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Inflation Targeting Matters: Evidence from OECD Economies` Sacrifice Ratios

GONCALVES, Carlos Eduardo S.; CARVALHO, Alexandre
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Using data from OECD economies, we show that inflation targeters suffered smaller output losses during disinflations when compared to nontargeters. We also study why some countries choose to inflation target while others do not and find that higher average inflation and smaller debt levels render the adoption of the regime more likely. Applying Heckman`s procedure to control for selection bias does not alter the link between inflation targeting and less costly disinflations.

Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with different heights of crown ferrule restored with prefabricated carbon fiber post and composite resin core by intermittent loading

OLIVEIRA, Jonas Alves de; PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; VALLE, Accacio Lins do; Zogheib, Lucas Villaça
Fonte: MOSBY-ELSEVIER Publicador: MOSBY-ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated carbon fiber posts and varying quantities of coronal dentin. Sixty freshly extracted upper canines were randomly divided into groups of 10 teeth each. The specimens were exposed to 250,000 cycles in a controlled chewing simulator. All intact specimens were subjected to a static load (N) in a universal testing machine at 45 degrees to the long axis. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (alpha = .05). Significant differences (P < .001) were found among the mean fracture forces of the test groups (positive control, 0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and negative control groups: 1022.82 N, 1008.22 N, 1292.52 N, 1289.19 N, 1255.38 N, and 1582.11, respectively). These results suggested that the amount of coronal dentin did not significantly increase the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated carbon fiber post and composite resin core. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;106:e52-e57)

A Política Monetária Recente: Alguns Aspectos Críticos

Lima, Luiz Antônio De Oliveira
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
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Este Artigo tem como Objetivo Apresentar uma Análise das Práticas Atuais da Política Monetária, a Política de Regras Monetárias . Discute o Contexto Histórico em que Tais Práticas Apareceram, e suas Implicações, Especialmente de que a Oferta Monetária Passa a ser é Endógena, e não Exógena, como na Visão Monetarista Tradicional. a Nova Doutrina Também Faz a Suposição Extrema de que Embora a Política Monetária Possa ser Efetiva no Curto Prazo, Ela é Neutra no Longo Prazo. esta Hipótese Bem como suas Implicações para a Política Monetária Podem ser Sujeitas a Várias Críticas que Serão Desenvolvidas neste Trabalho.

A credibilidade da política econômica : uma revisão crítica da teoria

Tejada, César Augusto Oviedo; Portugal, Marcelo Savino
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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O objetivo deste artigo é fazer uma revisão crítica da literatura teórica sobre a credibilidade da política econômica. Para tanto, além da introdução, o artigo divide-se em três partes: na primeira, analisa-se por que o problema da credibilidade é importante para a economia e para os policymakers; na segunda, avaliam-se as formas de se enfrentar ou resolver este problema; por último, na terceira, apresentam-se as conclusões.; This paper presents a ciitical survey of the theoretical literature on credibility aspects of economic policy We discuss why is credibility important for economic policy and mostly how can one solve the time inconsistency problem of the optimal economic policy.

Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with different heights of crown ferrule restored with prefabricated carbon fiber post and composite resin core by intermittent loading

de Oliveira, Jonas Alves; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; do Valle, Accacio Lins; Zogheib, Lucas Villaca
Fonte: Mosby-elsevier Publicador: Mosby-elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: E52-E57
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This study evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated carbon fiber posts and varying quantities of coronal dentin. Sixty freshly extracted upper canines were randomly divided into groups of 10 teeth each. The specimens were exposed to 250,000 cycles in a controlled chewing simulator. All intact specimens were subjected to a static load (N) in a universal testing machine at 45 degrees to the long axis. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (alpha = .05). Significant differences (P < .001) were found among the mean fracture forces of the test groups (positive control, 0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and negative control groups: 1022.82 N, 1008.22 N, 1292.52 N, 1289.19 N, 1255.38 N, and 1582.11, respectively). These results suggested that the amount of coronal dentin did not significantly increase the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated carbon fiber post and composite resin core. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;106:e52-e57)

