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Escalas de equivalência e demanda do consumidor; Equivalence scales and consumer demand

Vaz, Fábio Monteiro
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Tese
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.807783%
Tese (doutorado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Economia, Administração, Contabilidade e Ciência da Informação e Documentação, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia da Universidade de Brasília, 2012.; Esta tese é composta de duas partes. Na primeira parte, analisam-se as origens e as consequências de uma característica muito comum em pesquisas de orçamentos familiares: a existência de um elevado percentual de domicílios que não possuem despesas com determinados produtos. Tais gastos nulos são de suma importância para a estimação de curvas de Engel, já que tratamentos inadequados destas observações podem resultar em estimativas viesadas e inconsistentes. Assim, primeiramente derivam-se os principais modelos desenvolvidos para lidar com este tipo de informação. Em seguida, utilizam-se alguns destes modelos para estimar os fatores que influenciam as despesas com alimentação fora do domicílio. Na segunda parte o problema consiste em comparar o bem-estar de domicílios com diferentes composições demográficas. Dado que a função de utilidade é definida apenas para indivíduos, mas diversos bens e recursos são compartilhados dentro do domicílio, análises de bem-estar entre indivíduos devem se basear em um modelo de bem-estar para o domicílio. A partir desse modelo é possível definir um índice...

Social policy design and assessment : the choice of an equivalence scale for the assessment of efficacy and efficiency on poverty reduction based on the portuguese social insertion income

Nicola, Rui Miguel de Morais Zamith
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.959707%
Masters on Economics and Social Policy; Income redistributive social policies aiming to reduce inequality and poverty have been submitted to more regular and in-depth analysis and assessment within the EU and OECD. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the consequences of assessing income support social policy measures using internationally defined equivalence scales instead of using the nationally defined equivalence scale embedded in each measure. The dissertation addresses two main questions: 1) what are the effects of assessing redistributive social policies with equivalence scales different from the ones incorporated in the respective policy measures? 2) would the assessment of redistributive social policies improve, in terms of poverty eradication and efficiency indicators, if the equivalence scales used for policy design and implementation and for evaluation are the same? On a first section of this text the conceptual and methodological framework regarding the assessment of redistributive policies is presented, focusing on the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indicators and the efficiency model of Beckerman. Afterwards, the main characteristics of EU-SILC data and the rules for accessing the Portuguese Social Insertion Income (SII) are briefly considered. This redistributive program will be used on simulations with different equivalence scales. Thereafter...

Mid-point for open-ended income category and the effect of equivalence scales on the income-health relationship

Celeste,Roger Keller; Bastos,Joao Luiz
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.221963%
To estimate the mid-point of an open-ended income category and to assess the impact of two equivalence scales on income-health associations. Data were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey ( Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal – SBBrasil 2010). Income was converted from categorical to two continuous variables ( per capita and equivalized) for each mid-point. The median mid-point was R$ 14,523.50 and the mean, R$ 24,507.10. When per capita income was applied, 53% of the population were below the poverty line, compared with 15% with equivalized income. The magnitude of income-health associations was similar for continuous income, but categorized equivalized income tended to decrease the strength of association.

One size fits all?: The effect of equivalence scales on Indigenous and other Australian poverty

Hunter, Boyd; Kennedy, Steven; Biddle, Nicholas Grahame
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 371368 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.860547%
Indigenous households are more likely to be multi-generational and have several families in residence than other Australian households. Equivalence scales attempt to control for family size and composition and the relative costs of maintaining various families. We use the 1995 National Health Survey to examine how variations in the assumptions underlying equivalence scales, such as household composition and economies of size, affect poverty measures for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Our results show that the choice of equivalence scale affects the level and composition of poverty. This is evident in that variations in the assumption about the costs of children can increase Indigenous poverty by a factor of two-and-a-half. We also examine how equivalence scale variations can induce large threshold effects, and demonstrate the influence of zero and negative incomes in our data set on the composition of poverty.; no

The welfare interpretation of consumer equivalence scales

Bradbury, Bruce
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 100069 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.034873%
A consumer equivalence scale is a price index that shows the relative household expenditures required in households of different sizes so as to reach some common living standard. These scales typically increase with the number of people in the household, that at less than a per-capita rate due to the existence of joint consumption within the household (and the lower needs of children).

However, if household composition is considered as a matter of choice rather than exogenously given, then a revealed preference argument suggests that such a welfare interpretation of equivalence scales is meaningless. Consumer equivalence scales measure the cost of children (or other household living arrangements) but not their benefits. Since many people choose to have children, these costs must be outweighed by other benefits.

This paper considers these issues of demographic choice and explores the relevance of equivalence scales to the broader welfare questions associated with tax/transfer policies and poverty and inequality measurement. The paper concludes that in contrast to conventional methods of measure poverty and inequality, there is a case for the use of different equivalence scales for adults and children in the same household. Though the adults may have chosen their lower living standard in exchange for the ‘joys of parenthood’...

