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How Does Public Information on Central Bank Intervention Strategies Affect Exchange Rate Volatility?

Mundaca, B. Gabriela
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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36.42%
Intervention operations in the foreign exchange market are used by the Banco Central de Reserva del Peru to manage both the level and volatility of their exchange rates. The Banco Central de Reserva del Peru provides information to the market about the specific hours of the day interventions would take place and the total amount of intervention. It consistently buys and sells on the foreign exchange market to avoid large appreciations and depreciations of the Peruvian nuevo sol against the U.S. dollar (Sol/USD), respectively. The estimates in this paper indicate that past information on interventions has moved the sol in the intended direction but only during the time the Banco Central de Reserva del Peru has announced it would be active in the foreign exchange market. The authors also find that the expectation of future interventions by the Banco Central de Reserva del Peru decreases the volatility of the sol when it intervenes to avoid an appreciation of the sol; however, the opposite occurs when the intervention takes place to defend the sol from depreciation. Indeed...

Exchange Rate Uncertainty and Optimal Participation in International Trade

Mundaca, Gabriela
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
Instead of just focusing on the effect of exchange rate levels (undervalued or overvalued exchange rates) on trade, this paper provides an analysis of the effects of exchange rate volatility levels on international trade. Intuitively, an increase in exchange rate volatility leads to uncertainty for agents participating in international trade, and such uncertainty might have a negative impact on international trade flows and participation, thereby reducing the advantages of world-wide specialization. This is especially crucial for countries where exchange rate derivatives markets are not yet well developed and the costs of hedging exchange rate risk are very high. The model here considers optimal decisions about participation in international trade under uncertainty about the exchange rate. The main conclusion is that a high level of exchange rate volatility can deter entrepreneurs from becoming exporters, even though exporting can be highly profitable. For those already participating in international trade...

Assessing Real Exchange Rate Misalignments

Kubota, Megumi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
There is a renewed debate on the role of exchange rate policies as an industrial policy tool in both academic and policy circles. Policy practitioners usually examine real exchange rate misalignments to monitor the behavior of this key relative price and, if possible, exploit distortions in the traded and non-traded relative price to promote growth. Anecdotal evidence shows that some countries have pursued very active exchange rate policies to promote the export sector and enhance growth by undervaluing their currencies. The main goal of this paper is to provide a systematic characterization of real exchange rate undervaluations. The long-run real exchange rate equation is estimated using: (a) Johansen time series cointegration estimates, and (b) pooled mean group estimates for non-stationary panel data. The paper constructs a dataset of real undervaluation episodes. It first evaluates whether (and if so, to what extent) economic policies can be used to either cause or sustain real undervaluations. In this context the paper empirically models the likelihood and magnitude of sustaining real exchange rate undervaluations by examining their link to policy instruments (such as exchange rate regimes and capital controls...

Does Higher Openness Cause More Real Exchange Rate Volatility?

Calderón, César; Kubota, Megumi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The "New Open Economy Macroeconomics" argues that: (a) non-monetary factors have gained importance in explaining exchange rate volatility, and (b) trade and financial openness may have a potential role of mitigating and/or amplifying real and nominal shocks to real exchange rates. The goal of the present paper is to examine the ability of trade and financial openness to exacerbate or mitigate real exchange rate volatility. The authors collected information on the real effective exchange rate, its fundamentals, and (outcome and policy measures of) trade and financial openness for a sample of industrial and developing countries for the period 1975-2005. Using instrumental variables techniques, the analysis finds that: (a) High real exchange rate volatility is the result of highly volatile productivity shocks, and sharp oscillations in monetary and fiscal policy shocks. (b) Countries more integrated with international markets of goods and services tend to display more stable real exchange rate fluctuations. (c) Financial openness seems to amplify the fluctuations in real exchange rates. (d) The composition of trade and capital flows plays a role in explaining the smoothing properties of trade and financial openness. Although the former is mainly driven by manufacturing trade...

