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Identificação de genes diferencialmente expressos em feijoeiro envolvidos na resistência ao estresse hídrico; Identification of differentially expressed genes in common bean involved in drought stress resistance

Recchia, Gustavo Henrique
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/06/2011 Português
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O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor de feijão, sendo a espécie mais cultivada o Phaseolus vulgaris L. Entre as três possíveis safras exploradas no Brasil, aquela que gera a maior produção é a da seca. Por outro lado, como a maioria das lavouras emprega pouca tecnologia, um dos problemas desta cultura é o estresse hídrico, que leva a uma redução na produtividade. Dessa forma, a identificação de genes que controlam os mecanismos de defesa e adaptação do feijoeiro à falta de água seria de grande utilidade. Nos últimos anos, muitas informações ômicas do feijoeiro foram geradas, criando uma visão integrada deste organismo e oferecendo uma complexa rede de interações entre genes e seus produtos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo central à identificação de genes diferencialmente expressos no sistema radicular de um genótipo de feijoeiro resistente ao estresse hídrico (BAT 477), quando submetido a uma interrupção de irrigação durante seu desenvolvimento. Foi construída uma biblioteca subtrativa de cDNA (SSH), que representou os genes diferencialmente expressos no genótipo resistente, utilizando-se como driver o genótipo Carioca 80SH (suscetível a seca). Foram obtidos 1572 reads válidos, sendo 931 destes singletons e 189 contigs com uma média de seis reads por cluster. A anotação das sequências foi conduzida via BLASTX...

Análise comparativa do proteoma e metaboloma de raízes de dois clones de E. grandis x E. camaldulensis, sendo um tolerante e um susceptível a condições de estresse hídrico; Comparative analysis of roots´s proteome and metabolome, of two clones E. grandis x E. camaldulensis tolerant and susceptible under drought stress conditions

Borges, Janaina de Santana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/06/2013 Português
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A crescente demanda por produtos madeireiros no mercado nacional e internacional requer produção constante de madeira, sendo o gênero Eucalyptus uma alternativa para atender esta demanda. A seleção do local para plantio deste gênero requer estudos relacionados às características de adaptabilidade da espécie. Para regiões com déficit hídrico é necessária a seleção de uma espécie ou clone resistente a esta característica. Muitos autores mostram a potencialidade de produção do Eucalyptus camaldulensis e do híbrido E. grandis x E. camaldulensis para regiões áridas do Brasil, em relação a outras espécies de eucalipto. A adaptação de uma espécie a determinado ambiente, esta relacionada a muitas características genéticas que influenciam, por exemplo, o proteoma e o metaboloma desta espécie. As células de um organismo possuem o mesmo genoma, mas apresentam as mais variadas funções e morfologias, e isto está relacionado ao fato de existir diferenças no padrão de expressão de proteínas e metabólitos destas células. As áreas de proteômica e metabolômica auxiliam no entendimento de processos biológicos e fornecem um panorama sobre o estado das plantas em determinado momento e em resposta a determinadas condições/estresses ambientais. Assim o principal objetivo deste trabalho é realizar uma análise comparativa do proteoma e metaboloma de raízes de dois clones de E. grandis x E. camaldulensis...

Transcription factors expressed in soybean roots under drought stress

Pereira, S. S.; Guimaraes, F. C. M.; Carvalho, J. F. C.; Stolf-Moreira, R.; Oliveira, M. C. N.; Rolla, A. A. P.; Farias, J. R. B.; Neumaier, N.; Nepomuceno, A. L.
Fonte: Funpec-editora Publicador: Funpec-editora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 3689-3701
Português
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); To gain insight into stress-responsive gene regulation in soybean plants, we identified consensus sequences that could categorize the transcription factors MYBJ7, BZIP50, C2H2, and NAC2 as members of the gene families myb, bzip, c2h2, and nac, respectively. We also investigated the evolutionary relationship of these transcription factors and analyzed their expression levels under drought stress. The NCBI software was used to find the predicted amino acid sequences of the transcription factors, and the Clustal X software was used to align soybean and other plant species sequences. Phylogenetic trees were built using the Mega 4.1 software by neighbor joining and the degree of confidence test by Bootstrap. Expression level studies were carried out using hydroponic culture; the experiments were designed in completely randomized blocks with three repetitions. The blocks consisted of two genotypes, MG/BR46 Conquista (drought-tolerant) and BR16 (drought-sensitive) and the treatments consisted of increasingly long dehydration periods (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 min). The transcription factors presented domains and/or conserved regions that characterized them as belonging to the bzip...

Photosynthesis by six portuguese maize cultivars during drought stress and recovery

Carvalho, Ricardo Cruz de; Cunha, Ana; Silva, Jorge Marques da
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf water parameters were measured in six Portuguese maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars during and following a period of drought stress. The leaf relative water content (RWC) responded differently among cultivars but, except for cultivar PB369, recovered close to initial values after watering was restored. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased with drought but more slowly in cultivars PB269 and PB260 than in cultivars AD3R, PB64, PB304 and PB369. Water use efficiency (WUE) decreased during the water stress treatment although with cultivar PB260 the decrease was marked only when the RWC fell below 40%. Recovery of WUE was seen with all cultivars except PB369. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II, the photochemical quenching coefficient, the electron transport rate in PSII and the estimated functional plastoquinone pool tended to decrease with drought, while the non -photochemical quenching coefficient increased. The parameters estimated from chlorophyll fluorescence did not recover in PB369, during re - watering. The results show that PB260 and PB269 were the most tolerant and PB369 was the least tolerant cultivars to water stress. The variation found amongst the cultivars tested suggests the existence of valuable genetic resources for crop improvement in relation to drought tolerance.

Avaliação de stress oxidativo em bagos de videira (Vitis vinifera L.) da casta Trincadeira em condições de stress hídrico

Carvalho, Inês Sequeira de
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica - Hortofruticultura e Viticultura - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; The plants respond to oxidative stress with the activation of defensive antioxidants mechanisms, which come up as an integrative part of the drought stress tolerance strategies. With this work it was attempted to evaluate oxidative stress caused by three different irrigation treatments – NI (non irrigated), RDI (Regulated Deficit Irrigation) and FI (Full Irrigation) – in the skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv ‘Trincadeira’ grapes, throughout ripening process. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (POD), poliphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) was determined on different stages of ripening. Higher levels of drought stress were found in NI treatment, with the highest average levels of POD activity, and have originated possibly a major incidence of oxidative stress, followed by RDI and FI treatments, where the level of drought stress was respectively minor. Water availability seems to affect the plant’s response to the accumulation of ROS on the different stages of ripening, showing a more efficient response on the final stage in NI treatment and on vérasion on RDI and FI treatments...

Stomatal responses of Eucalyptus species to elevated CO2 concentration and drought stress

Lima,Walter de Paula; Jarvis,Paul; Rhizopoulou,Sophia
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 Português
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Five species of Eucalyptus (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, and E. phaeotrica), among the ten species most commonly used in large scale plantations, were selected for studies on the effects of elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] and drought stress on stomatal responses of 2.5-month old seedlings. The first three species belong to the subgenus Smphyomyrtus, whereas the fourth species belongs to the subgenus Corymbia and E. phaeotrica is from the subgenus Monocalyptus. Seedlings were grown in four pairs of open-top chambers, arranged to have 2 plants of each species in each chamber, with four replications in each of two CO2 concentrations: 350 ± 30 mumol mol-1 and 700 ± 30 mumol mol-1. After 100 days in the chambers, a series of gas exchange measurements were made. Half the plants in each chamber, one plant per species per chamber, were drought-stressed by withholding irrigation, while the remaining plants continued to be watered daily. Drought stress decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration rates in all the species. The effect of drought stress on stomatal closure was similar in both [CO2]. The positive effects of elevated [CO2] on photosynthesis and water use efficiency were maintained longer during the stress period than under well-watered conditions. The photosynthetic rate of E. phaeotrica was higher even in the fourth day of the drought stress. Drought stress increased photoinhibition of photosynthesis...

