Visando contribuir para estratégias efetivas de conservação e manejo de espécies arbóreas do cerrado, cuja paisagem encontra-se altamente fragmentada, este trabalho objetivou estudar, por meio de oito locos microssatélites nucleares, a diversidade genética, a estrutura genética espacial intrapopulacional, o sistema de reprodução e o fluxo gênico em uma população de Copaifera langsdorffii Desf localizada na Estação Ecológica de Assis (EEA), oeste do Estado São Paulo. Copaifera langsdorffii é hermafrodita, polinizada por insetos e dispersa por barocoria e ornitocoria, com potencial econômico e de utilização na restauração florestal, além de apresentar ampla distribuição no cerrado. Neste estudo, o seguinte desenho amostral foi adotado: em uma parcela de 10,24 ha, estabelecida no interior da EEA foram mapeadas, amostradas e genotipadas todas as 57 árvores adultas. Para estudar a dispersão realizada de sementes, no centro da parcela foi estabelecida uma subparcela de 1,44 ha, onde todos os 147 jovens existentes também foram mapeados, amostrados e genotipados. Para comparar a diversidade genética, a endogamia e o sistema de reprodução entre árvores da parcela com árvores da borda do fragmento foram coletadas sementes de polinização aberta de 17 matrizes na parcela (340 sementes) e de 11 matrizes na borda (220 sementes). Os resultados mostraram que os adultos da parcela tinham maior heterozigosidade e menor endogamia do que a observada nos jovens e nas sementes...
Estudos anteriores têm mostrado performance satisfatória do modelo Century de Dinâmica da Matéria Orgânica aplicado às condições edafoclimáticas do Rio Grande do Sul, porém os estoques de N do solo foram normalmente superestimados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi parametrizar o submodelo do ciclo do N do Century para que este possa ser considerado uma ferramenta útil no estudo da dinâmica do N em nosso meio. As simulações foram realizadas com dados experimentais de um estudo de longo prazo instalado em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico da EEA-UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS). A parametrização inicial consistiu na entrada de dados de solo e clima, ajuste de parâmetros relacionados à adição de N por fixação não-simbiótica, perdas de N por volatilização e relação C/N de resíduos de culturas que entram nos compartimentos lento e passivo da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS). O modelo foi executado por um período de 6000 anos nas condições do bioma de campos nativos do Sul do Brasil para obtenção dos valores estáveis do carbono orgânico total (COT) e nitrogênio total (NT) e dos compartimentos de C e N orgânicos do solo. Em seguida simularam-se dois tratamentos (correspondentes a sistemas de manejo convencional e plantio direto) selecionados do experimento de longo prazo...
O potencial competitivo das plantas pelos recursos de crescimento do meio é afetado por suas características morfofisiológicas. Ainda não há consenso sobre qual característica da planta de arroz irrigado é mais importante na determinação da sua capacidade competitiva com as plantas daninhas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar características da planta de arroz irrigado por inundação que mais contribuam na competitividade da cultura. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se um experimento em campo no ano agrícola 2000/01, em Cachoeirinha-RS, com oito genótipos de arroz, cultivados na presença ou ausência do cultivar de arroz EEA 406, simulando infestação de arroz-vermelho. Foram avaliadas características das plantas de arroz na condição de ausência de competição e, por ocasião da colheita, determinou-se a redução de rendimento de grãos para cada genótipo, decorrente da competição com as plantas daninhas. Por meio de análise de regressão linear múltipla e correlação linear simples, determinou-se que a habilidade dos cultivares em sombrear o solo aos 60 dias após semeadura (DAS) foi a variável mais relacionada com o potencial competitivo, e que essa característica esteve especialmente associada com o acúmulo de massa aérea pelas plantas de arroz aos 15 DAS.; Competitive hability of plants for the use of environmental resources is affected by their morpho-physiological characteristics. There is no agreement on which rice plant characteristic is the most important in determining its competitive ability against weeds. This research aimed to identify flooded rice plant characteristics that contribute the most to its competitiveness. Thus...
The external policies of the European Union may be viewed as the outcome of the interaction between the Member States, the European Community (acting in the context of the ‘first pillar’) and the European Union (acting on the basis of the second and third pillars). This tripartite interaction, which involves a large number of actors operating within different institutional logics, makes it challenging for the Union to conduct coherent policies, or to fulfil its objective of affirming its identity on the world stage (Article 2 TEU). The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a particularly developed expression of a policy designed to meet the challenge of ensuring coherence between the three EU pillars. As an alternative mechanism designed to offer coherent policy-making in the cross-pillar context of relations with the EU’s strategically important neighbours, the ENP does not rely on new instruments but rather offers a way of integrating existing instruments via ‘soft’ frameworks, such as European Council and Council Conclusions and Commission policy papers. This paper aims to analyse the ENP as a contribution to the EU’s efforts to evolve a more coherent external action. Ukraine will serve as an example, as the advanced implementation of the ENP towards this country offers the best illustration of the policy...