Exchange Rates during the Crisis

Weber, Sebastian; Wyplosz, Charles
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Nearly two years after the onset of the financial crises, many central banks have brought their policy interest rates down to, or close to zero. Various governments have seen their budget deficits soar. Both policies have affected exchange rates, partly through market expectations. With a majority of exchange rates officially floating, exchange rate movements do not necessarily reflect official decisions as was the case in the 1930s. Yet, also in the 2008 crisis, authorities have directly intervened in the foreign exchange market, sometimes in order to defend a falling currency but in other instances with the aim to limit appreciation pressure, akin of competitive devaluations. This paper documents the exchange rate interventions during the height of the 2008/09 financial crisis and identifies the countries which have particular high incentives to intervene in the foreign exchange market to competitively devalue their currency. While various countries had increased incentives to devalue, we find that direct exchange rate interventions have been rather limited and contagion of devaluation has been restricted to one regionally contained case. However...

Real Exchange Rates, Saving and Growth : Is There a Link ?

Montiel, Peter J.; Servén, Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The view that policies directed at the real exchange rate can have an important effect on economic growth has been gaining adherents in recent years. Unlike the traditional "misalignment" view that temporary departures of the real exchange rate from its equilibrium level harm growth by distorting a key relative price in the economy, the recent literature stresses the growth effects of the equilibrium real exchange rate itself, with the claim being that a depreciated equilibrium real exchange rate promotes economic growth. While there is no consensus on the precise channels through which this effect is generated, an increasingly common view in policy circles points to saving as the channel of transmission, with the claim that a depreciated real exchange rate raises the domestic saving rate -- which in turn stimulates growth by increasing the rate of capital accumulation. This paper offers a preliminary exploration of this claim. Drawing from standard analytical models, stylized facts on saving and real exchange rates...

Estimating the Half-Life of Theoretically Founded Real Exchange Rate Misalignments

Kubota, Megumi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This paper models empirically the short and long-term behavior of the real exchange rate misalignment -- a key variable in academic and policy circles. The equilibrium real exchange rate is derived from a theoretical model with intertemporal external equilibrium and internal equilibrium (in traded and non-traded markets) based on the current account dynamics and Harrod-Balassa-Samuelson productivity, respectively. This provides a bridge between theory and empirics that links the real exchange rate and its fundamentals (terms of trade, the ratio of net foreign assets to gross domestic product, and productivity differentials). The paper contributes to the literature by: (a) estimating an unrestricted vector error correction model that examines the short-term dynamics of real exchange rate misalignments and links these deviations with shocks to fundamentals from 1970 to 2010, and (b) computing the speed of reversion of real exchange rate misalignments with respect to a fundamentals-based equilibrium level. The paper reconciles two strands of the empirical literature that estimate the half-life of purchasing power parity deviations: one...

How to Move the Exchange Rate If You Must : The Diverse Practice of Foreign Exchange Intervention by Central Banks and a Proposal for Doing It Better

Basu, Kaushik; Varoudakis, Aristomene
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
The paper is about the art of exchange rate management by central banks. It begins by reviewing the diversity of objectives and practices of central bank intervention in the foreign exchange market. Central banks typically exercise discretion in determining when and to what extent to intervene. Some central banks use publicly declared rules of intervention, with the aim of increasing visibility and strengthening the signaling channel of policy. There is tentative evidence that the volatility of foreign exchange reserves is comparatively lower in emerging market economies where central banks follow some form of rules-based foreign exchange intervention. The paper goes on to argue that when the foreign exchange market includes some large strategic participants, the central bank can achieve superior outcomes if intervention takes the form of a rule, or "schedule," indicating commitments to buying and selling different quantities of foreign currency conditional on the exchange rate. Exchange rate management and reserve management can then be treated as two independent objectives by the central bank. In line with the stylized facts reviewed...

Banking Crises and Exchange Rate Regimes : Is There a Link?