Expression analysis in response to drought stress in soybean: shedding light on the regulation of metabolic pathway genes

Guimarães-Dias,Fábia; Neves-Borges,Anna Cristina; Viana,Antonio Americo Barbosa; Mesquita,Rosilene Oliveira; Romano,Eduardo; Grossi-de-Sá,Maria de Fátima; Nepomuceno,Alexandre Lima; Loureiro,Marcelo Ehlers; Alves-Ferreira,Márcio
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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Metabolomics analysis of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, under control and drought stress conditions revealed several metabolic pathways that are induced under water deficit. The metabolic response to drought stress is also associated with ABA dependent and independent pathways, allowing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in this model plant. Through combining an in silico approach and gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, the present work aims at identifying genes of soybean metabolic pathways potentially associated with water deficit. Digital expression patterns of Arabidopsis genes, which were selected based on the basis of literature reports, were evaluated under drought stress condition by Genevestigator. Genes that showed strong induction under drought stress were selected and used as bait to identify orthologs in the soybean genome. This allowed us to select 354 genes of putative soybean orthologs of 79 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 38 distinct metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of the selected genes was verified in the subtractive libraries available in the GENOSOJA project. Subsequently, 13 genes from different metabolic pathways were selected for validation by qPCR experiments. The expression of six genes was validated in plants undergoing drought stress in both pot-based and hydroponic cultivation systems. The results suggest that the metabolic response to drought stress is conserved in Arabidopsis and soybean plants.

Drought Stress and Elevated CO2 Effects on Soybean Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity and Canopy Photosynthetic Rates 1

Vu, J. Cu V.; Allen, Leon H.; Bowes, George
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1987 Português
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Soybean (Glycine max [L.] cv Bragg) was grown at 330 or 660 microliters CO2 per liter in outdoor, controlled-environment chambers. When the plants were 50 days old, drought stress was imposed by gradually reducing irrigation each evening so that plants wilted earlier each succeeding day. On the ninth day, as the pots ran out of water CO2 exchange rate (CER) decreased rapidly to near zero for the remainder of the day. Both CO2-enrichment and drought stress reduced the total (HCO3−/Mg2+-activated) extractable ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activity, as expressed on a chlorophyll basis. In addition, drought stress when canopy CER values and leaf water potentials were lowest, reduced the initial (nonactivated) RuBPCase activity by 50% compared to the corresponding unstressed treatments. This suggests that moderate to severe drought stress reduces the in vivo activation state of RuBPCase, as well as lowers the total activity. It is hypothesized that stromal acidification under drought stress causes the lowered initial RuBPCase activities. The Km(CO2) values of activated RuBPCase from stressed and unstressed plants were similar; 15.0 and 12.6 micromolar, respectively. RuBP levels were 10 to 30% lower in drought stressed as compared to unstressed treatments. However...

Evaluation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Probe for Drought Stress in Willow Leaves 1

Ögren, Erling
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1990 Português
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The effect of drought on the photosynthetic apparatus of leaves of Salix sp. was studied by measurements of the induction of chlorophyll fluorescence and the capacity for O2 evolution. Using a multivariate analysis, a model was developed that could predict the degree of drought stress from the data of fluorescence kinetics. Even mild drought stress was detected with high precision; this was not always possible when the photosynthetic capacity was measured. The most clear discrimination between control and drought-stressed leaves was obtained if fluorescence induction was measured at high rather than normal CO2 levels, and at low rather than high light levels. All information provided by fluorescence pertaining to drought was contained within the slow phase of the induction curve. It is suggested that rapid dehydration is different from drought at the mechanistic level as judged by the fluorescence characteristics.

