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Metabolizable energy and oil intake in brown commercial layers

Silva, Amadeu Benedito Piozzi da; Garcia, Edivaldo Antonio; Molino, Andrea de Britto; Silva, Elyara Maria Pereira da
Fonte: REVISTA BRASILEIRA ZOOTECNIA; VICOSA Publicador: REVISTA BRASILEIRA ZOOTECNIA; VICOSA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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With the objective to establish the best metabolizable energy (ME) intake for layers, and the best dietary vegetable oil addition level to optimize egg production, an experiment was carried out with 432 30-week-old Hisex Brown layers. Birds were distributed into nine treatments with six replicates of eight birds each according to a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, consisting of three daily metabolizable energy intake (280, 300 or 320 kcal/bird/day) and three oil levels (0.00; 0.75 and 1.50 g/bird/day). Daily feed intake was limited to 115, 110 and 105 g/bird in order to obtain the desired energy and oil intake in each treatment. The following parameters were evaluated: initial weight, final weight, body weight change, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and per egg mass and energy conversion. There was no influence of the treatments on egg production (%) or egg mass (g/bird/day). Final weight and body weight change were significantly affected by increasing energy intake. Feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and energy conversion significantly worsened as a function of the increase in daily energy intake. An energy intake of 280 kcal/bird/day with no addition of dietary oil does not affect layer performance.

Fiber fermentability effects on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal traits, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats

Fischer, M. M.; Kessler, A. M.; de Sa, L. R. M.; Vasconcellos, R. S.; Roberti Filho, F. O.; Nogueira, S. P.; Oliveira, M. C. C.; Carciofi, A. C.
Fonte: AMER SOC ANIMAL SCIENCE; CHAMPAIGN Publicador: AMER SOC ANIMAL SCIENCE; CHAMPAIGN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Considering the different potential benefits of divergent fiber ingredients, the effect of 3 fiber sources on energy and macronutrient digestibility, fermentation product formation, postprandial metabolite responses, and colon histology of overweight cats (Felis catus) fed kibble diets was compared. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were assigned in a complete randomized block design to 2 groups of 12 animals, and 3 animals from each group were fed 1 of 4 of the following kibble diets: control (CO; 11.5% dietary fiber), beet pulp (BP; 26% dietary fiber), wheat bran (WB; 24% dietary fiber), and sugarcane fiber (SF; 28% dietary fiber). Digestibility was measured by the total collection of feces. After 16 d of diet adaptation and an overnight period without food, blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride postprandial responses were evaluated for 16 h after continued exposure to food. On d 20, colon biopsies of the cats were collected under general anesthesia. Fiber addition reduced food energy and nutrient digestibility. Of all the fiber sources, SF had the least dietary fiber digestibility (P < 0.05), causing the largest reduction of dietary energy digestibility (P < 0.05). The greater fermentability of BP resulted in reduced fecal DM and pH...

Responsible use of resources for sustainable aquaculture

Costa-Pierce, B.A.; Bartley, D.M.; Hasan, M.; Yusoff, F.; Kaushik, S.J.; Rana, K.; Lemos, Daniel Eduardo Lavanholi de; Bueno, P.; Yakupitiyage, A.
Fonte: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Phuket Publicador: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Phuket
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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Comparisons of production, water and energy efficiencies of aquaculture versus an array of fisheries and terrestrial agriculture systems show that nonfed aquaculture (e.g. shellfish, seaweeds) is among the world’s most efficient mass producer of plant and animal proteins. Various fed aquaculture systems also match the most efficient forms of terrestrial animal husbandry, and trends suggest that carnivores in the wild have been transformed in aquaculture to omnivores, with impacts on resource use comparable to conventional, terrestrial agriculture systems, but are more efficient. Production efficiencies of edible mass for a variety of aquaculture systems are 2.5–4.5 kg dry feed/kg edible mass, compared with 3.0–17.4 for a range of conventional terrestrial animal production systems. Beef cattle require over 10 kg of feed to add 1 kg of edibleweight, whereas tilapia and catfish use less than 3 kg to add a kg of edible weight. Energy use in unfed and low-trophic-level aquaculture systems (e.g. seaweeds, mussels, carps, tilapias) is comparable to energy use in vegetable, sheep and rangeland beef agriculture. Highest energy use is in fish cage and shrimp aquaculture, comparable to intensive animal agriculture feedlots...

Poder calorífico, energia e cinzas da biomassa de cana-de-açúcar irrigada por gotejamento, para diferentes variedades, lâminas e processos de maturação; Calorific value, energy and ash of sugarcane biomass drip irrigated, for different varieties, irrigation depth and maturation processes

Lizcano, Jonathan Vasquez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/07/2015 Português
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Atualmente as usinas sucroalcooleiras conseguem exportar à matriz elétrica brasileira os excedentes de eletricidade gerados nelas; essa eletricidade é gerada através da combustão direta da biomassa residual da cana-de-açúcar o que requer menor investimento em equipamentos e controle técnico em comparação aos processos de pirólise e gaseificação. Embora o poder calorífico da cana-de-açúcar seja documentado em diversos trabalhos na literatura, em nenhum deles é registrado o histórico de disponibilidade hídrica no solo durante o crescimento da planta; deste modo levanta-se a hipótese que as plantas sob stress hídrico tendo um maior teor de fibra, apresente um poder calorífico diferenciado das plantas que não passaram por stress hídrico. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar o poder calorífico, a energia útil e cinzas da biomassa particionada seca de oito variedades de cana-de-açúcar (V1, V2, V3, V4. V5, V6, V7 e V8), submetidas a diferentes disponibilidades hídricas no solo durante o processo de crescimento das plantas através da irrigação por gotejamento (L50, L75, L75* e L100) sob diferentes processos de maturação com base em déficit hídrico na fase final de crescimento (M1, M2, M3 e M4). Determinou-se o poder calorifico superior da biomassa particionada em açúcar...

Uso racional de energia em fazendas leiteiras com bombas de calor; Rational use of energy in dairy farms with pumps

Ricardo Baldassin Junior
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2006 Português
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O leite é um dos mais importantes produtos da agropecuária nacional, com cerca de 2/3 das propriedades rurais do país destinando-se à pecuária leiteira e com um dos maiores rebanhos do mundo. Apesar da grandiosidade, o setor ainda sofre com a baixa produtividade, os altos custos e a defasagem tecnológica. Como conseqüência, muitos produtores abandonaram suas atividades diante deste novo cenário competitivo. Atualmente, assuntos como uso racional de energia e aplicação intensiva de tecnologia tem sido intensamente discutidos e abordados, e indicados como aspectos importantes para a obtenção de ganhos de produtividade. Desta forma, visou-se neste trabalho avaliar o uso de energia no processamento de leite de três propriedades (leite pasteurizado tipo ?A? e leite cru refrigerado), bem como, a representatividade dos diversos processos no consumo total, assunto este, ainda pouco conhecido e abordado no país. Objetivando ainda, promover a racionalização energética, avaliaram-se os potenciais de aproveitamento de calor de condensação de sistemas de refrigeração existentes para o aquecimento de água de limpeza e higienização, bem como, avaliou-se a viabilidade técnica e econômica da adequação dos sistemas (operação segundo um bomba de calor com geração simultânea de duas fontes térmicas) em substituição ao uso de resistências elétricas. Dentre as proposta...

Energy saving measures in Agriculture – Overview on the basis of national reports.

Golaszewski, J; de Visser, C; Stolarski, M; Brodzinski, Z; Olba-Ziety, E; Myhan, R; Mikkola, H; Ahokas, J; Jokiniemi, T; Rajaniemi, M; Meyer-Aurich, A; Ziegler, T; Briassoulis, D; Balafoutis, A; Mistriotis, A; Panagakis, P; Papdakis, G; Buisonjé, F; Elle
Fonte: AGREE Project Publicador: AGREE Project
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The reduction of energy inputs in agricultural production is a process of practical implementation of a set of energy saving (ES) measures associated with a given type of production, farm infrastructure and managerial or organizational activities. In six national reports from Finland, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Portugal for 13 subsectors of agriculture, 481 ES measures in total were identified and classified into seven categories: 1) type of energy input: indirect, direct; 2) type of ES measure: operational level, systems level, process monitoring, farm management, market orientation, capital goods; 3) importance: from 1-low to 5-high; 4) R&D: yes, no; 5) potential of the measure: achievable at present or not immediately ready for implementation; 6) indication of an investment cost: from €1000 to over €1000000; 7) estimated payback time: from 1 to over 5 years.  The general conclusions from the analysis are as follows.ES measures refer to the reduction of main energy inputs in agricultural production, including fertilizers and pesticides; fuels for powering tractors and other machinery; fuel use for heating, cooling, and ventilation in farm buildings and facilities; electricity use for pumping, lighting; and energy embodied in buildings and equipment.  In general...

Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture.

