Página 1 dos resultados de 35 itens digitais encontrados em 0.011 segundos

Comércio electrónico e consumidor

Pereira, Alexandre Libório Dias
Fonte: Centro de Direito do Consumo Publicador: Centro de Direito do Consumo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.45919%
§ 1. Colocação do problema. § 2. Aspectos específicos da negociação electrónica. § 3. Assinatura electrónica, certificação e acreditação. § 4. Imobiliárias electrónicas, notários e certificadores. § 5. Direitos do consumidor no comércio electrónico. § 6. O princípio do país de origem e os mínimos comunitários de protecção. § 7. Limites comunitários à protecção interna do consumidor. § 8. Princípios do direito comunitário primário do consumidor. § 9. Controlo das restrições à liberdade de prestação de serviços da sociedade da informação no mercado interno. § 10. Balanço.; This paper addresses several legal issues of electronic contracts in the context of internet business environment. In special, it focuses on the freedom of contract in the context of electronic commerce, according to the regulatory framework provided by the European directive on electronic commerce and the implementing Portuguese legislation. Special concerns refer to the conclusion of electronic contract by electronic means, electronic signatures and certification, and consumer protection in e-contracts. It is argued whether Portuguese legislation complies with Community law on the freedom to provide information society services in the internal market by providing additional measures of consumer protection. Moreover...

Atualização dinâmica de modelo de regressão logística binária para detecção de fraudes em transações eletrônicas com cartão de crédito; Dynamic update of binary logistic regression model for fraud detection in electronic credit card transactions

Beraldi, Fidel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.404722%
Com o avanço tecnológico e econômico, que facilitaram o processo de comunicação e aumento do poder de compra, transações com cartão de crédito tornaram-se o principal meio de pagamento no varejo nacional e internacional (Bolton e Hand , 2002). Neste aspecto, o aumento do número de transações com cartão de crédito é crucial para a geração de mais oportunidades para fraudadores produzirem novas formas de fraudes, o que resulta em grandes perdas para o sistema financeiro (Chan et al. , 1999). Os índices de fraudes têm mostrado que transações no comércio eletrônico (e-commerce) são mais arriscadas do que transações presencias em terminais, pois aquelas não fazem uso de processos seguros e eficientes de autenticação do portador do cartão, como utilização de senha eletrônica. Como os fraudadores se adaptam rapidamente às medidas de prevenção, os modelos estatísticos para detecção de fraudes precisam ser adaptáveis e flexíveis para evoluir ao longo do tempo de maneira dinâmica. Raftery et al. (2010) desenvolveram um método chamado Dynamic Model Averaging (DMA), ou Ponderação Dinâmica de Modelos, que implementa um processo de atualização contínuo ao longo do tempo. Nesta dissertação, desenvolvemos modelos DMA no espaço de transações eletrônicas oriundas do comércio eletrônico que incorporem as tendências e características de fraudes em cada período de análise. Também desenvolvemos modelos de regressão logística clássica com o objetivo de comparar as performances no processo de detecção de fraude. Os dados utilizados para tal são provenientes de uma empresa de meios de pagamentos eletrônico. O experimento desenvolvido mostra que os modelos DMA apresentaram resultados melhores que os modelos de regressão logística clássica quando analisamos a medida F e a área sob a curva ROC (AUC). A medida F para o modelo DMA ficou em 58% ao passo que o modelo de regressão logística clássica ficou em 29%. Já para a AUC...