Molecular and Physiological Analysis of Drought Stress in Arabidopsis Reveals Early Responses Leading to Acclimation in Plant Growth1[C][W][OA]

Harb, Amal; Krishnan, Arjun; Ambavaram, Madana M.R.; Pereira, Andy
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Plant drought stress response and resistance are complex biological processes that need to be analyzed at a systems level using genomics and physiological approaches to dissect experimental models that address drought stresses encountered by crops in the field. Toward this goal, a controlled, sublethal, moderate drought (mDr) treatment system was developed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a reproducible assay for the dissection of plant responses to drought. The drought assay was validated using Arabidopsis mutants in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling displaying drought sensitivity and in jasmonate response mutants showing drought resistance, indicating the crucial role of ABA and jasmonate signaling in drought response and acclimation. A comparative transcriptome analysis of soil water deficit drought stress treatments revealed the similarity of early-stage mDr to progressive drought, identifying common and specific stress-responsive genes and their promoter cis-regulatory elements. The dissection of mDr stress responses using a time-course analysis of biochemical, physiological, and molecular processes revealed early accumulation of ABA and induction of associated signaling genes, coinciding with a decrease in stomatal conductance as an early avoidance response to drought stress. This is accompanied by a peak in the expression of expansin genes involved in cell wall expansion...

Arabidopsis RGLG2, Functioning as a RING E3 Ligase, Interacts with AtERF53 and Negatively Regulates the Plant Drought Stress Response1[W][OA]

Cheng, Mei-Chun; Hsieh, En-Jung; Chen, Jui-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Tsan-Piao
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Transcriptional activities of plants play important roles in responses to environmental stresses. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR53 (AtERF53) is a drought-induced transcription factor that belongs to the AP2/ERF superfamily and has a highly conserved AP2 domain. It can regulate drought-responsive gene expression by binding to the GCC box and/or the dehydration-responsive element in the promoter of downstream genes. Overexpression of AtERF53 driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter resulted in an unstable drought-tolerant phenotype in T2 transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified a RING domain ubiquitin E3 ligase, RGLG2, which interacts with AtERF53 in the nucleus. The copine domain of RGLG2 exhibited the strongest interacting activity. We also demonstrated that RGLG2 could move from the plasma membrane to the nucleus under stress treatment. Using an in vitro ubiquitination assay, RGLG2 and its closest sequelog, RGLG1, were shown to have E3 ligase activity and mediated AtERF53 ubiquitination for proteasome degradation. The rglg1rglg2 double mutant but not the rglg2 or rglg1 single mutant exhibited a drought-tolerant phenotype when compared with wild-type plants. AtERF53-green fluorescent proteins expressed in the rglg1rglg2 double mutants were stable. The 35S:AtERF53-green fluorescent protein/rglg1rglg2 showed enhanced AtERF53-regulated gene expression and had greater tolerance to drought stress than the rglg1rglg2 double mutant. In conclusion...

Expression analysis in response to drought stress in soybean: shedding light on the regulation of metabolic pathway genes.

GUIMARÃES-DIAS, F.; NEVES-BORGES, A. C.; VIANA, A. A. B.; MESQUITA, R. O.; ROMANO, E.; GROSSI-DE-SÁ, M. de F.; NEPOMUCENO, A. L.; LOUREIRO, M. E.; ALVES-FERREIRA, M.
Fonte: Genetics and Molecular Biology, Ribeirão Preto, v. 35, n. 1, suppl., p. 222-232, May 2012. Publicador: Genetics and Molecular Biology, Ribeirão Preto, v. 35, n. 1, suppl., p. 222-232, May 2012.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
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Metabolomics analysis of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, under control and drought stress conditions revealed several metabolic pathways that are induced under water deficit. The metabolic response to drought stress is also associated with ABA dependent and independent pathways, allowing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in this model plant. Through combining an in silico approach and gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, the present work aims at identifying genes of soybean metabolic pathways potentially associated with water deficit. Digital expression patterns of Arabidopsis genes, which were selected based on the basis of literature reports, were evaluated under drought stress condition by Genevestigator. Genes that showed strong induction under drought stress were selected and used as bait to identify orthologs in the soybean genome. This allowed us to select 354 genes of putative soybean orthologs of 79 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 38 distinct metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of the selected genes was verified in the subtractive libraries available in the GENOSOJA project. Subsequently, 13 genes from different metabolic pathways were selected for validation by qPCR experiments. The expression of six genes was validated in plants undergoing drought stress in both pot-based and hydroponic cultivation systems. The results suggest that the metabolic response to drought stress is conserved in Arabidopsis and soybean plants.; 2012