Modelling the central bank repo rate in a dynamic general equilibrium framework

Leão, E. R.
Fonte: Dinâmia Publicador: Dinâmia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2005 Português
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JEL Classification: E13, E52.; The present paper adds a central bank to an existing general equilibrium model with banking sector. In our model, the central bank lends reserves to commercial banks and charges its repo interest rate. We obtain the usual result of flexible price models that expansionary monetary policy has a negligible effect on real variables such as output, consumption and investment expenditure. However, the composition of total investment is significantly altered as investment by banks increases at the expense of investment by nonbank firms. This result is a consequence of our explicit modelling of the central bank repo rate.

A transmissão da política monetária ao produto e à inflação: o caso senegalês

Caité, Kim Nhaga Gomes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Mestrado em Economia Monetária e Financeira/ Classificação JEL: C51, E4, E52, E58; Construiu-se um modelo Vectorial Auto-Regressivo (VAR) para analisar os efeitos dos choques da política monetária na inflação e no produto na economia senegalesa, após a integração na UEMOA em 1994. O período analisado compreende os anos 1994 a 2008, usando cinco variáveis: o produto, a taxa de inflação, a moeda, a taxa de juro e a taxa de câmbio, com base nos dados estatísticos do FMI. Descreveu-se também brevemente a evolução da economia senegalesa desde a sua independência, passando pela integração regional, até a recente crise financeira internacional. Procedeu-se à análise do impacto das inovações nas principais variáveis macroeconómicas recorrendo à ferramenta da função de resposta ao impulso. Chegou-se a conclusão de que, como era esperado, de acordo com a teoria económica, uma intervenção do Banco Central, por via da política monetária (aumento da taxa de juro), tem um impacto negativo no produto e na inflação. Recorreu-se, por outro lado, na dissertação aos mecanismos de transmissão da política monetária através dos canais de transmissão, nomeadamente, o canal de taxa de juro e o canal de taxa de câmbio.; A model Vector Autoregressive (VAR) was built to analyze the effects of monetary policy shocks on inflation and output in the economy of Senegal...

Impacto da alteração das taxas directoras do BCE nos mercados de Obrigações de Tesouro e Acções no período 2000-2011

Fonseca, Filipa Garcia Pereira da
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Mestrado em Economia Monetária e Financeira/ JEL Classification System: E52, G12; Neste trabalho são estudados os impactos das taxas directoras do Banco Central Europeu nos mercados obrigacionistas e accionistas e os efeitos da crise financeira através da aplicação de métodos econométricos. Este impacto é analisado em vinte e uma variáv eis que incluem obrigações de diferentes maturidades e índices de cotação de acções para três países (Portugal, Espanha e Alemanha) , utilizando dados diários, no período de 2000 a 2011. Nos modelos, pela sua volatilidade e correlação com as taxas de referência, foi utilizada a Eonia. Os resultados da análise uniequacional sugerem que a crise não é relevante para grande parte dos instrumentos. Nas obrigações espanholas e alemãs, a teoria de uma resposta de sinal positivo revela-se verdadeira. Nas OT portuguesas, onde a crise é considerada, notam-se respostas de sinal contrário na presença ou não de uma recessão. Nesta análise não existem evidências de que o impacto diminua com o aumento das maturidades. O resultado da análise multiequacional, tomando a Eonia como exógena ao sistema, demonstra que o mercado obrigacionista...

Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity is transiently associated with the subplate neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex.

