a primary working language other than Spanish or Portuguese were excluded from the study. A total of three attempts (by e-mail and telephone) were made to follow up nonrespondents. RESULTS: More than half of the 142 respondents indicated their students were receiving less than 5 hours of didactic training and less than 5 hours of clinical training in the care of individuals with special needs. Of these 142 respondents, 23% and 30%, respectively, reported that no curricula hours were needed for didactic or clinical training focused exclusively on care of individuals with special needs. Emphasis on the difficulties in developing such programs was placed on lack of faculty experienced in the care of patients with special needs. CONCLUSION: There is a need for increased didactic and clinical preparation of graduates of LAC dental schools in the care of individuals with special health needs.