Mapeamento associativo para produtividade em arroz sob déficit hídrico; Association mapping for rice grain yield under drought stress

Pantalião, Gabriel Feresin
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Genetica e Melhoramentode Plantas; Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Genetica e Melhoramentode Plantas; Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Drought is an environmental factor which narrows crop production, such as upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). The knowledge of aspects related to drought stress, and plant response to it, may furnish plant breeding programs essential data for the development of tolerant cultivars, and hence with higher yields under such conditions. Association mapping has been a successful approach to elucidate the genetic basis of economically important traits in plants, and afterward in the implementation of marker assisted selection (MAS). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been applied in a variety of contexts, including SNP identification and development. Among methodologies for marker discovery and high-throughput genotyping, GBS (Genotyping by Sequencing) points out by its low cost and speed at which samples can be analyzed. The aim of this work was to identify, by GBS, the polymorphism from SNP markers within 283 upland accessions from Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) and associate them to yield under drought stress. After filtering the raw data of predetermined stringent parameters, 285.379 SNP were identified in the 12 rice chromosomes. For the association mapping, molecular and phenotypic data were combined for the identification of SNP associated to drought...

Evaluation of juvenile drought stress tolerance and genotyping by sequencing with wild barley introgression lines

Honsdorf, N.; March, T.J.; Hecht, A.; Eglinton, J.; Pillen, K.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Drought is a major stress which can seriously limit yield in many crops including barley. Wild barley introgression lines (ILs) like the S42IL library may enhance drought stress tolerance of barley cultivars through the introduction of exotic alleles. The S42IL library was already characterized with 636 Illumina SNPs. New approaches like genotyping by sequencing (GBS) are available for barley to enhance the characterization of ILs. We generated an improved genetic map of the S42IL library, consisting of 4,201 SNPs by adding GBS data. The new map with a total length of 989.2 cM confirmed the extent of wild barley introgressions. Adding GBS data increased the resolution of the S42IL map tenfold from 0.4 to 4.2 markers/cM. This may assist to select possible candidate genes that improve drought tolerance. In four greenhouse experiments, juvenile drought stress response of 52 barley S42ILs was tested to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). Thirteen S42ILs showed effects for plant biomass and leaf senescence. Subsequently, two verification experiments were conducted with these S42ILs. Nine out of eleven QTL were verified, and 22 additional QTL were detected. For 21 QTL, the Hsp allele increased trait performance, indicating the value of wild barley introgressions. For example...

Drought yield index to select high yielding rice lines under different drought stress severities

Raman, A.; Verulkar, S.B.; Mandal, N.P.; Variar, M.; Shukla, V.D.; Dwivedi, J.L.; Singh, B.N.; Singh, O.N.; Swain, P.; Mall, A.K.; Robin, S.; Chandrababu, R.; Jain, A.; Ram, T.; Hittalmani, S.; Haefele, S.; Piepho, H.P.; Kumar, A.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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BACKGROUND Drought is the most severe abiotic stress reducing rice yield in rainfed drought prone ecosystems. Variation in intensity and severity of drought from season to season and place to place requires cultivation of rice varieties with different level of drought tolerance in different areas. Multi environment evaluation of breeding lines helps breeder to identify appropriate genotypes for areas prone to similar level of drought stress. From a set of 129 advanced rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding lines evaluated under rainfed drought-prone situations at three locations in eastern India from 2005 to 2007, a subset of 39 genotypes that were tested for two or more years was selected to develop a drought yield index (DYI) and mean yield index (MYI) based on yield under irrigated, moderate and severe reproductive-stage drought stress to help breeders select appropriate genotypes for different environments. RESULTS ARB 8 and IR55419-04 recorded the highest drought yield index (DYI) and are identified as the best drought-tolerant lines. The proposed DYI provides a more effective assessment as it is calculated after accounting for a significant genotype x stress-level interaction across environments. For rainfed areas with variable frequency of drought occurrence...