Using Web Data for Measuring the Effectiveness of an E-Commerce Site

Carneiro, Ana Isabel Ribeiro
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade do Porto; FEP Publicador: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade do Porto; FEP
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.897668%
An electronic commerce web site is successful if it achieves the purpose why it was created. Being successful is a necessary condition for the continuity of the business. For a company owning an e-commerce site it is not enough to know that they are selling and making a profit out of their activity; it is important to understand how they are doing it and how they can improve in order to do better and fight the competition. In this dissertation we apply the measure of the success of a web site to a real case, determining the pages which are not so successful and need a little more attention. We then determine the success measures within the customer sessions, understanding what are the more problematic pages among the buying customers. We segment the customers according to sales and navigation behaviour; this allows us to define customized marketing approaches. We make a comparison between the sales data and the success data; subsequently we determine outliers.; Análise de Dados e Sistemas de Apoio à Decisão; Master in Data Analysis and Decision Support Systems; Um site de comércio electrónico tem sucesso se atinge o objectivo para o qual foi criado. Ter sucesso é uma condição necessária para a continuidade do negócio. Para uma empresa que possui um site de comércio electrónico não é suficiente saber que estão a vender e a lucrar com a sua actividade...

Extending Telecommunications beyond the Market : Toward Universal Service in Competitive Environments

Wellenius, Bjorn
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.573586%
Competitive markets go a long way toward making telecommunications services available throughout the population. But governments often seek to extend access to services beyond what the private sector will provide on its own. To widen access, governments must remove obstacles that prevent the market from working well, and must let users decide what they need and can afford. Market mechanisms must be allowed to determine who will extend service beyond the market, how much will be invested, and where. As governments adopt such measures, they must make some critical decisions: Which services to extend? To what population groups? At what cost? Who should provide the additional service? Who should pay? The answers vary widely among countries and over time. This Note outlines options and best practices, emphasizing those relevant to emerging economies.

DB 14 Case Studies : Understanding Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.912554%
The Doing Business (DB) project measures the number of procedures, time and cost for a small and medium-size limited liability company to start up and formally operate. This DB 2014 report addresses issues such as minimum capital requirements, and the role of risk-based inspections in construction, and their relevance, functions, challenges and implementation. Case studies from Trinidad and Tobago, Malaysia, Singapore, Colombia and Azerbaijan, and Korea are discussed in detail, elaborating on the issues faced, the solutions or outcomes, and benefits.

East Asian FTAs in Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.938555%
Bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) are proliferating across the globe, fundamentally altering the governance of world trade. Many of the recently concluded FTAs are comprehensive in their coverage, seeking to not only dismantle barriers to trade in goods but also the liberalization of trade in services. What have FTAs in services actually accomplished? This paper offers an assessment of the new generation of services agreements that have been concluded in the East Asia region. Until recently, governments in this region had been hesitant to enter into bilateral or regional arrangements. Yet since the year 2000-when only one regional services agreement was in force-twenty-four agreements have been signed that include at least one party in East Asia. Additionally, around 40 FTAs are currently being negotiated in the region, which suggests an even more prominent role for FTAs in the future.

ICT Sector Policy Note for Panama : Enabling Inclusive Development through Information and Communications Technologies

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.260925%
The Government of Panama and the private sector recognize the importance of information and communications technology (ICT) as an enabler of national development. This ICT sector policy note seeks to identify opportunities and challenges for growth of the ICT sector in Panama, particularly on rural access to broadband services and on cybersecurity, and potential for spillover impacts across other sectors. It provides a brief overview of the ICT sector in Panama and outlines a series of strategic actions and recommendations aimed at leveraging ICT as an engine of growth by targeting connectivity infrastructure, policies, regulation, e-Services, public data, and skills. The report is organized as follows: section one presents ICT sector in the economy. Section two deals with offer for connectivity. Section three presents demand. Section four describes the sector status from the cybersecurity point of view. Based on these analyses, section five identifies challenges that are hindering the growth of the industry, and section six presents policy options to overcome them. Finally...

Advantages of application of Electronic Commerce in procurement for the Armed Forces of Brazil and South Korea

Kim, Jong-Woon.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.272363%
This thesis examines the prospects for international implementation of E-Commerce (EC) in the contexts of the armed forces of Brazil and South Korea. It describes the functions, roles and infrastructure of EC technology. It weighs the advantages and disadvantages of E-Commerce. Particular attention is paid to legal issues, electronic funds transfer and on-line reverse auctions. An E-Commerce implementation plan is presented, benchmarked on the experience of the United States military in using EC to reduce costs and enhance readiness. This plan includes measures of organizational outcomes to evaluate the success of an EC implementation.