Allendoerfer, K L; Shelton, D L; Shooter, E M; Shatz, C J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1990 Português
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Nerve growth factor and its receptor (NGFR) are known to be present in diverse embryonic and neonatal central nervous system tissues, including the cerebral cortex. However, the identity of the cortical cells expressing NGFR immunoreactivity has not been established. We have used immunolabeling coupled with [3H]thymidine autoradiography to identify such cells in ferret and cat brain. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a conserved amino acid sequence of the NGFR were used for this purpose. Western (immunologic) blot analyses show that these antibodies specifically recognize NGFR and precursor proteins. In both species, NGFR immunoreactivity is primarily associated with the early generated and transient subplate neuron population of the developing neocortex, as indicated by the following evidence: the immunoreactive cells (i) are located directly beneath the developing cortical plate, (ii) frequently have the inverted pyramid shape characteristic of subplate neurons, and (iii) can be labeled by an injection of [3H]thymidine on embryonic day (E) 28, a time when only subplate neurons are being generated. Intense NGFR immunostaining is seen on the cell bodies of these neurons as early as E30, several days after their last round of cell division...

Ontogenesis of prolactin receptors in the human fetus in early gestation. Implications for tissue differentiation and development.

Freemark, M; Driscoll, P; Maaskant, R; Petryk, A; Kelly, P A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/1997 Português
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To explore potential roles for lactogenic hormones in human fetal development, we examined the distribution and ontogenesis of expression of prolactin receptors (PRLRs) in human fetal tissues at 7.5-14 wk of gestation and in tissues of the embryonic and fetal rat on days e12.5-e20.5. Histochemical analysis of PRLR immunoreactivity in the human fetus and fetal rat revealed novel and unexpected patterns of receptor expression. Most remarkable was the appearance in early fetal development of intense PRLR immunoreactivity in tissues derived from embryonic mesoderm, including the periadrenal and perinephric mesenchyme, the pulmonary and duodenal mesenchyme, the cardiac and skeletal myocytes, and the mesenchymal precartilage and maturing chondrocytes of the endochondral craniofacial and long bones, vertebrae and ribs. Striking changes in the cellular distribution and magnitude of expression of PRLRs were noted in many tissues during development. In the fetal adrenal the initial mesenchymal PRLR expression is succeeded by the emergence of PRLR immunoreactivity in deeper fetal cortical cell layers. In the fetal kidney and lung, the invagination of cortical mesenchyme is accompanied by progressive PRLR immunoreactivity in bronchial and renal tubular epithelial cells. In the pancreas...

Highly Conserved Configuration of Catalytic Amino Acid Residues among Calicivirus-Encoded Proteases▿

Oka, Tomoichiro; Yamamoto, Mami; Yokoyama, Masaru; Ogawa, Satoko; Hansman, Grant S.; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Miyashita, Kana; Takagi, Hirotaka; Tohya, Yukinobu; Sato, Hironori; Takeda, Naokazu
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A common feature of caliciviruses is the proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein catalyzed by the viral 3C-like protease encoded in open reading frame 1 (ORF1). Here we report the identification and structural characterization of the protease domains and amino acid residues in sapovirus (SaV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). The in vitro expression and processing of a panel of truncated ORF1 polyproteins and corresponding mutant forms showed that the functional protease domain is 146 amino acids (aa) in SaV and 154 aa in FCV. Site-directed mutagenesis of the protease domains identified four amino acid residues essential to protease activities: H31, E52, C116, and H131 in SaV and H39, E60, C122, and H137 in FCV. A computer-assisted structural analysis showed that despite high levels of diversity in the primary structures of the protease domains in the family Caliciviridae, the configurations of the H, E, C, and H residues are highly conserved, with these residues positioned closely along the inner surface of the potential binding cleft for the substrate. These results strongly suggest that the H, E, C, and H residues are involved in the formation of a conserved catalytic surface of the SaV and FCV 3C-like proteases.