Análise do microtranscritoma em variedades de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp.) submetidas a estresse hídrico; Microtranscriptome analysis of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars under drought stress

Raphael de Souza Mattos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2011 Português
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A cana-de-açúcar é uma das mais importantes espécies vegetais cultiváveis do mundo, sendo o Brasil o principal produtor. É uma fonte eficiente e de baixo custo para a obtenção de açúcar e etanol, que é considerado o mais promissor substituto do petróleo como fonte de energia a médio prazo, especialmente nos transportes. A seca é um dos principais estresses que reduzem a produtividade da cana e a produção de variedades tolerantes não só representa ganhos econômicos como contribui para a sustentabilidade dos canaviais. Embora a base genética da tolerância à seca ainda seja pouco conhecida, variedades desenvolvidas em programas de melhoramento tem apresentado progresso, apesar do ritmo ser mais lento que o desejado. Genômica funcional e desenvolvimento de marcadores colaboram aumentando a eficiência do melhoramento tradicional, mas ainda existem elementos do genoma que podem ser aproveitados de novas formas. Foram descobertos recentemente genes de função regulatória chamados microRNAs (miRNA) que também desempenham um papel na adaptação de plantas a diferentes estresses. Utilizando ESTs de cana-de-açúcar, sequenciamento de nova geração e microarranjos para avaliar a expressão de miRNAs sobre estresse hídrico foram descobertos novos miRNAs associados à seca e possíveis genes de miRNAs ligados à tolerância a este tipo de estresse.; Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is amongst the most relevant crops in the world and Brazil is the most prominent producer. It is an inexpensive and efficient source for commodities such as sugar and ethanol...

Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Induced Drought Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme and Nitrate Reductase Activities in Juniperus oxycedrus L. Grown in a Composted Sewage Sludge-amended Semi-arid Soil

Alguacil García, María del Mar; Caravaca Ballester, María Fuensanta; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Hernández, José Antonio; Roldán Garrigos, Antonio
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 259768 bytes; application/pdf
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10 pages, 5 tables.; We studied the influence of inoculation with a mixture of three exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, Glomus deserticola Trappe, Bloss. & Menge and Glomus mosseae (Nicol & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe, and the addition of composted sewage sludge (SS) on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and total peroxidase (POX) and of shoot and root nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) in Juniperus oxycedrus L. seedlings, an evergreen shrub, grown in a non-sterile soil under well-watered and drought-stress conditions. Both the inoculation with exotic AM fungi and the addition of composted SS stimulated significantly growth and the N and P contents in shoot tissues of J. oxycedrus with respect to the plants neither inoculated nor treated with composted SS that were either well-watered or droughted. Under drought-stress conditions, only inoculation with exotic AM fungi increased shoot and root NR activity (about 188% and 38%, respectively, with respect to the plants neither inoculated nor treated with composted SS). Drought increased the POX and SOD activities in both shoots of J. oxycedrus seedlings inoculated with exotic AM fungi and grown with composted SS...