Domac, Ilker; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The authors investigate the links between banking crises, and exchange rate regimes, using a comprehensive data set that includes developed, and developing countries over the last two decades. In particular, they examine whether the choice of exchange rate regime affects the likelihood, cost, and duration of banking crises. Empirical results indicate that adopting a fixed exchange rate, diminishes the likelihood of a banking crisis in developing countries. But once a banking crisis occurs, its real costs - in terms of forgone output growth - are higher for countries with more stringent exchange rate requirements. The duration of crises seems not to be affected by exchange rate policy. Instead, it is influenced mainly by the size of the credit boom before the crisis.

Exchange Dublin an unvitation to the city

Oliveira, Cátia Alexandra Sobrinho de
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 Português
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36.43%
O presente relatório de estágio diz respeito ao trabalho final do Mestrado em Turismo e Comunicação, ministrado em parceria pela Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, pela Escola Superior de Hotelaria e Turismo do Estoril e pelo Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território. O estágio em questão foi realizado ao abrigo do protocolo “Erasmus – Programa de Aprendizagem ao Longo da Vida” e teve lugar em Dublin, na Irlanda. “Exchange Dublin – An Invitation to the City” retrata a realidade de um centro de artes colectivas sem fins lucrativos em Temple Bar, Dublin. A Exchange Dublin tem como tema central as actividades artísticas e culturais, sendo que disponibiliza um espaço livre para a realização de exposições de arte e do mais variado tipo de eventos, tais como concertos musicais, exibições de filmes e documentários, peças de teatro e artes performativas, oficinas de arte, música, fotografia, entre outros, mercados de artesanato, conferências e painéis de discussão dos mais variados temas, aulas de arte, dança, fitness, yoga e meditação, entre outros, e reuniões de grupos temáticos, cujos temas centrais se focam, por exemplo, em poesia, literatura, fotografia, videojogos, audiovisual...

Over the Hedge : Exchange Rate Volatility, Commodity Price Correlations, and the Structure of Trade

Raddatz, Claudio
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
A long empirical literature has examined the idea that, in the absence of hedging mechanisms, currency risk should have an adverse effect on the export volumes of risk averse exporters. But there are no clear conclusions from this literature, and the current consensus seems to be that there is at most a weak negative effect of exchange rate volatility on aggregate trade flows. However, most of this literature examines the impact of exchange rate volatility on aggregate trade flows, implicitly assuming a uniform impact of this volatility on exporters across sectors. This paper explots the fact that, if exchange rate volatility is detrimental for trade, firms exporting goods that offer a natural hedge against exchange rate fluctuations -- i.e. those whose international price is negatively correlated with the nominal exchange rate of the country where they operate -- should be relatively benefited in environments of high exchange rate volatility, and capture a larger share of the country's export basket. This hypothesis is tested using detailed data on the composition of trade of 132 countries at 4-digit SITC level. The results show that the commodities that offer natural hedge capture a larger share of a country's export basket when the exchange rate is volatile...

Aid Inflows and the Real Effective Exchange Rate in Tanzania

Li, Ying; Rowe, Francis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Tanzania is well placed to receive a significant increase in aid inflows in coming years. Despite the potential for the additional aid inflows to raise income levels in the country, increasing them may bring about structural changes in the economy that may be unwelcome. One such change is an appreciation of the real exchange rate that leads to a contraction of traditional export sectors and a loss of export competitiveness. This paper employs a reduced-form equilibrium real exchange rate approach to explain movements in Tanzania's real effective exchange in recent decades. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between aid inflows and the real effective exchange rate. The authors find that the long-run behavior of the real effective exchange rate is influenced by terms of trade movements, the government's trade liberalization efforts, and aid inflows. Positive terms-of-trade movements are associated with an appreciation, periods of improving trade liberalization are associated with a depreciation...