At the beginning of the 1990s, the concept of “European integration” could still be said to be fairly unambiguous. Nowadays, it has become plural and complex almost to the point of unintelligibility. This is due, of course, to the internal differentiation of EU membership, with several Member States pulling out of key integrative projects such as establishing an area without frontiers, the “Schengen” area, and a common currency. But this is also due to the differentiated extension of key integrative projects to European non-EU countries – Schengen is again a case in point. Such processes of “integration without membership”, the focus of the present publication, are acquiring an ever-growing topicality both in the political arena and in academia. International relations between the EU and its neighbouring countries are crucial for both, and their development through new agreements features prominently on the continent’s political agenda. Over and above this aspect, the dissemination of EU values and standards beyond the Union’s borders raises a whole host of theoretical and methodological questions, unsettling in some cases traditional conceptions of the autonomy and separation of national legal orders. This publication brings together the papers presented at the Integration without EU Membership workshop held in May 2008 at the EUI (Max Weber Programme and Department of Law). It aims to compare different models and experiences of integration between the EU...
Differently from other international tribunals set up in the context of regional economic integrations, the existing relationship between the EFTA Court and the ECJ, having been “institutionalized” at a primary level by the EEA Agreement itself, is naturally apt to give rise to a structural, natural and original interdependence between the two phenomena of mirror jurisdiction and mirror legislation. The relevance of the ECJ case law for the EFTA case law is not limited to the references to the former court case law, which can be found in all the advisory opinions and in all the judgments given up to now by the latter. It also and above all reveals itself in the constant adoption both of the reasoning made by the ECJ and of the constitutional principles of EU law. By putting on the same level its jurisprudence and that of the ECJ, the EFTA Court attributes to both of them the same efficacy in terms of judicial precedent. This does not mean that the EFTA Court has restricted itself to passively adopt the ECJ case law. EFTA judges have had a relevant influence on the ECJ in the course of the years. In doing so the EFTA Court has built up a strong judicial dialogue with the ECJ, according to the EEA principle that the interpretation and application of EEA law and EU law must be carried out “in full deference to the independence of courts”. In some other cases the EFTA Court has even developed reasonings which seem to underline a detachment of the former from the criteria and principles adopted by the ECJ. In this context...
In October 2007, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Court confirmed that the doctrines of direct effect and primacy could not be generated by the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement alone. Rather, the effects of non-implemented EEA provisions were to remain in the hands of the EFTA States. Hence, the relevant question is what weight should be accorded to such norms in domestic law? The Icelandic Supreme Court has yet to take a stance on the direct effect question relation to incorrectly or insufficiently transposed EEA law. The issue has, however, been addressed several times in connection with the European Convention on Human Rights, before its incorporation. In order to address the unclear legal status of EEA norms in Icelandic law, this contribution takes a closer look at the judicial attitude of the Supreme Court taken towards international law in general and the Convention in particular. The perceived differences between EEA law and the Convention have made it easy for observers to dismiss such comparison on the grounds that the two kinds of legal regime are not readily comparable. The article questions these apparent differences by pointing out that EEA law in fact shares all of the features of the Convention that led judges to enforce it in the Icelandic legal order.
Fonte: Martinus Nijhoff PublishersPublicador: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
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This book collects a large number of essays written in honour of Professor Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann by his friends, colleagues and former students. The respective contributions cover the fields of International Economic Law, International Constitutional Law/Transnational Constitutionalism, EU Law and Human Rights. The broad thematic scope of this book mirrors the extremely large field of interests of the jubilarian. Paying tribute to a particular trait of Professor Petersmann´s character who was always both a dogmatic thinker and a curious researcher, the authors try to cover both structural issues of law as well as most recent developments, in particular in the field of International Economic Law. “Construing” the constitution of International Economic Law, in both senses of this activity, was an aim throughout Professor Petersmann´s academic career and this goal stands also at the heart of this book.; -- Preface, Marise Cremona, Peter Hilpold, Nikos Lavranos, Stefan Staiger Schneider and Andreas R. Ziegler
INSTITUTIONAL AND SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES IN EUROPEAN LAW
-- Liberalization of Trade in Goods in the EEC: Origin and Early Evolution, Federico Ortino
-- The ‘Politicization’ of the EU’S Common Commercial Policy – Approaching the “Post-Lockean” Era...