Meyer-Aurich, A; Berg, V; Kraatz, S; Jubaer, H; Mellmann, J; Ziegler, T; Daalgard, T; Mikkola, H; Golaszewski, J; de Visser, C; Baptista, F; Silva, LL; Briassoulis, D; Lutsyuk, C
Fonte: AGREE Project Publicador: AGREE Project
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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This report provides a compilation of energy efficiency measures in agriculture, their opportunities and constraints to implement energy efficient agricultural systems across Europe as a result of the AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) Coordination and Support Action funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The report dwells on earlier reports of the consortium, which listed potential energy efficiency measures (Project Deliverable 2.3: Energy Saving Measures in Agriculture – Overview on the Basis of National Reports) and identified trade-offs and win-win situations of various energy efficiency measures in agriculture (Project Deliverable 3.1: Economic and environmental analysis of energy efficiency measures in agriculture). It shows research gaps in crop production, greenhouse production, animal husbandry and system approaches, which can be regarded as priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture. The report is na important input for the strategic research agenda, which is one of the main outputs of the AGREE project.

Otoczenie zewnetrzne efektywnosci energetycznej w rolnictwie – studium przypadków (External sector energy efficiency in agriculture - case studies)

Golaszewski, J; de Visser, C; Lutsyuk, C; Stolarski, M; Brodzinski, Z; Olba-Ziety, E; Myhan, R; Mikkola, H; Ahokas, J; Jokiniemi, T; Rajaniemi, M; Meyer-Aurich, A; Ziegler, T; Briassoulis, D; Balafoutis, A; Mistriotis, A; Panagakis, P; Papdakis, G; Buison
Fonte: Wydawnictwo UWM (University of Warmia and Mazury) Publicador: Wydawnictwo UWM (University of Warmia and Mazury)
Tipo: Parte de Livro
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Until recently energy efficiency in agriculture has received little attention. Nevertheless, energy consumption in agriculture is considerable, especially when indirect energy use is taken into account. AGREE has the objective of showing the potential of short term energy efficiency gains and the promise of a long term potential. Environmental effects of savings on direct and indirect energy use in agriculture are integrally considered, as energy use efficiency also implies reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Dzialania energooszczedne w rolnictwie (Energy saving measures in agriculture)

Golaszewski, J; de Visser, C; Stolarski, M; Brodzinski, Z; Olba-Ziety, E; Myhan, R; Mikkola, H; Ahokas, J; Jokiniemi, T; Rajaniemi, M; Meyer-Aurich, A; Ziegler, T; Briassoulis, D; Balafoutis, A; Mistriotis, A; Panagakis, P; Papdakis, G; Buisonjé, F; Elle
Fonte: Wydawnictwo UWM (University of Warmia and Mazury) Publicador: Wydawnictwo UWM (University of Warmia and Mazury)
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
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57.49252%
The reduction of energy inputs in agricultural production is a process of practical implementation of a set of energy saving (ES) measures associated with a given type of production, farm infrastructure and managerial or organizational activities. In six national reports from Finland, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Portugal for 13 subsectors of agriculture, 481 ES measures in total were identified and classified into seven categories: 1) type of energy input: indirect, direct; 2) type of ES measure: operational level, systems level, process monitoring, farm management, market orientation, capital goods; 3) importance: from 1-low to 5-high; 4) R&D: yes, no; 5) potential of the measure: achievable at present or not immediately ready for implementation; 6) indication of an investment cost: from €1000 to over €1000000; 7) estimated payback time: from 1 to over 5 years.  The general conclusions from the analysis are as follows.ES measures refer to the reduction of main energy inputs in agricultural production, including fertilizers and pesticides; fuels for powering tractors and other machinery; fuel use for heating, cooling, and ventilation in farm buildings and facilities; electricity use for pumping, lighting; and energy embodied in buildings and equipment.  In general...

Sustainable energy in sustainable agriculture

GOŁASZEWSKI, J.; BAPTISTA, F.J.
Fonte: University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland and University of Évora, Portugal Publicador: University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland and University of Évora, Portugal
Tipo: Parte de Livro
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The presented integrated production-energy system for rural areas integrates biorefinery processes within agro-energy complexes for production of biological raw material for numerous bio-products and energy generation from local renewable sources assuming restitution of the natural environment resources, low emissions and minimizing other environment pollutions. The presented scenarios are encompassed within the frameworks of the future market bioeconomy in which the share of services and products resulting from use of innovative biotechnological processes and energy generation will be significant. Areas with large resources of agricultural, forest and water management raw materials as well as those focused on environment-supportive activities, including bioconversion to biofuels and bioenergy, are particularly predisposed for actions in the area of rational use of natural resources and bioeconomy in the circular system. Mutually linked, sustainable development of local energy generation and agriculture will be the determinant of bioeconomy development.

Zero energy. A energia solar como veículo para a sustentabilidade e rentabilidade de uma exploração agricola

Carvalho, Pedro Miguel Lavareda
Fonte: ISA Publicador: ISA
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Mestrado em Engenharia do Ambiente - Tecnologias Ambientais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; In a world where the problems and concerns over the environment are growing, mainly associated to the GHG emissions, taking more sustainable behaviors it’s imperative in all business sectors. Throughout its history, agriculture has become technologically modern in order to be able to meet the food needs of an increasingly large and consumerist population, and at the same time, staying profitable in an increasingly competitive market. This trend of technological change has also occurred in renewable energy, particularly solar energy. This work aimed to demonstrate the opportunity, necessity and importance of adopting an agriculture vision, which promotes a more sustainable development through the implementation of several technologies for harnessing solar energy on a farm, increasing its cost-effectiveness too. The adopted approach consisted on energy consumption analysis (electricity and heat) of a prototype farm, based on real data from two types of farming (livestock and horticulture), which were subsequently implemented several technologies for harnessing solar energy (solar photovoltaic, solar thermal and solar passive), making the operation environmentally more sustainable by reducing the use and the dependence of fossil fuels...

Energy and the food system

Woods, Jeremy; Williams, Adrian; Hughes, John K.; Black, Mairi; Murphy, Richard
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/09/2010 Português
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Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can lead to lower yields and perversely to higher energy demands per tonne of harvested product. At the other extreme, increasing energy inputs can lead to ever-smaller yield gains. Although fossil fuels remain the dominant source of energy for agriculture, the mix of fuels used differs owing to the different fertilization and cultivation requirements of individual crops. Nitrogen fertilizer production uses large amounts of natural gas and some coal, and can account for more than 50 per cent of total energy use in commercial agriculture. Oil accounts for between 30 and 75 per cent of energy inputs of UK agriculture, depending on the cropping system. While agriculture remains dependent on fossil sources of energy, food prices will couple to fossil energy prices and food production will remain a significant contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Technological developments...

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications

Pendray, John Robert
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 p.
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Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to replace are those with the highest cost and that provide the lowest-grade energy. Stationary heating with oil is one example of low quality use of a high quality fuel. Solid biomass fuels such as wood-pellets, switchgrass-pellets, and corn can displace up to 2% of the U.S. petroleum market through displacing oil used in home and commercial heating. Current technologies are inexpensive enough to enable consumers to save money by heating with solid bio-fuels instead of oil. Although these systems are currently difficult to operate, future systems can increase usability and potentially further reduce costs. Key developments for future adoption are fuel handling and ash cleaning automation as well as emissions reductions. These technologies exist in other industries, such as agriculture, but have not yet been integrated into U.S. solid bio-fuel heating systems. Solid bio-fuel heating is more effective at reducing environmental damage and increasing energy security than corn-ethanol. Net CO2 emissions from solid bio-fuel heating are 75% lower than oil heating...

Assessment of U.S. cap-and-trade proposals

Paltsev, Sergey V.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 66 p
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The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model is applied to an assessment of a set of cap-and-trade proposals being considered by the U.S. Congress in spring 2007. The bills specify emissions reductions to be achieved through 2050 for the standard six-gas basket of greenhouse gases. They fall into two groups: one specifies emissions reductions of 50% to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050; the other establishes a tightening target for emissions intensity and stipulates a time path for a "safety valve" limit on the emission price that approximately stabilizes U.S. emissions at the 2008 level. A set of three synthetic emissions paths are defined that span the range of stringency of these proposals, and these "core" cases are analyzed for their consequences in terms of emissions prices, effects on energy markets, welfare cost, the potential revenue generation if allowances are auctioned and the gains if permit revenue were used to reduce capital or labor taxes. Initial period prices for the first group of proposals, in carbon dioxide equivalents, are estimated between $30 and $50 per ton CO2-e depending on where each falls in the 50% to 80% range, with these prices rising by a factor of four by 2050. Welfare costs are less than 0.5% at the start...