Exchange Rate Overvaluation and Trade Protection; Lessons from Experience

Shatz, Howard J.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Despite a trend toward more flexible rates, more than half the world's countries maintain fixed or managed exchange rates. In the 1980s and 1990s, developing countries as a group progressively liberalized their trade regimes, but some governments defend their exchange rate in actions that run counter to long-run plans for liberalization. Without discussing the relative merits of fixed and flexible exchange rate systems, the authors note that exchange rate management in many countries has resulted in overvaluation of the real exchange rate. Roughly twenty five percent of the countries for which data are available have overvalued exchange rates, with black market premiums from 10 percent to more than 100 percent. After surveying the literature, the authors present lessons from experience about what has worked (or not) in response to crises involving external shocks and external trade deficits - and why. Trying to defend an overvalued exchange rate with protectionist trade policies is a classic pattern, but experience shows such protection does significantly retard the country's growth...

The Impact of the Strong Euro on the Real Effective Exchange Rates of the Two Francophone African CFA Zones

Zafar, Ali
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.42%
The author estimates the degree of misalignment of the CFA franc since the introduction of the euro in 1999. Using a relative purchasing power parity-based methodology, he develops a monthly panel time series dataset for both the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) zone and the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) zone to compute a trade-weighted real effective exchange rate indexed series from January 1999 to December 2004. The author's main finding is that the real effective exchange rate appreciated by close to 8 percent in UEMOA and 7 percent in CEMAC, influenced by volatility in the euro-dollar bilateral exchange rate and conservative monetary policies in the two zones, resulting in a partial loss of competitiveness in export markets. The lower appreciation in Central Africa can be explained by lower inflation in CEMAC than in UEMOA and by the greater trade with higher inflation East Asian countries, partially offset by the peg to the dollar. However, the inclusion of "unrecorded trade" results in an appreciation of only 6 percent in the UEMOA zone and 6 percent in the CEMAC zone due to higher inflation in the two countries with unmonitored cross-border flows, Ghana and Nigeria. Using time series econometrics...

Proposed Strategy for a Regional Exchange Rate Arrangement in Post-Crisis East Asia

Kawai, Masahiro; Takagi, Shinji
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
After discussing major conceptual, and empirical issues relevant to the exchange rate policies of East Asian countries, the authors propose a regional exchange rate arrangement designed to promote intra-regional exchange rate stability, and regional economic growth. They argue that: 1) For developing countries, exchange rate volatility tends to significantly hurt trade and investment, making it inadvisable to adopt a system of freely floating exchange rates. 2) Given the high share of intra-regional trade, and the similarity of trade composition in East Asia, exchange rate policy should be directed toward maintaining intra-regional exchange rate stability, to promote trade, investment, and economic growth. 3) the current policy of maintaining exchange rate stability against U.S. dollar as an informal, uncoordinated mechanisms for ensuring intra-regional exchange rate stability is sub-optimal. A pragmatic policy option - conducive to a more robust framework for cooperation in monetary, and exchange rate policy - wold be a coordinated action to shift the target of nominal exchange rate stability...

Implications of the Currency Crisis for Exchange Rate Arrangements in Emerging East Asia

Kawai, Masahiro; Akiyama, Shigeru
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The authors examine the implications of the East Asian currency crisis for exchange rate arrangements in the region's emerging market economies. They focus on the roles of the U.S. dollar, the Japanese yen, and the euro in the emerging East Asian economies' exchange rate policies. They claim that these economies are particularly susceptible to large exchange rate fluctuations because they have been pursuing financial deregulation, opening markets, and liberalizing capital accounts, and because they face increased risk of sudden capital flow reversals, with attendant instability in their financial system and foreign exchange market. The authors find that the dollar's role as the dominant anchor currency in East Asia was reduced during the recent currency crisis but has become prominent again since late 1998. It is too early for conclusions, but the economies seem likely to maintain more flexible exchange rate arrangements, at least officially. At the same time, these economies presumably will continue to prefer to maintain exchange rate stability without fixed rate commitments. They are better off choosing a balanced currency basket system in which the yen and the euro play a more important role than before. The ASEAN countries have a special incentive to avoid harmful fluctuations in exchange rates within the region...