Agenda for future multilateral trade negotiations: traditional and new issues

Mathur, Somesh K
Fonte: ASARC Publicador: ASARC
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 107833 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.95209%
Introduction: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT) was signed at the Geneva conference in 1947. It came into effect on 1 January 1948.After nearly five decades of its existence, GATT made way to the formation of the World Trade Organization(WTO) on January 1,1995. GATT was a multilateral trade agreement that set rules of conduct for international trade relations and provided a forum for multilateral negotiations regarding the solution of trade problems and the gradual elimination of tariffs and other non tariff barriers of trade. The agreement was based largely upon principles of non-discrimination and reciprocity so as to liberalize trade. With the exception of Custom Unions and Free Trade Areas (FTAs),all contracting parties were generally bound by the agreement's Most Favoured Nation (MFN)Clause. Protection were to be given to domestic industries through custom tariffs, thereby prohibiting import quotas and other restrictive trade practices. The agreement also provided for the binding of the tariff levels negotiated among member countries and established a framework for the settlement of grievances put forward by members who argued that their rights, under the terms of agreement, had been violated or compromised by other members trade practices. Eight rounds of trade negotiations were held under the aegis of GATT...

Bolivia Financial Sector Notes : Assessing the Sector's Potential Role in Fostering Rural Development and Growth of the Productive Sectors

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.070364%
Bolivia benefited from an overall favorable economic evolution in the last few years, supported by sound macro-economic indicators. Yet, economic growth was unevenly distributed between the sectors, with particularly extractive industries, construction and financial services showing higher real growth rates, while agriculture and manufacturing fell behind. This is an area of concern for the government which-as manifested in the new constitution-aims to foster a more balanced and equitable growth. In its reform measures, it places a particular focus on developing the rural areas, in which a large share of the indigenous population lives, and on the productive sector (agriculture, forestry, manufacturing and extractive), which provides the livelihood for a substantial number of poor people. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion and on-going reform efforts by providing an evaluation of the role the financial system could play for enhancing growth in rural areas and the productive sector without threatening the sector's stability. It also endeavors to update the Bank's knowledge on the financial sector...

Republic of Tunisia : Information and Communications Technology Contribution to Growth and Employment Generation, Volume 1. Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.725322%
This policy note is the first of two volumes, drafted in conjunction with a more detailed technical report. It was prepared in response to a request by the Government of Tunisia for Bank assistance to formulate an ICT development strategy, in accordance with the targets set in the Government of Tunisia's 10th development plan. The policy note highlights current constraints to ICT sector development and proposes measures to eliminate them. It should be read in conjunction with the broader strategy report (volume two: technical report), which contains complementary data and technical information. The Government objectives were conveyed to the World Bank team in May 2001. The strategy is aimed at bolstering the country's emerging ICT sector and maximizing its ability to compete in local, regional, and global markets. In this context, the major objectives of the ICT strategy are to: (a) maximize the ICT contribution to growth and employment generation; (b) position Tunisia in the global ICT market; and (c) integrate ICT into the Tunisian economy. Indirect issues of the ICT impact on productivity and competitiveness are marginally treated in this note. The report compares the state of ICT development in Tunisia that of other economies...

Republic of Tunisia : Information and Communications Technology Contribution to Growth and Employment Generation, Volume 2. Technical Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.831348%
This policy note is the first of two volumes, drafted in conjunction with a more detailed technical report. It was prepared in response to a request by the Government of Tunisia for Bank assistance to formulate an ICT development strategy, in accordance with the targets set in the Government of Tunisia's 10th development plan. The policy note highlights current constraints to ICT sector development and proposes measures to eliminate them. It should be read in conjunction with the broader strategy report (volume two: technical report), which contains complementary data and technical information. The Government objectives were conveyed to the World Bank team in May 2001. The strategy is aimed at bolstering the country's emerging ICT sector and maximizing its ability to compete in local, regional, and global markets. In this context, the major objectives of the ICT strategy are to: (a) maximize the ICT contribution to growth and employment generation; (b) position Tunisia in the global ICT market; and (c) integrate ICT into the Tunisian economy. Indirect issues of the ICT impact on productivity and competitiveness are marginally treated in this note. The report compares the state of ICT development in Tunisia that of other economies...

Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Details and Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.812737%
The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since the preparation of the diagnostic study on Malawi's public procurement system in 1996, the Government has made good progress with establishing new - and relatively good - legal framework for procurement reform. But there has not yet been much reform (institutional, practical and oversight). In 2003, the Malawi Parliament passed a new procurement law, the Public Procurement Act of 2003, which became effective in August of that year. The new Procurement Act requires procurement regulations to provide, among things, thresholds for the use of the various procurement methods, bid and bid evaluation procedures and contract management. The analysis of the CPAR is carried out against the five basic pillars of a sound public procurement system...

Chile : Accelerating e-Business for Small Business Innovation and Growth; Chile: agilizar el comercio electronico para impulsar la innovacion y el crecimiento de la pequena

Hanna, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.842573%
Small businesses are important for employment creation and growth in Chile. They provide 73 percent of all private sector employment; half in micro-businesses (own account and firms employing fewer than 10 employees). But small business average growth was only 2.8 percent from 1994- 2000, less than half the 6.4 percent of large businesses. President Ricardo Lagos considers Chile's incorporation into the global and digital economy a top priority: "we are discovering that technology will enable us to surmount the geographical disadvantages of our nation. It is our obligation to take advantage of it to the fullest" (Inauguration speech, Santiago Times, November 24, 2000). The national strategy, "Chile: Toward the Information Society" lays out five key areas for digital development: technology infrastructure; community and business access; the legal framework for electronic transactions; education; and government services. Responding to this agenda, the World Bank's "Chile: Accelerating E-Business For Small Business Innovation and Growth" (November 2002) profiles Chile's small business sector...

Good Practices for Construction Regulation and Enforcement Reform : Guidelines for Reformers

International Finance Corporation; World Bank; Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.31651%
The report's main objective is to provide policy makers, regulators, and the private sector, primarily in emerging economies and developing countries, with a tool for enforcing international best practice and for developing strategies for successful reforms in the area of construction regulation. This paper is divided into the following eight chapters: 1) the importance of construction regulation reform. The first chapter defines three overarching goals of construction-regulation reform and addresses why and how these efforts can pay off; 2) reforms as good regulation not deregulation. This chapter points out that deregulating is not the answer; 3) the distribution and focus of construction regulation reform. Leveraging eight years of data from the doing business reports, this chapter provides an overview of reforms initiated within the doing business scenario and the key regional trends; 4) eight key policies affecting process efficiency, transparency, regulatory outcomes, and costs. This chapter provides a concise description of eight priority policy areas; 5) initiating reform and addressing typical challenges. Based on international experience...

Trade Polices for Electronic Commerce

Mattoo, Aaditya; Schuknecht, Ludger
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.08445%
Some countries in the World Trade Organization initially opposed WTO's decision to exempt electronic delivery of products from customs duties, out of concern for the revenue consequences. Others supported the decision as a means of securing open trading conditions. The authors argue that neither the inhibitions nor the enthusiasm is fully justified. First, even if all delivery of digitizable media products moved on-line--an unlikely prospect--the revenue loss for most countries would be small. More important, however, the prohibition of customs duties does not ensure continued open access for electronically delivered products and may even prompt recourse to inferior instruments of protection. Barrier-free electronic commerce would be more effectively secured by deepening and widening the limited cross-border trade commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and by clarifying and strengthening certain GATS disciplines.

Doing Business in Italy 2013 : Smarter Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.95209%
Doing Business in Italy 2013 is a new subnational report of the Doing Business series. It measures business regulations and their enforcement across 4 indicators in 13 Italian cities: Bari (Apulia), Bologna (Emilia-Romagna), Cagliari (Sardinia), Campobasso (Molise), Catanzaro (Calabria), L'Aquila (Abruzzo), Milan (Lombardy), Naples (Campania), Padua (Veneto), Palermo (Sicily), Potenza (Basilicata), Rome (Latium), and Turin (Piedmont) and the indicator trading across borders in 7 ports: Cagliari (Sardinia), Catania (Sicily), Genoa (Liguria), Gioia Tauro (Calabria), Naples (Campania), Taranto (Apulia), Trieste (Friuli-Venezia Giulia). The cities were selected by the Department for Planning and Coordination of Economic Policy (DIPE) of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic. The cities can be compared against each other, and with 185 economies worldwide. Doing Business investigates the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Regulations affecting 5 stages of the life of a business are measured at the subnational level in Italy: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, registering property, trading across borders and enforcing contracts. These indicators were selected because they cover areas of local jurisdiction or practice. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked...

Agents to the Rescue?

West, Patricia M.; Ariely, Dan; Bellman, Steve; Bradlow, Eric; Huber, Joel; Johnson, Eric; Kahn, Barbara; Little, John; Schkade, David
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 91000 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.945095%
The advent of electronic environments is bound to have profound effects on consumer decision making. While the exact nature of these influences is only partially known it is clear that consumers could benefit from properly designed electronic agents that know individual users' preferences and can act on their behalf. An examination of the various roles agents perform is presented as a framework for thinking about the design of electronic agents. In addition, a set of goals is established that include both outcome-based measures, such as improving decision quality, as well as process measures like increasing satisfaction and developing trust.

Mathematical Modeling of Insurance Mechanisms for E-commerce Systems

Xie, Hong; Lui, John C. S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.466748%
Electronic commerce (a.k.a. E-commerce) systems such as eBay and Taobao of Alibaba are becoming increasingly popular. Having an effective reputation system is critical to this type of internet service because it can assist buyers to evaluate the trustworthiness of sellers, and it can also improve the revenue for reputable sellers and E-commerce operators. We formulate a stochastic model to analyze an eBay-like reputation system and propose four measures to quantify its effectiveness: (1) new seller ramp up time, (2) new seller drop out probability, (3) long term profit gains for sellers, and (4) average per seller transaction gains for the E-commerce operator. Through our analysis, we identify key factors which influence these four measures. We propose a new insurance mechanism which consists of an insurance protocol and a transaction mechanism to improve the above four measures. We show that our insurance mechanism can reduce the ramp up time by around 87.2%, and guarantee new sellers ramp up before the deadline $T_w$ with a high probability (close to 1.0). It also increases the long term profit gains and average per seller transaction gains by at least 95.3%.; Comment: 17 pages, 1 figure

Research of Load Testing and Result Based on Loadrunner

Kaushik, Manju
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.95209%
In this paper, we made the plan of a load testing, and got results by means of the LoadRunner which is an automatic load testing tool.We combined with the characteristics of electronic commerce system and did the load testing and analysis the result of load test by means of the LoadRunner. We fully described the characteristics of the electronic commerce application, designed the reasonable test cases,and simulated the practical scenario. In the process of running Load Runner, we arranged the appropriate transactions and rendezvous, and designed the truthful test network environment. The plan was applied to the load testing phase of the telecommunication equipment sales system of special products. We analyzed the load testing results, proposed the improving measures, and realized the optimization of the telecommunication equipment sales system and also found the defect of the system when the massive users access the system and guided the system improvement using the test result.