Sensitivity of Australian income distributions to choice of equivalence scale: Exploring some parameters of Indigenous incomes

Hunter, Boyd; Kennedy, Steven; Smith, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 275330 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.79399%
Indigenous families experience substantial and multiple forms of economic burden arising from the size and structure of their families and households. Indigenous households are more likely to have more than one family in residence than other Australian households and are more likely to be multi-generational with older Indigenous people living with younger people in extended family households. Given that equivalence scales attempt to control for family size and composition and the relative costs of maintaining various families, such differences are likely to be reflected in their income distributions—hence, it is important to consider whether these distributions are affected by using alternative scales. This paper seeks to characterise the economies of household size in Indigenous and other Australian households using equivalence scales that cover the range of feasible values and 1995 National Health Survey data. Furthermore, the extent of reranking in income distribution when using the various scales provides an intuitive benchmark for the sensitivity of the respective distributions. The analysis will be conducted for both households and income units to illustrate potential sensitivities of the results to the inclusion of extended kin networks in the definition of households.; no

Measuring child poverty in South Africa: Sensitivity to the choice of equivalence scale and an updated profile

Gomersall, J.; Yu, D.; Van der Berg, S.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.125803%
This paper offers evidence on the sensitivity of child poverty in South Africa to changes in the adult equivalence scale (AES) and updates the child poverty profile based on the Income and Expenditure Survey 2005/06. Setting the poverty line at the 40th percentile of households calculated with different AESs the scope and composition of child poverty are found to be relatively insensitive to the scale used. The rankings of children of different ages, girls versus boys, racial groupings and children living in rural versus urban areas are unaffected by choice of AES, although some provincial rankings on the poverty headcount measure are. The proportions of children and households ‘correctly’ identified as poor for the full range of scales is extremely high. These findings support the argument that it may be appropriate for profiling poverty in South Africa to use a poverty line based on a per capita welfare measure. For the construction of the child poverty profile, per capita income is used as the welfare indicator with the poverty line set at the 40th percentile of household. The profile suggests that poverty amongst children is more extensive than amongst the population or adults even after the massive injection of transfers into households with poor children through the child support grant. The child poverty headcount...

Difficulties in the use of equivalence scales for normative purpsoses

Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/1991 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.397217%
Can we make welfare comparisons of households of different characteristics on the basis of their observed behavior in relation to cornmodity demands? This paper reviews sorne of the fundamental difficulties encountered in the attempt to use the concept oí an equivalence scale as a vehic1e for introducing demographics and other characteristics into empirical demand analysis and, at the same time, for establishing interpersonal comparisons oí wel1-being.

The distribution of expenditure in Spain, 1973-74 to 1980-81

Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95055%
This paper examines how far we can go in establishing normative conclusions with regard to the evolution of inequality over time, making use of statistical methods which do not need either too specific assumptions about individual preferences, or their recovery by means of complex and expensive econometric methods. The decomposition of the change in money inequality into a real and a price effect occupies the center of the analysis. We have used statistical Laspeyres type price indices which are household specific, and a parametrization which captures the weight one is prepared to give to household size in the definition of equivalent expenditure per person. The central finding is that the improvement in real inequality in Spain from 1973-74 to 1980-81 is always greater than the improvement in money inequality. Changes in relative prices have been less damaging to the poor than to the rich, and have had a uniform impact across groups from different partitions. The explanatory power of overall inequality provided by different characteristics is studied by means of statistical constructs independent of the equivalence scale used.

TIPs for poverty analysis: the case of Spain, 1980-81 to 1990-91

Río, Coral del; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
Fonte: Fundación Empresa Pública (Fundación SEPI) Publicador: Fundación Empresa Pública (Fundación SEPI)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /01/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95055%
In this paper, we apply the methodology developed by Jenkins and Lambert (1997) to the study of the evolution of poverty in Spain during the 1980s. The main advantage of this approach lies in the fact that it provides poverty orderings consistent with a wide subset of generalized poverty gap poverty indices, while allowing different poverty lines for each of the distributions being compared. Our contribution focuses on two aspects. (i) We study the robustness of our results to the choice of the equivalence scale. (ii) We extend to our procedures of statistical inference which are already used in the inequality literature. The main conclusion is the unambiguous fall in poverty levesl, both in population as a whole as well as in all subgroups in the partition by household size.; En este trabajo utilizamos la metodología desarrollada por Jenkins y Lambert (1997) para analizar la evolución de la pobreza en España durante la década de los 80. La principal ventaja de este enfoque es que proporciona órdenes de pobreza consistentes con un amplio subconjunto de índices de pobreza del gap de pobreza generalizado, a la vez que permite la utilización de líneas de pobreza diferentes en cada una de las distribuciones que se pretenden comparar. Nuestra contribución se centra en dos aspectos. (i) Estudiamos la robustez de los resultados ante diferentes escalas de equivalencia. (ii) Extendemos a esta metodología los procedimientos de inferencia estadística ya existentes en la literatura de desigualdad. La principal conclusión es el descenso unánime de los niveles de pobreza tanto en el conjunto de la población como en todos los subgrupos de la partición por tamaño del hogar.; This work has been completed under the research programme of the Catedra Gumersindo de Azcarate...

A simplidied model for social welfare analysis : an applications to Spain, 1973-74 to 1980-81

Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.221963%
Most of the literature on income distribution has been concentrated on inequality. In this paper we introduce also a concern for efficiency in an social welfare model. We propose a simple but useful specification which combines three features: (i) the selection of measurement instruments in the relative and the absolute case on the grounds of their properties for applied work; (ii) a procedure to make welfare comparisons across households with different needs, in a model in which equivalence scales depend only on household size; an (iii) the use of house hold specific statistical price indices to make intertemporal comparisons in teal terms. The methodology is applied to the study of the role of prices and demographic effects in the evolution of the standard of living in Spain from 1973-74 to 1980-81.

Accounting for the decline in Spanish household expenditures inequality during the 1980s

Río, Coral del; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.647236%
In this paper we apply decomposition methods to analyze some of the factors accounting for the decrease in household expenditures inequality in Spain during the 1980s. We adopt a simple one-parameter model in which equivalence scales depend only on household size. