The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in MgB(2) has been catching the attention of scientists due to the possibility of applying the material in magnets and electronic devices operating with cryocoolers (temperatures around 20 K). In the present work, a methodology to optimize the critical current densities of this material is described. MgB(2) bulk samples were prepared and analyzed with the addition of other diborides with the same C32 hexagonal structure as MgB(2) (TaB(2), ZrB(2), VB(2), and AlB(2)) and with simultaneous addition of SiC. Microstructural characterization, performed using SEM+EDS and XRD, was extremely important to determine the distribution and compositional characterization of the superconducting phase. Magnetic superconducting characterization using SQUID was performed to determine the best material addition. As a result we could analyze the behavior of each addition on the current transport capacity, including an analysis of the magnetic flux pinning mechanisms.; CNPq, Brazil; CAPES, Brazil; MINCyT, Argentina
Several high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes have been developed since the late eighties. Due to the new techniques applied for their production, HTS tapes are becoming feasible and practical for many applications. In this work, we present the test results of five commercial HTS tapes from the BSCCO and YBCO families (short samples of 200 mm). We have measured and analyzed their intrinsic and extrinsic properties and compared their behaviors for fault current limiter (FCL) applications. Electrical measurements were performed to determine the critical current and the n value through the V-I relationship under DC and AC magnetic fields. The resistance per unit length was determined as a function of temperature. The magnetic characteristics were analyzed through susceptibility curves as a function of temperature. As transport current generates a magnetic field surrounding the HTS material, the magnetic measurements indicate the magnetic field supported by the tapes under a peak current 1.5 times higher than the critical current, I(c). By pulsed current tests the recovery time and the energy/volume during a current fault were also analyzed. These results are in agreement with the data found in the literature giving the most appropriate performance conductor for a FCL device (I(peak) = 4 kA) to be used in a 220 V-60 Hz grid.; Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL); FAPESP; CNPq/PIBIC
The joint process between tapes of coated conductors is a critical issue for the most of the applications of high temperature superconductors (HTS). Using different fabrication techniques joints of YBCO coated superconductors were prepared and characterized through electrical measurements. For soldering material low melting point eutectic alloys, such as In-Sn (m.p. 116 degrees C) and Sn-Pb (m. p. 189 degrees C) were selected to prepare lap joints with effective length between 1 to 20 cm. The splice resistance and the critical current of the joints were evaluated by I-V curve measurements with the maximum current strength above the critical current, in order to evaluate the degree of degradation for each joint method. Pressed lap joints prepared with tapes without external reinforcement presented low resistance lap joint nevertheless some critical current degradation occurs when strong pressing is applied. When mechanical pressure is applied during the soldering process we can reduce the thickness of the solder alloy and a residual resistance arises from contributions of high resistivity matrix and external reinforcement. The lap joints for reinforced tape were prepared using two methods: the first, using ""as-supplied"" tape and the other after reinforcement-removal; in the latter case...
The power transformer is a piece of electrical equipment that needs continuous monitoring and fast protection since it is very expensive and an essential element for a power system to perform effectively. The most common protection technique used is the percentage differential logic, which provides discrimination between an internal fault and different operating conditions. Unfortunately, there are some operating conditions of power transformers that can affect the protection behavior and the power system stability. This paper proposes the development of a new algorithm to improve the differential protection performance by using fuzzy logic and Clarke`s transform. An electrical power system was modeled using Alternative Transients Program (ATP) software to obtain the operational conditions and fault situations needed to test the algorithm developed. The results were compared to a commercial relay for validation, showing the advantages of the new method.; Department of Electrical Engineering, Engineering School of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES)
A secure communication system based on the error-feedback synchronization of the electronic model of the particle-in-a-box system is proposed. This circuit allows a robust and simple electronic emulation of the mechanical behavior of the collisions of a particle inside a box, exhibiting rich chaotic behavior. The required nonlinearity to emulate the box walls is implemented in a simple way when compared with other analog electronic chaotic circuits. A master/slave synchronization of two circuits exhibiting a rich chaotic behavior demonstrates the potentiality of this system to secure communication. In this system, binary data stream information modulates the bifurcation parameter of the particle-in-a-box electronic circuit in the transmitter. In the receiver circuit, this parameter is estimated using Pecora-Carroll synchronization and error-feedback synchronization. The performance of the demodulation process is verified through the eye pattern technique applied on the recovered bit stream. During the demodulation process, the error-feedback synchronization presented better performance compared with the Pecora-Carroll synchronization. The application of the particle-in-a-box electronic circuit in a secure communication system is demonstrated.
The activity of validating identified requirements for an information system helps to improve the quality of a requirements specification document and, consequently, the success of a project. Although various different support tools to requirements engineering exist in the market, there is still a lack of automated support for validation activity. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to make up for that deficiency, with the use of an automated tool, to provide the resources for the execution of an adequate validation activity. The contribution of this study is to enable an agile and effective follow-up of the scope established for the requirements, so as to lead the development to a solution which would satisfy the real necessities of the users, as well as to supply project managers with relevant information about the maturity of the analysts involved in requirements specification.
This research presents the development and implementation in a computational routine of algorithms for fault location in multiterminal transmission lines. These algorithms are part of a fault-location system, which is capable of correctly identifying the fault point based on voltage and current phasor quantities, calculated by using measurements of voltage and current signals from intelligent electronic devices, located on the transmission-line terminals. The algorithms have access to the electrical parameters of the transmission lines and to information about the transformers loading and their connection type. This paper also presents the development of phase component models for the power system elements used by the fault-location algorithms.
Thyristor-based onload tap-changing ac voltage stabilizers are cheap and robust. They have replaced most mechanical tap-changers in low voltage applications from 300 VA to 300 M. Nevertheless, this replacement hardily applies to tap-changers associated to transformers feeding medium-voltage lines (typically 69 kV primary, 34.5 kV line, 10 MVA) which need periodical maintenance of contacts and oil. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has studied the feasibility of this replacement. It detected economical problems derived from the need for series association of thyristors to manage the high voltages involved, and from the current overload developed under line fault. The paper reviews the configurations used in that field and proposes new solutions, using a compensating transformer in the main circuit and multi-winding coils in the commutating circuit, with reduced overload effect and no series association of thyristors, drastically decreasing their number and rating. The stabilizer can be installed at any point of the line and the electronic circuit can be fixed to ground. Subsequent works study and synthesize several commutating circuits in detail.; IBERDROLA S. A., Spain; I+D program, ESTRAP; Feasibility of Electronic Medium Voltage Line Stabilizers
A geometrical approach of the finite-element analysis applied to electrostatic fields is presented. This approach is particularly well adapted to teaching Finite Elements in Electrical Engineering courses at undergraduate level. The procedure leads to the same system of algebraic equations as that derived by classical approaches, such as variational principle or weighted residuals for nodal elements with plane symmetry. It is shown that the extension of the original procedure to three dimensions is straightforward, provided the domain be meshed in first-order tetrahedral elements. The element matrices are derived by applying Maxwell`s equations in integral form to suitably chosen surfaces in the finite-element mesh.
Three-dimensional modeling of piezoelectric devices requires a precise knowledge of piezoelectric material parameters. The commonly used piezoelectric materials belong to the 6mm symmetry class, which have ten independent constants. In this work, a methodology to obtain precise material constants over a wide frequency band through finite element analysis of a piezoceramic disk is presented. Given an experimental electrical impedance curve and a first estimate for the piezoelectric material properties, the objective is to find the material properties that minimize the difference between the electrical impedance calculated by the finite element method and that obtained experimentally by an electrical impedance analyzer. The methodology consists of four basic steps: experimental measurement, identification of vibration modes and their sensitivity to material constants, a preliminary identification algorithm, and final refinement of the material constants using an optimization algorithm. The application of the methodology is exemplified using a hard lead zirconate titanate piezoceramic. The same methodology is applied to a soft piezoceramic. The errors in the identification of each parameter are statistically estimated in both cases, and are less than 0.6% for elastic constants...
The following papers constitute a selection among the best papers presented at the Ninth IEEE/IAS International Conference on Industry Applications (INDUSCON) held in Sao Paulo from 8(th) to 10(th) of November, 2010. This event gathered a significant number of people from academia and industry interested in applications of Electrical and Electronic engineering to industry.
This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark gap wireless, continuous wave (CW) and amplitude modulation (AM), detection by rectification, and frequency modulation (FM). The analysis of these signals is meant to lead into a better understanding of the evolution of communication technology. The material presented in this work could be used to illustrate ""Signals and Systems"" and ""Communication Systems"" courses by taking advantage of its technical as well as historical contents.; FAPESP[2008/00773-1]; CNPq[302633/2008-1]; Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, Brazil
This paper presents a relatively simple method to fabricate field-emitter arrays from silicon substrates. These devices are obtained from silicon micromachining by means of the HI-PS technique-a combination of hydrogen ion implantation and porous silicon used as sacrificial layer. Also, a new process sequence is proposed and implemented to fabricate self-aligned integrated field-emission devices based on this technique. Electrical characteristics of the microtips obtained show good agreement with the Fowler-Nordheim theory, which are suitable for the proposed application.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)
SKAN: Skin Scanner - System for Skin Cancer Detection Using Adaptive Techniques - combines computer engineering concepts with areas like dermatology and oncology. Its objective is to discern images of skin cancer, specifically melanoma, from others that show only common spots or other types of skin diseases, using image recognition. This work makes use of the ABCDE visual rule, which is often used by dermatologists for melanoma identification, to define which characteristics are analyzed by the software. It then applies various algorithms and techniques, including an ellipse-fitting algorithm, to extract and measure these characteristics and decide whether the spot is a melanoma or not. The achieved results are presented with special focus on the adaptive decision-making and its effect on the diagnosis. Finally, other applications of the software and its algorithms are presented.
Document engineering is the computer science discipline that investigates systems for documents in any form and in all media. As with the relationship between software engineering and software, document engineering is concerned with principles, tools and processes that improve our ability to create, manage, and maintain documents (http://www.documentengineering.org). The ACM Symposium on Document Engineering is an annual meeting of researchers active in document engineering: it is sponsored by ACM by means of the ACM SIGWEB Special Interest Group. In this editorial, we first point to work carried out in the context of document engineering, which are directly related to multimedia tools and applications. We conclude with a summary of the papers presented in this special issue.
We show how a circuit analysis, used widely in electrical engineering, finds application to problems of light wave injection and transport in subwavelength structures in the optical frequency range. Lumped circuit and transmission-line analysis may prove helpful in the design of plasmonic devices with standard, functional properties.; Fundacao de Amparo A Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Centro de Pesquisa em Optica e Fotonica (CePOF) at the Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, in 2007; Centro de Pesquisa em Optica e Fotonica (CePOF) at the Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, in 2007
A power transformer needs continuous monitoring and fast protection as it is a very expensive piece of equipment and an essential element in an electrical power system. The most common protection technique used is the percentage differential logic, which provides discrimination between an internal fault and different operating conditions. Unfortunately, there are some operating conditions of power transformers that can mislead the conventional protection affecting the power system stability negatively. This study proposes the development of a new algorithm to improve the protection performance by using fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. An electrical power system was modelled using Alternative Transients Program software to obtain the operational conditions and fault situations needed to test the algorithm developed, as well as a commercial differential relay. Results show improved reliability, as well as a fast response of the proposed technique when compared with conventional ones.; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); CAPES (Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior)
The interpretation of the effect of plastic deformation on the calculated excess loss component (anomalous-loss) supports the concept of loss separation. Magnetic losses and Barkhausen noise of nonoriented electrical steel sheets were measured on Epstein strips taken from a single coil of 0.8% Si nonoriented electrical steel. Sheets were extracted in the annealed condition, without any skin pass and with a grain size of 18 mu m. This material was cold rolled in order to obtain sets of samples with true strain from 2% up to 29%. X-ray diffraction was used to estimate the dislocation density. The analysis of magnetic properties was performed by Barkhausen noise measurements and also by analyzing the hysteresis loops obtained from Epstein frame measurements for different inductions and different frequencies (including the quasi-static regime for hysteresis loss measurements). These data allowed us to observe that most of the well known total loss increase with plastic deformation is due to an increase in the hysteresis loss component, while excess loss decreases to become negligible. This behavior can be explained if it is assumed that the plastic deformation lead to an increase in the number of domain walls per unit volume, thereby decreasing the excess loss. Barkhausen peak area increases with plastic deformation...
This objective of this report is to present a list of proceedings (conferences, workshops, symposia, meetings) in the areas of Computer Science, Electrical & Electronic Engineering, and Communications covered by Google Scholar Metrics and ranked according to their h-index. Google Scholar Metrics only displays publications that have published at least 100 papers and have received at least one citation in the last five years (2009-2013). The searches were conducted between the 15th and 22nd of December, 2014. A total of 1208 proceedings have been identified.
It is well known that control systems are the core of electronic differential systems (EDSs) in electric vehicles (EVs)/hybrid HEVs (HEVs). However, conventional closed-loop control architectures do not completely match the needed ability to reject noises/disturbances, especially regarding the input acceleration signal incoming from the driver's commands, which makes the EDS (in this case) ineffective. Due to this, in this paper, a novel EDS control architecture is proposed to offer a new approach for the traction system that can be used with a great variety of controllers (e. g., classic, artificial intelligence (AI)-based, and modern/robust theory). In addition to this, a modified proportional-integral derivative (PID) controller, an AI-based neuro-fuzzy controller, and a robust optimal H-infinity controller were designed and evaluated to observe and evaluate the versatility of the novel architecture. Kinematic and dynamic models of the vehicle are briefly introduced. Then, simulated and experimental results were presented and discussed. A Hybrid Electric Vehicle in Low Scale (HELVIS)-Sim simulation environment was employed to the preliminary analysis of the proposed EDS architecture. Later, the EDS itself was embedded in a dSpace 1103 high-performance interface board so that real-time control of the rear wheels of the HELVIS platform was successfully achieved.; Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency; Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency; Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz; Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz; Fundacao para o Incremento da Pesquisa e do Aperfeicoamento Industrial; Fundacao para o Incremento da Pesquisa e do Aperfeicoamento Industrial