Fonte: Instituto Universitário EuropeuPublicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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At the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the enactment of the EEA Agreement, this article reviews the State aid enforcement against Iceland established by its legal regime. The main State aid enforcement events are closely linked with the main events of the political and economic history of Iceland during the same period. In a narrative style, the arti- cle tells a tale of an economic modernisation that went horribly wrong. In the foreground are State aid cases involving several important policy decisions of the Icelandic government during this twenty year period. We shall see that the implementation of the policy programs was fundamentally flawed. We shall also see that the State aid regime of the EEA Agree- ment consistently failed in pursuing aid issues that could to some extent have mitigated these flaws. In an attempt to explain this tendency it is suggested that the principal enforce- ment agency is vulnerable towards political pressures that may at times overwhelm the legal and economic dimensions of specific cases.
Fonte: European Geosciences UnionPublicador: European Geosciences Union
Tipo: Articles in JournalsFormato: Printed
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A synthesis inversion based on the atmospheric zoom model TM5 is used to derive top-down estimates of CH4 emissions from individual European countries for the year 2001. We employ a model zoom over Europe with 1×1 resolution that is two-way nested into the global model domain (with resolution of 6×4). This approach ensures consistent boundary conditions for the zoom domain and thus European top-down estimates consistent with global CH4 observations. The TM5 model, driven by ECMWF
analyses, simulates synoptic scale events at most European and global sites fairly well, and the use of high-frequency observations allows exploiting the information content of individual synoptic events. A detailed source attribution is presented for a comprehensive set of 56 monitoring sites, assigning the atmospheric signal to the emissions of individual European countries and larger global regions.
The available observational data put significant constraints on emissions from different regions. Within Europe, in particular several Western European countries are well constrained. The inversion results suggest up to 50–90% higher anthropogenic CH4 emissions in 2001 for Germany, France and UK compared to reported UNFCCC values (EEA, 2003). A recent revision of the German inventory...
KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; GERGELY Balazs; ANFOSSO Fabienne; PAVIOTTI Marco; DE VOS Paul
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de AcusticaPublicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica
Tipo: Contributions to ConferencesFormato: CD-ROM
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In the context of the European Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END), the European Commission decided to prepare Common NOise aSSessment methOdS (CNOSSOS-EU) for road, railway, aircraft and industrial noise in order to improve the reliability and the comparability of results across the EU Member States. This paper will present the rationale behind the selection of ECAC Doc. 29 3rd Ed to form the basis for the aircraft module of CNOSSOS-EU provided that a list of modifications/amendments of ECAC Doc. 29 3rd Ed. will be performed. This has been suggested by European aircraft noise experts participated in the Workshop on ¿Aircraft Noise Prediction¿ organised by DG Joint Research Centre jointly with DG Environment of the European Commission on 19-20 January 2010 in Brussels. The modifications/amendments mainly concern the ICAO ANP Database, methodological aspects of the ECAC doc 29 3rd Ed. and the future of ECAC doc 29. 3rd Ed., Vol. 3. It was recommended and strongly desired to reach agreement at international level which could best be achieved through the ICAO environmental committee, CAEP part of which will be all relevant stakeholders including the European Forum (DG ENV, DG TREN, DG JRC, EU MS, EASA, EEA) associated to the implementation of the END.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing
Defence date: 21 January 2013; Examining Board: Professor Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, European University Institute (Supervisor); Professor M. Elvira Mendez-Pinedo, University of Iceland (external co-supervisor); Professor Miguel Poiares Maduro, European University Institute; Judge Páll Hreinsson, EFTA Court.; Doctrines developed by the EFTA Court have placed considerable demands on the various national courts in the EFTA States. The Court now considers the EEA Agreement to form an "international treaty sui generis which contains a distinct legal order of its own." This thesis will study the interaction between the EFTA Court and Icelandic courts. The basis of this research rests on two levels. At the EEA level, it is the ECJ and the EFTA Court that form the basis of the study. At the national level, the thesis studies Icelandic Supreme Court and district court decisions. I will approach the question of the impact of EEA law on Icelandic domestic law from two dimensions: substantive and procedural. In substantive terms, the study examines fundamental European judgemade principles, as well as the impact these doctrines have had on Icelandic law. This will indicate how Icelandic courts deal with potential conflicts of law between EEA and Icelandic law...