Utilisation of poultry litter as an energy feedstock

Lynch, Deirdre; Henihan, Anne Marie; Bowen, Barry; Lynch, Declan; McDonnell, Kevin; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, J.J.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
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peer-reviewed; This paper examines poultry litter (PL) as a resource in fuel quality terms and illustrates how the small scale application of fluidised bed technology solves both energy and waste problems, while producing a nutrient rich ash. PL was found to have a higher heating value (HHV) of 18 GJ t−1 on a dry basis (db). On an as received basis (ar), it had an ash mass fraction of 9% and the elemental phosphorous content of the ash was 110 g kg−1. The resultant mineral matter can be utilised as a nutrient substitute for mineral fertiliser.

Estimating the Size of External Effects of Energy Subsidies in Transport and Agriculture

Commander, Simon; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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It is widely accepted that the costs of underpricing energy are large, whether in advanced or developing countries. This paper explores how large these costs can be by focussing on the size of the external effects that energy subsidies in particular generate in two important sectors—transport and agriculture—in two countries in the Middle East and North Africa, the Arab Republic of Egypt (transport) and the Republic of Yemen (agriculture). The focus is mainly on the costs associated with congestion and pollution, as well as the impact of underpriced energy for depletion of scarce water resources, including through crop selection. Quantifying the size of external effects in developing countries has received relatively little analytical attention, although there is a significant body of literature for developed countries. By building on earlier research, as well as employing the United Nations ForFITS model, the paper provides indicative estimates of the external costs of energy subsidies, as manifested in congestion and pollution. The estimates using simulations indicate that these costs could be materially reduced by elimination or reduction of energy subsidies. The paper also describes the impact of energy subsidies on water consumption in a region where water resources are particularly limited. The findings provide further evidence of the adverse and significant consequences of subsidizing energy.

The Coupling of the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in Agriculture: Crop Ecosystem Oxidative Ratio and the Effects of Fertilization on Biofuel Feedstock Quality

Gallagher, Morgan Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
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Agriculture significantly impacts the global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles through land use change, soil C loss, greenhouse gas emissions, and increased fixed-N availability. Agriculture occupies a third of the terrestrial biosphere, making understanding its impacts on the C and N cycles critical. I used a novel analytical tool (solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) to characterize properties of the C and N cycles in agriculture, including biochemical responses to N fertilizer and agriculture gas fluxes. A central component of the C cycle is the rapid exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Gas flux O 2 /CO 2 ratios (oxidative ratio-OR) vary depending on ecosystem type, plant species, and nutrient status. It is necessary to constrain OR to assess the uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 by the terrestrial biosphere and ocean. I measured the OR of the top three crops in the United States (soybean, corn, and wheat) and found significant variability. I additionally tested the effect of N fertilizer application on corn ecosystem OR and on the difference between respiration and photosynthesis OR and observed no detectable changes. Conversely, soil organic matter OR is different from gas flux OR values...

Gender in Climate-Smart Agriculture; Module 18 for Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank Group; FAO; IFAD
Fonte: World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development Publicador: World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This module provides guidance and a comprehensive menu of practical tools for integrating gender in the planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of projects and investments in climate-smart agriculture (CSA). The module emphasizes the importance and ultimate goal of integrating gender in CSA practices, which is to reduce gender inequalities and ensure that men and women can equally benefit from any intervention in the agricultural sector to reduce risks linked to climate change. Climate change has an impact on food and nutrition security and agriculture, and the agriculture sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases. It is crucial to recognize that climate change affects men and women differently. The content is drawn from tested good practice and innovative approaches, with an emphasis on lessons learned, benefits and impacts, implementation issues, and replicability. These insights and lessons related to gender in CSA will assist practitioners to improve project planning, design...

Energy Access and Productive Uses for the Urban Poor : Final Report on Ghana Scoping Study

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The aim of the scoping study was to gain an understanding of the productive activities slum dwellers engage in that rely on energy services and the potentials and challenges of slums in Ghana regarding access to modern energy services and income generation from productive activities. The objective of the ESMED-EAfUP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program - ESMAP/SME Development - Energy Access for the Urban Poor) programme is 'to create and sustain a network of energy practitioners to support development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) as users and providers of modern energy services for slum upgrading programs.'. Using ability to adopt safer and modern energy forms as a criterion in assessing the effective deployment of safer and modern energy forms, the study concluded that the high propensity to save is an opportunity for their deployment if they can be sensitized about the benefits of using modern energy forms, which many of the slum dwellers are not aware of. Most enterprise owners could also capitalize on the credit policies of the financial institutions they saved with to adopt the modern energy forms. Lack of education and limited awareness about the benefits of using clean...

Energy and health 6 - Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change

Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy
Fonte: Lancet Publishing Group Publicador: Lancet Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from