Responses to flooding and drought stress by two citrus rootstock seedlings with different water-use efficiency

García-Sánchez, Francisco; Syvertsen, James. P.; Gimeno, Vicente; Botía, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, J. G.
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Publicador: John Wiley & Sons
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
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Leaf water relations, net gas exchange and leaf and root constituent responses to 9 days of drought stress (DS) or soil flooding were studied in 6-month-old seedlings of Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. ×Poncirus trifoliata L.; Carr] and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus resnhi Hort. ex Tanaka; Cleo) growing in containers of native sand in the greenhouse. At the end of the drought period, both species had similar minimum stem water potentials but Cleo had higher leaf relative water content (RWC) and higher leaf osmotic potential at full turgor ( ) than Carr. Flooding had no effect on RWC but osmotic adjustment (OA) and were higher in Cleo than in Carr. Net CO2 assimilation rate (ACO2) in leaves was decreased more by drought than by flooding in both species but especially in Carr. Leaf water-use efficiency (ACO2/transpiration) was lower in Carr and was decreased more by DS and flooding stress than in Cleo. Higher values of intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) in stressed plants than in control plants indicated that non-stomatal factors including chlorophyll degradation and chlorophyll fluorescence [maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm, where Fm is the maximum fluorescence and F0, minimum fluorescence in dark-adapted leaves)] were more important limitations on ACO2 than stomatal conductance. In both genotypes...

Leaf Water Relations and Net Gas Exchange Responses of Salinized Carrizo Citrange Seedlings during Drought Stress and Recovery

Pérez-Pérez, J. G.; Syvertsen, James. P.; Botía, Pablo; García-Sánchez, Francisco
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
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Background and Aims: Since salinity and drought stress can occur together, an assessment was made of their interacting effects on leaf water relations, osmotic adjustment and net gas exchange in seedlings of the relatively chloride-sensitive Carrizo citrange, Citrus sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata. Methods: Plants were fertilized with nutrient solution with or without additional 100 mM NaCl (salt and no-salt treatments). After 7 d, half of the plants were drought stressed by withholding irrigation water for 10 d. Thus, there were four treatments: salinized and non-salinized plants under drought-stress or well-watered conditions. After the drought period, plants from all stressed treatments were re-watered with nutrient solution without salt for 8 d to study recovery. Leaf water relations, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, proline, quaternary ammonium compounds and leaf and root concentrations of Cl– and Na+ were measured. Key Results: Salinity increased leaf Cl– and Na+ concentrations and decreased osmotic potential () such that leaf relative water content (RWC) was maintained during drought stress. However, in non-salinized drought-stressed plants, osmotic adjustment did not occur and RWC decreased. The salinity-induced osmotic adjustment was not related to any accumulation of proline...

Resposta estomática ao aumento da concentração do CO2 atmosférico e ao estresse hídrico de espécies de Eucalyptus; Stomatal responses of Eucalyptus species to elevated CO2 concentration and drought stress

Lima, Walter de Paula; Jarvis, Paul; Rhizopoulou, Sophia
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2003 Português
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Five species of Eucalyptus (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, and E. phaeotrica), among the ten species most commonly used in large scale plantations, were selected for studies on the effects of elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] and drought stress on stomatal responses of 2.5-month old seedlings. The first three species belong to the subgenus Smphyomyrtus, whereas the fourth species belongs to the subgenus Corymbia and E. phaeotrica is from the subgenus Monocalyptus. Seedlings were grown in four pairs of open-top chambers, arranged to have 2 plants of each species in each chamber, with four replications in each of two CO2 concentrations: 350 ± 30 mumol mol-1 and 700 ± 30 mumol mol-1. After 100 days in the chambers, a series of gas exchange measurements were made. Half the plants in each chamber, one plant per species per chamber, were drought-stressed by withholding irrigation, while the remaining plants continued to be watered daily. Drought stress decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration rates in all the species. The effect of drought stress on stomatal closure was similar in both [CO2]. The positive effects of elevated [CO2] on photosynthesis and water use efficiency were maintained longer during the stress period than under well-watered conditions. The photosynthetic rate of E. phaeotrica was higher even in the fourth day of the drought stress. Drought stress increased photoinhibition of photosynthesis...