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Contribution to economic evaluation of systems that value animal welfare at farm

Raineri, Camila; Antonelli, Renan; Prosdocimi Nunes, Bruno C.; Simionato de Barros, Carina; Tarazona Morales, Ariel M.; Gameiro, Augusto H.
Fonte: UNIV ANTIOQUIA, FAC CIENCIAS AGRARIAS; MEDELLIN Publicador: UNIV ANTIOQUIA, FAC CIENCIAS AGRARIAS; MEDELLIN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
The demand for "welfare friendly" products increases as public conscience and perception on livestock production systems grow. The public and policy-makers demand scientific information for education and to guide decision processes. This paper describes some of the last decade contributions made by scientists on the technical, economical and market areas of farm animal welfare. Articles on animal welfare were compiled on the following themes: 1) consumer behavior, 2) technical and economical viability, 3) public regulation, and 4) private certification policies. Most studies on the economic evaluation of systems that promote animal welfare involved species destined to produce export items, such as eggs, beef and pork. Few studies were found on broilers, dairy cows and fish, and data regarding other species, such as horses, sheep and goats were not found. Scientists understand that farm animal welfare is not only a matter of ethics, but also an essential tool to gain and maintain markets. However, it is unfortunate that little attention is paid to species that are not economically important for exports. Studies that emphasize on more humane ways to raise animals and that provide economic incentives to the producer are needed. An integrated multidisciplinary approach is necessary to highlight the benefits of introducing animal welfare techniques to existing production systems.

Avaliação econômica de quatro modelos agroflorestais em áreas degradadas por pastagens na Amazônia ocidental.; Economic evaluation of four agroforestry systems models in degraded pastures areas in the ocidental Amazon.

Santos, Mario Jorge Campos dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/01/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade econômica de quatro sistemas agroflorestais em área com pastagem degradada na Amazônia Ocidental. A área escolhida para o desenvolvimento desta pesquisa está localizada na Estação Experimental da EMBRAPA/CPAA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisas Agropecuárias - Centro de Pesquisas Agroflorestais da Amazônia Ocidental) no Distrito Agropecuário da SUFRAMA - DAS, Km 54 da BR-174 (Manaus-Boa Vista- Brasil), em áreas de terra firme. Os modelos agroflorestais analisados foram implantados seguindo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos, 3 repetições e a pastagem abandonada como testemunha, em parcelas de 3.000 m 2 (60m x 50m), com uma área total de 4,5 ha. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos da seguinte forma: ASP-1 (Sistema Agrossilvipastoril – altos insumos); SP2 (Sistema Agrossilvipastoril – baixos insumos); AS1 (Sistema Agrossilvicultural – baixos insumos com palmeiras); AS2 (Sistema agrossilvicultural – baixos insumos multiestrato) e pastagem abandonada (testemunha). Houve aplicação de insumos para correção de acidez e fertilidade do solo. A avaliação econômica dos sistemas agroflorestais analisados baseou-se no cálculo do valor presente líquido dos respectivos fluxos de caixa constituídos a partir da presuposição que os mesmos podem ser repetidos perpetuamente. Os resultados obtidos...

Avaliação econômica do impacto da atividade de atenção farmacêutica na assistência à saúde: aspectos metodológicos; Economic evaluation of Pharmaceutical Care activity impact in health assistance: methodological aspects.

Carvalho, Felipe Dias
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/11/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
A atenção farmacêutica (ATENFAR) é uma nova prática clínica, inerente ao profissional farmacêutico, que tem como principais objetivos a prevenção de doenças, a promoção e a recuperação da saúde de usuários de serviços sanitários, através do fomento ao uso racional de medicamentos. Vários estudos realizados no Brasil e no exterior mostram que a atividade de ATENFAR pode propiciar muitos benefícios aos tratamentos de saúde que fazem uso de farmacoterapia, resultando no aumento da efetividade do tratamento e na melhoria da qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Além disso, alguns estudos mostram que a ATENFAR exerce influência sobre os custos assistenciais, sendo esta informação de grande importância para que se discuta a inserção desta prática em programas de saúde coletiva. Devido à escassez de estudos econômicos sobre serviços de ATENFAR, este trabalho visou, através de pesquisa bibliográfica, levantar informações acerca dos temas Economia da Saúde, Atenção Farmacêutica e Avaliação em Saúde e discutir criticamente a aplicabilidade e adequação dessas informações aos referidos estudos. A análise das publicações encontradas através da revisão bibliográfica realizada permitiu concluir que: o As análises econômicas tipo custo-minimização...

Avaliação econômica de uma operação de impacto reduzido em uma propriedade privada no estado amazônico de Rondônia; Economic evaluation of a reduced impact logging operation in a private property in the Amazonia State of Rondônia

Sartori, Roberto Scorsatto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
As florestas desempenham funções econômicas, ecológicas e sociais insubstituíveis, e muito se especula e experimenta sobre a possibilidade desses recursos poderem simultaneamente gerar renda e serem conservados por meio de técnicas de exploração de impacto reduzido. No Brasil, um novo marco regulatório foi estabelecido em 2006 para ordenar o manejo de florestas públicas e os processos de concessões dessas áreas para o setor privado. Todavia, ainda não se observa redução significativa na dinâmica predatória e ilegal de exploração dessas florestas naturais, principalmente em biomas como o Amazônico. Este trabalho descreve o processo de estabelecimento e execução de um plano de manejo, os gargalos do processo e a avaliação econômica de um projeto no estado de Rondônia. A avaliação utilizou a simulação Monte Carlo e indicadores financeiros para avaliar, sob condições de aleatoriedade, o desempenho econômico do referido projeto. Conceitos baseados no valor presente líquido e na taxa interna de retorno foram aplicados para avaliar esse desempenho. Os resultados mostraram que a exploração de impacto reduzido e a venda de toras para serrarias no estado de Rondônia é viável técnica e economicamente. Em uma área de 560ha de manejo anuais e com um investimento de aproximadamente R$ 800.000...

Sistematização e análise da avaliação econômica de projetos de desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços; Systematization and analysis of economic evaluation of products and services development projects

Rodrigues, Kênia Fernandes de Castro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
No contexto da avaliação econômica de projetos de desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços percebem-se muitas dificuldades: ausência de classificação dos métodos de avaliação de investimentos apropriados para o contexto de priorização e seleção de projetos; ausência de sistematização das condições necessárias (conhecimentos, informações, habilidades, formulações e critérios de avaliação) à aplicação dos métodos; ausência de um framework de avaliação econômica que integre condições necessárias para a aplicação dos métodos com o apoio à escolha e aplicação de métodos de avaliação de investimentos apropriados aos conhecimentos disponíveis. Com o objetivo de superar tais dificuldades, essa pesquisa propõe uma sistematização e análise da avaliação econômica de projetos de desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços para poder apoiar a escolha e aplicação de métodos. O método de pesquisa adotado consiste em múltiplos estudos de casos. A pesquisa compreende três fases: (1) Aquisição de conhecimentos; (2) Sistematização da avaliação econômica, com base na revisão bibliográfica e em pesquisa de campo exploratória; (3) Análise da avaliação econômica com base em sete casos. Os resultados colaboram com evidências de que uma sistematização da avaliação econômica pode apoiar a escolha e a aplicação de métodos de avaliação de investimentos para a priorização e seleção de projetos de desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços conforme os conhecimentos disponíveis. Além disso...

Uso de metamodelos na seleção de estrategias de produção e avaliação economica de campos de petroleo; Use of proxy models in the selection of production strategy and economic evaluation of petroleum fields

Guilherme Daniel Avansi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
O processo tradicional de estratégia de produção demanda muitas simulações, devido ao alto número de variáveis e combinações. Devido à impossibilidade de investigar todas as alternativas, processos tradicionais levam a resultados sub-ótimos. Processos automatizados podem resolver em partes esse problema, porém o tempo computacional se eleva devido ao acréscimo do número de simulações geradas no processo. Dentro desta perspectiva, este trabalho propõe uma metodologia de aplicação de metamodelos no processo de estratégia de produção e na avaliação econômica de campos de petróleo, possibilitando um número maior de alternativas e aumentando as chances de melhores decisões na escolha da estratégia de produção de campos de petróleo, sendo que metamodelos já foram utilizados em outras áreas (análise de risco, ajuste de histórico etc.). Os metamodelos estudados e aplicados envolvem: métodos estatísticos; planejamento estatístico; metodologia de superfície de resposta e teste de consistência. Os metamodelos utilizados neste trabalho mostraram que podem ser utilizados para seleção de estratégias de produção, trazendo uma opção adicional ao processo além de encontrar soluções que não são observadas pelos métodos tradicionais...

Metodologia de avaliação econômica de projetos de petróleo com emprego de cópulas e processos estocásticos autorregressivos; Economic evaluation methodology of oil projects using copulas and stochastic autoregressive processes

João Bosco Dias Marques
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
Esta tese, de caráter metodológico, é uma proposta de análise econômica de projetos de petróleo com emprego de cópulas e processos estocásticos autorregressivos envolvendo cinco variáveis fundamentais: o preço da commodity, a taxa mínima de atratividade (TMA), o custo de investimento (CAPEX), o custo operacional (OPEX) e a curva de produção de óleo. A premissa é a existência de uma estratégia de produção já estabelecida, de preferência decorrente de metodologias validadas em simulação numérica de reservatórios. O fluxo de caixa do projeto é baseado numa formulação simplificada de VPL e num modelo analítico de produção condicionado à referida estratégia. Para a aplicação desta metodologia são estimados modelos da família GARCH e ARMA para o preço do óleo e TMA, cópulas Arquimedianas para o CAPEX e o OPEX e cópulas elípticas para as variáveis que compõem a curva analítica de produção. Uma solução computacional, desenvolvida para a validação desta tese, possibilita não só a estimativa dos modelos como a incorporação destes no fluxo de caixa de um projeto de petróleo, tanto em regime de concessão como de partilha de produção. A matriz de incertezas combina os atributos preço e taxa para três cenários econômicos...

The evaluation of treatment services and systems for substance use disorders

Rush,Brian
Fonte: Sociedade de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Sociedade de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Scientific research and program evaluation have not played a major role in shaping the development of treatment services and systems in most countries. This has led to disparities in the development, management and monitoring of national treatment systems. In the evaluation of treatment for substance use disorders, the evaluation practitioner will usually be working at one of five levels: single case, treatment activity, treatment service, treatment agency or treatment system. One of the major barriers to undertaking internal program evaluation is the belief that it is a complicated research process best left to those with specific research training. Program managers and staff can plan and initiate an evaluation process for their program if they have access to research expertise when needed for certain parts of the process. There are seven main components of an evaluation process that can be planned and implemented: need assessment; evaluation planning, process evaluation, cost analysis, client satisfaction evaluation, outcome evaluation and economic evaluation. However, evaluation is more than the techniques and technology required to implement these types of activities. It also involves the routine questioning of current practice even if the feedback may be less positive than anticipated. A healthy culture for evaluation is one in which feedback loops are woven into the fabric of the treatment service or system. There are many barriers to evaluation in substance abuse services but these barriers can be overcome with careful planning and commitment to the delivery of evidence-based services.

Economic evaluation in the context of rare diseases: is it possible?

Silva,Everton Nunes da; Sousa,Tanara Rosângela Vieira
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
This study analyzes the available evidence on the adequacy of economic evaluation for decision-making on the incorporation or exclusion of technologies for rare diseases. The authors conducted a structured literature review in MEDLINE via PubMed, CRD, LILACS, SciELO, and Google Scholar (gray literature). Economic evaluation studies had their origins in Welfare Economics, in which individuals maximize their utilities based on allocative efficiency. There is no widely accepted criterion in the literature to weigh the expected utilities, in the sense of assigning more weight to individuals with greater health needs. Thus, economic evaluation studies do not usually weigh utilities asymmetrically (that is, everyone is treated equally, which in Brazil is also a Constitutional principle). Healthcare systems have ratified the use of economic evaluation as the main tool to assist decision-making. However, this approach does not rule out the use of other methodologies to complement cost-effectiveness studies, such as Person Trade-Off and Rule of Rescue.

Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) Economic Evaluation of Low Volume Roads

Archondo-Callao, Rodrigo S.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
This note presents the Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) that performs an economic evaluation of road investments, and maintenance options, customized to the characteristics of low-volume roads, such as: high uncertainty of the assessment of traffic, road condition, and future maintenance of unpaved roads; periods with pass disruptions; levels of service, and corresponding road user costs defined not only through roughness; high potential to influence economic development; and, beneficiaries, other than motorized road users. The model computes benefits accruing to normal, generated, and diverted traffic, as a function of a reduction in vehicle operating, and time costs, and, adopts the consumer surplus approach, which measures the benefits of road users, and consumers of reduced transport costs. RED addresses, among others, the following additional concerns: reduce input requirements for low-volume roads; consider the higher uncertainty, related to input requirements; compute internally the traffic generated due to decreased transport costs...

Notes on the Economic Evaluation of Transport Projects

Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
In response to many requests for help in the application of both conventional cost benefit analysis in transport and addressing of the newer topics of interest, we have prepared a series of Economic Evaluation Notes that provide guidance on some of issues that have proven more difficult to deal with. The Economic Evaluation Notes are arranged in three groups. The first group (TRN-6 to TRN-10) provides criteria for selection a particular evaluation technique or approach; the second (TRN-11 to TRN-17) addresses the selection of values of various inputs to the evaluation, and the third (TRN-18 to TRN-26) deals with specific problematic issues in economic evaluation. The Notes are preceded by a Framework (TRN-5), that provides the context within which we use economic evaluation in the transport sector. Economic evaluation involves the assessment of the net value of projects and policies. In the transport sector we value projects in terms of their net worth, the difference between the value of their benefits and their costs...

Roads Economic Decision Model for the Economic Evaluation of Low Volume Roads : Software User Guide and Case Studies

Archondo-Callao, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
This manual presents the Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) developed to improve the decision-making process for the development and maintenance of low-volume rural roads. The model performs an economic evaluation of road investments options using the consumer surplus approach and is customized to the characteristics and needs of low-volume roads such as the high uncertainty of the assessment of the model inputs, particularly the traffic and condition of unpaved roads, the importance of vehicle speeds for model validation, the need for a comprehensive analysis of generated and induced traffic, and the need to clearly define all accrued benefits. RED computes benefits for normal, generated, induced, and diverted traffic, and takes into account changes in road length, condition, geometry, type, accidents, and days per year when the passage of vehicles is further disrupted by a highly deteriorated road condition (wet season). Users can add to the analysis other benefits, such as non-motorized traffic, social services and environmental impacts...

Economic evaluation studies in reproductive medicine: a systematic review of methodologic quality

Moolenaar, L.; Vijgen, S.; Hompes, P.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B.; Opmeer, B.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.06%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the methodologic quality of economic analyses published in the field of reproductive medicine. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Centers for reproductive care. PATIENT(S): Infertility patients. INTERVENTION(S): We performed a Medline search to identify economic evaluation studies in reproductive medicine. We included studies that concerned interventions, evaluated costs and effects, and were published in a journal on reproductive medicine, gynecology, or a major general journal from 1997 through May 2011. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Number of quality criteria adhered to. RESULT(S): Our search revealed 5,519 articles, of which 85 met our inclusion criteria. Seventy-seven (91%) of the economic analyses were on treatment, six (7%) on diagnosis, and two (2%) on screening. The mean number of quality criteria adhered to was 20 out of 30 items, and only one article met all 30 criteria. The mean number of criteria adhered to was higher if at least one of the authors was from a methodologic or health economics department (mean 23 [n = 30] versus mean 20 [n = 55]). The most common limitations of published economic evaluation studies were in methodology or presentation of incremental analyses, sensitivity analyses, and discounting. CONCLUSION(S): Economic analyses published in the past 15 years in the field of reproductive medicine seldom adhere to all recommended methodologic standards. A large majority of these publications evaluated treatments rather than diagnostic interventions.; Lobke M. Moolenaar...

The methodological quality of economic evaluation studies in obstetrics and gynecology: a systematic review

Vijgen, S.; Opmeer, B.; Mol, B.
Fonte: Thieme Medical Publishers Publicador: Thieme Medical Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
We evaluated the methodological quality of economic evaluation studies in the field of obstetrics and gynecology published in the last decade. A MEDLINE search was performed to find economic evaluation studies in obstetrics and gynecology from the years 1997 through 2009. We included full economic evaluation studies concerning tests or interventions in the field of obstetrics or gynecology. Each included study was evaluated by two reviewers using a quality checklist that was based on international guidelines for medical economic evaluation studies and a checklist used in a previous review. The mean number of quality criteria adhered to was 23 of 30 items, whereas five articles (3%) met all 30 criteria. Compliance was low for the description of the perspective (40%), the completeness of costs looking at the perspective (48%) or time horizon (48%), and reporting of quantities of resources (47%). Furthermore, if no discounting was applied, an explanation was infrequently given (14%). A comparison of study quality to that reported by Smith and Blackmore showed a considerable improvement in the following criteria: presentation perspective (from 19 to 40%), statement of primary outcome measure (from 72 to 81%), completeness costs looking at the time horizon (from 14 to 48%)...

Évaluation des coûts de traitement de la tyrosinémie de type I

Simoncelli, Mariève
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.92%
Introduction : La tyrosinémie de type I est une maladie génétique sévère. Elle se caractérise par des manifestations hépatiques, rénales et neurologiques. Depuis 1994, le NTBC représente la thérapie de première ligne. Ce médicament a conduit à une amélioration radicale de la morbidité et du pronostic de la maladie. Objectif : Évaluer les coûts directs des soins de santé reliés au traitement de cette maladie. Cette évaluation économique a été effectuée en trois groupes dont, un groupe historique de patients non traités; un groupe traitement tardif et un groupe traitement précoce par NTBC. Méthode : L’analyse coûts-conséquences inclut les coûts des hospitalisations, des services médicaux et des thérapies associées. Les données proviennent des banques de la RAMQ, de Med-Echo et des dossiers hospitaliers. Résultats : Le NTBC est associé à une réduction significative des hospitalisations, des séjours aux soins intensifs et des greffes hépatiques. Les coûts hospitaliers sont significativement moindres pour les groupes traités (13 979 $, 6 347 $ et 673 $ par année-patient pour les groupes historique, traitement tardif et traitement précoce,respectivement; valeur p < 0,0001). Les coûts des hospitalisations pour greffes par année-patient sont de 4 676$ pour le groupe historique et de 3 567 $ pour le groupe traitement tardif. Les coûts du NTBC par année-patient sont de 66 965 $ et de 51 493 $ pour les groupes traitement tardif et traitement précoce...

Le rôle de l’évaluation économique dans la pratique des médecins de famille = The role of economic evaluation in the practice of family physicians

Lessard, Chantale
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
L’évaluation économique en santé consiste en l’analyse comparative d’alternatives de services en regard à la fois de leurs coûts et de leurs conséquences. Elle est un outil d’aide à la décision. La grande majorité des décisions concernant l’allocation des ressources sont prises en clinique; particulièrement au niveau des soins primaires. Puisque chaque décision est associée à un coût d’opportunité, la non-prise en compte des considérations économiques dans les pratiques des médecins de famille peut avoir un impact important sur l’efficience du système de santé. Il existe peu de connaissances quant à l’influence des évaluations économiques sur la pratique clinique. L’objet de la thèse est de comprendre le rôle de l’évaluation économique dans la pratique des médecins de famille. Ses contributions font l’objet de quatre articles originaux (philosophique, théorique, méthodologique et empirique). L’article philosophique suggère l’importance des questions de complexité et de réflexivité en évaluation économique. La complexité est la perspective philosophique, (approche générale épistémologique) qui sous-tend la thèse. Cette vision du monde met l’attention sur l’explication et la compréhension et sur les relations et les interactions (causalité interactive). Cet accent sur le contexte et le processus de production des données souligne l’importance de la réflexivité dans le processus de recherche. L’article théorique développe une conception nouvelle et différente du problème de recherche. L’originalité de la thèse réside également dans son approche qui s’appuie sur la perspective de la théorie sociologique de Pierre Bourdieu; une approche théorique cohérente avec la complexité. Opposé aux modèles individualistes de l’action rationnelle...

Measuring health spillovers for economic evaluation: A case study in meningitis; Health spillovers and economic evaluation

Al-Janabi, H.; van Exel, J.; Brouwer, W.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66%
This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hec.3259; The health of carers and others close to the patient will often be relevant to economic evaluation, but it is very rarely considered in practice. This may reflect a lack of understanding of how the spillover effect of illness can be appropriately quantified. In this study we used three different approaches to quantify health spillovers resulting from meningitis. We conducted a survey of 1218 family networks affected by meningitis and used regression modelling to estimate spillover effects. The findings show that meningitis had long-term effects on family members? health, particularly affecting the likelihood of family members reporting anxiety and depression. These effects extended beyond a single close family member. These findings suggest that vaccinating against meningitis will bring significant health benefits not just to those that might have contracted the illness but also to their family networks. In methodological terms, different approaches for quantifying health spillovers provided broadly consistent results. The choice of method will be influenced by the ease of collecting primary data from family members in intervention contexts.

Meningococcal vaccination for adolescents? An economic evaluation in Victoria

Skull, Sue; Butler, James
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
Objective: To undertake an economic evaluation of the options for vaccination of adolescents using meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine based on Victorian data. Methodology: Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses of three options for vaccination were undertaken for hypothetical populations aged 15-19 years. Baseline analyses assumed a single year of programme implementation and vaccine protection of 5 years. Sensitivity analyses of key variables were performed. Outcomes included the number of people vaccinated, cases averted, life years saved and disability adjusted life years (DALY) averted. Lost earnings avoided were included as a measure of vaccination benefit in cost-benefit analyses. Results: Vaccination of people in Years 10-12 (secondary school) and first year university within a defined population with a high rate of disease was the most cost-effective option. Excluding direct cost savings and compared with no vaccination, this resulted in a discounted cost per DALY avoided of $17 646 and benefits exceeding costs in discounted terms. The 'break-even' incidence rate for this option in the cost-benefit analysis was 11.9/100 000. Conclusions: Economic evidence favours the use of vaccination within well-defined populations with a high rate of disease.

Health economic evaluation in Japan: a case study of one aspect of health technology assessment

Oliver, Adam
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
There is a burgeoning literature in health economic evaluation, with this form of analysis becoming increasingly influential at the health policy making level in a number of countries. However, a search of the literature reveals that in Japan, the world's second largest health care market, very little health economic evaluation has been undertaken. The main reason for the lack of interest in economic evaluation is that the fee-for-service and strict price regulation that characterises the system of health care financing in Japan is not conducive to this form of analysis. Moreover, the government and many researchers are satisfied that the current organisation of health care has given long life and low infant mortality at low cost. Even if it is accepted that low health care costs and good health prevail in Japan, slower economic growth rates, an ageing population and the development of new medical technologies will place increasing pressure on health care resources and will necessitate a more rational use of these resources. Good economic evaluation, by weighing benefits against costs, has an important role to play.

Investigation of factors influencing the determination of discount rate in the economic evaluation of mineral development projects

Park,S-J; Matunhire,I.I
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2011 Português
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When evaluating mining investment opportunities, one should consider the risks associated with mineral exploration and development. These are commonly classified as technical, economic, and political risks, and are accounted for in the investment decision by changing the discount rate. Thus, a company may use different discount rates associated with varying risks in order to compensate for the variability of success. The discount rate has a tremendous effect on the economic evaluation of mineral projects. Even when all other factors used as inputs for calculating the NPV (net present value) are equal, the project under consideration may be accepted or rejected depending upon the discount rate. Determining a realistic discount rate for a given project is therefore the most difficult and important aspect of cash flow analysis. It should be determined with the consideration of proper technical, economic, and political conditions surrounding the specific project undergoing economic evaluation. One key problem for determining the appropriate discount rate is that it typically depends more on subjective perception of the degree of risk or other experience factors than on a systematic approach. Thus, this study aims to identify, analyse, and document the type...