Converting and Transferring Currency : Benchmarking Foreign Exchange Restrictions to Foreign Direct Investment Across Economies

Anderson, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
The ease of converting and transferring currency is a crucial consideration for firms investing in a foreign economy. The Converting and Transferring Currency data and indicators measure foreign exchange restrictions most relevant for foreign direct investment across economies to identify common policies and benchmark the restrictiveness of economies' foreign exchange regimes. Of 98 economies included in the analysis, 53 economies maintain generally unrestricted foreign exchange regimes for foreign direct investment. But 24 economies impose moderate to heavy restrictions across most transactions covered by the Converting and Transferring Currency indicators, with another 21 economies imposing administrative or procedural requirements. All high-income economies measured by the Converting and Transferring Currency data maintain unrestricted foreign exchange regimes for foreign direct investment, and the two poorest regions of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are the most restrictive regions on average. Still, there is significant variation in restrictiveness across economies at similar income levels: 38 percent of low-income and lower-middle-income economies impose moderate to heavy restrictions on transactions covered by the Converting and Transferring Currency data...

Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Constraints, and Trade : Empirical Evidence from Chinese Firms

Heericourt, Jerome; Poncet, Sandra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This paper studies how firm-level export performance is affected by Real Exchange Rate (RER) volatility and investigates whether this effect depends on existing financial constraints. The empirical analysis relies on export data for more than 100,000 Chinese exporters over the 2000-6 period. The results confirm a trade-deterring effect of RER volatility. Firms' decision to begin exporting and the exported value decrease for destinations with higher exchange rate volatility; besides, this effect is magnified for financially vulnerable firms. As expected, financial development seems to dampen this negative impact, especially on the intensive margin of export. These results provide micro-founded evidence suggesting that the existence of well-developed financial markets allows firms to hedge exchange rate risk. The results also support a key role of financial constraints in determining the macro impact of RER volatility on real outcomes.

Is There Room for Foreign Exchange Interventions Under an Inflation Targeting Framework? Evidence from Mexico and Turkey

Domaç, Ilker; Mendoza, Alfonso
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
The salient characteristics of emerging market economies coupled with the increasing adoption of inflation targeting in these countries has stimulated much debate about the role of the exchange rate in inflation targeting regimes. The authors aim at shedding more light on this issue by investigating whether central bank foreign exchange interventions have had any impact on the volatility of the exchange rate in Mexico and Turkey since the adoption of the floating regime. To this end, their study, using daily data on foreign exchange intervention, employs an Exponential GARCH framework. Empirical results suggest that both the amount and frequency of foreign exchange interventions have decreased the volatility of the exchange rates in these countries. The authors' findings corroborate the notion that if foreign exchange interventions are carried out with finesse and sensibly-that is, not to defend a particular exchange rate-they could play a useful role in containing the adverse effects of temporary exchange rate shocks on inflation and financial stability.

Does the Exchange Rate Regime Affect Macroeconomic Performance : Evidence from Transition Economics

Domac, Ilker; Peters, Kyle; Yuzefovich, Yevgeny
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
To examine whether a country's exchange rate regime has any impact on inflation and growth performance in transition economies, the authors develop an empirical framework that addresses some of the main problems plaguing empirical work in this strand of the literature: the Lucas critique, the endogeneity of the exchange rate regime, and the sample selection problem. Empirical results demonstrate that the exchange rate regime does affect inflation performance. the results suggest that: 1) Transition countries with intermediate arrangements might reduce inflation if they were to adopt a fixed regime. 2) Switching from a floating regime to an intermediate regime might not reduce inflation. 3) An unanticipated float--when a country whose fundamentals make it unlikely to adopt another regime adopts a floating regime--results in lower inflation. Based on their results, it is not possible to infer more about one particular exchange rate regime being superior to another in terms of growth performance. But empirical findings do underscore the different effects that policy variables--and other variables influencing economic activity--have on growth under different exchange-rate arrangements.