The Simple Analytics of Monetary Policy: A Post-Crisis Approach

Friedman, Benjamin Morton
Fonte: Informa UK Limited Publicador: Informa UK Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The standard workhorse models of monetary policy now commonly in use, both for teaching macro- economics to students and for supporting policymaking within many central banks, are incapable of incorporating the most widely accepted accounts of how the 2007–9 financial crisis occurred and are incapable too of analyzing the actions that monetary policymakers took in response to it. They also offer no point of entry for the frontier research that many economists have subsequently undertaken, especially research revolving around frictions in financial intermediation. The author suggests a simple model that bridges this gap by distinguishing the interest rate that the central bank sets from the interest rate that matters for the spending decisions of households and firms. One version of this model adds to the canonical “new Keynesian” model a fourth equation representing the spread between these two interest rates. An alternate version replaces this reduced-form expression for the spread with explicit supply and demand equations for privately issued credit obligations. The discussion illustrates the use of both versions of the model for analyzing the kind of breakdown in financial intermediation that triggered the 2007–9 crisis as well as “unconventional” central bank actions like large-scale asset purchases and forward guidance on the policy interest rate.; Economics

Durable Goods, Inter-Sectoral Linkages and Monetary Policy

BOUAKEZ, Hafedh; CARDIA, Emanuela; RUGE-MURCIA, Francisco
Fonte: Université de Montréal - Département de sciences économiques Publicador: Université de Montréal - Département de sciences économiques
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 537045 bytes; application/pdf
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Barsky, House and Kimball (2007) show that introducing durable goods into a sticky-price model leads to negative sectoral comovement of production following a monetary policy shock and, under certain conditions, to aggregate neutrality. These results appear to undermine sticky-price models. In this paper, we show that these results are not robust to two prominent and realistic features of the data, namely input-output interactions and limited mobility of productive inputs. When extended to allow for both features, the sticky-price model with durable goods delivers implications in line with VAR evidence on the effects of monetary policy shocks.

Endymion: or, The universal satirist; The universal satirist.

Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Livro Formato: 1667808 bytes; application/pdf
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page numbers disappear after page 25.

Labor Market Dynamics and the Business Cycle: Structural Evidence for the United States

RAVN, Morten O.; SIMONELLI, Saverio
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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We use a 12-dimensional VAR to examine the dynamic effects on the labor market of four struc- tural technology and policy shocks. For each shock, we examine the dynamic effects on the labor market, the importance of the shock for labor market volatility, and the comovement between labor market variables and other key aggregate variables in response to the shock. We document that labor market indicators display hump-shaped" responses to the identified shocks. Technology shocks and monetary policy shocks are important for labor market volatility but the ranking of their importance is sensitive to the VAR specification. The conditional correlations at business cycle frequencies are similar in response to the four shocks apart from the correlations between hours worked, labor productivity and real wages. To account for the unconditional correlations between these variables, a mixture of shocks are required.

Les facteurs declencheurs des crises financieres internationales

TREMBLAY, Rodrigue
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2456296 bytes; application/pdf
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Ce rapport s'inscrit dans la problematique soulevée par l'insistance des milieux financiers américains et du Trésor américain à libéraliser et à globaliser les mouvements internationaux de capitaux. Dans cette perspective, il tente de répondre à trois questions, à savoir 1) est-ce que la finance internationale en général et les institutions monétaires et financières nationales et internationales sont sources d'instabilité financière et économique pour les pays? 2) est-il possible d'éviter que les bénéfices découlant de l'accès accru aux marchés internationaux des capitaux soient diminués et même renversés par des crises monétaires et financières internationales et nationales et, comme corollaire, 3) est-ce que le systême actuel des monnaies nationales est dépassé ?

Nonlinear Monetary Policy Rules: Some New Evidence for the U.S.

DOLADO, J.J.; MARIA-DOLORES, R.; RUGE-MURCIA, Francisco
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 303500 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper derives optimal monetary policy rules in setups where certainty equivalence does not hold because either central bank preferences are not quadratic, and/or the aggregate supply relation is nonlinear. Analytical results show that these features lead to sign and size asymmetries, and nonlinearities in the policy rule. Reduced-form estimates indicate that US monetary policy can be characterized by a nonlinear policy rule after 1983, but not before 1979. This finding is consistent with the view that the Fed's inflation preferences during the Volcker-Greenspan regime differ considerably from the ones during the Burns-Miller regime.; Dans cet article, nous dérivons les règles de politique monétaire optimales dans des cadres où \"l'équivalence certaine\" n'est pas satisfaite. On trouve des cas de ce type lorsque, par exemple, les préférences de la banque centrale ne sont pas quadratiques ou lorsque la relation d'offre agrégée n'est pas linéaire. Les résultats théoriques semblent montrer qu'ils peuvent conduire à des asymétries de signe et de niveau et à des nonlinéarités dans la règle de politique. À partir d'estimations de la forme réduite sur données américaines, nous trouvons que la politique monétaire des États-Unis peut être caractérisée par une règle décisionnelle non linéaire après 1983...

A Prudent Central Banker

RUGE-MURCIA, Francisco
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 384310 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper studies monetary policy in an economy where the central banker's preferences are asymmetric around optimal inflation. In particular, positive deviations from the optimum can be weighted more, or less, severely than negative deviations in the policy maker's loss function. It is shown that under asymmetric preferences, uncertainty can induce a prudent behavior on the part of the central banker. Since the prudence motive can be large enough to override the inflation bias, optimal monetary policy could be implemented even in the absence of rules, reputation, or contractual mechanisms. For certain parameter values, a deflationary bias can arise in equilibrium.; Ce mémoire étudie la politique monétaire dans une économie où les préférences de la Banque centrale sont asymétriques autour de l'inflation optimale. Plus précisément, les déviations positives de l'optimum peuvent avoir une plus grande ou une plus faible pondération dans la fonction de perte que les déviations négatives en ce qui concerne les preneurs de décisions des politiques. Sous des préférences asymétriques, il a été démontré que l'incertitude pouvait entraîner un comportement prudent de la part de la Banque centrale. Ainsi, les motifs de prudence peuvent être assez grands pour annuler le biais d'inflation...

An upper limit to the energy of gamma-ray bursts indicates that GRB/SNe are powered by magnetars

Mazzali, P.; MacFadyen, A.; Woosley, S.; Pian, E.; Tanaka, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/06/2014 Português
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The kinetic energy of supernovae (SNe) accompanied by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) tends to cluster near E52 erg, with 2.E52 erg an upper limit to which no compelling exceptions are found (assuming a certain degree of asphericity), and it is always significantly larger than the intrinsic energy of the GRB themselves (corrected for jet collimation). This energy is strikingly similar to the maximum rotational energy of a neutron star rotating with period 1 ms. It is therefore proposed that all GRBs associated with luminous SNe are produced by magnetars. GRBs that result from black hole formation (collapsars) may not produce luminous SNe. X-ray Flashes (XRFs), which are associated with less energetic SNe, are produced by neutron stars with weaker magnetic field or lower spin.; Comment: 6 pages, 1 figure, to appear in MNRAS

Comportamento da função do Banco Central do Brasil: Uma análise para o período do sistema de metas de inflação; Behavior of the Brazilian Central Bank reaction function: an analysis for the inflation targeting period

Schnorrenberger, Richard; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Meurer, Roberto; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8085.2013v16n2p33A função de reação do Banco Central expressa as preferências da autoridade monetária em relação aos desvios da inflação à sua meta e ao hiato do produto. O presente trabalho investiga estas preferências e possíveis assimetrias nos objetivos do Banco Central do Brasil durante o período do sistema de metas para inflação, aplicando e estendendo o modelo de Clarida, Galí e Gertler (1999) com abordagem forward-looking. A econometria de séries temporais é empregada como principal ferramenta estatística para obtenção dos resultados. Os resultados indicam que o Banco Central do Brasil tem conduzido uma política monetária com preferências assimétricas em relação aos seus objetivos. O formulador de política monetária é mais sensível à estabilidade de preços, mas também se atenta aos movimentos do hiato do produto e suaviza intertemporalmente a taxa de juros de curto prazo. Ainda, a autoridade monetária reagiu com maior intensidade aos preços dos itens administrados nas gestões de Armínio Fraga e Henrique Meirelles e aos preços livres na gestão de Alexandre Tombini. Foram identificadas oscilações na função de reação em períodos de alta instabilidade financeira...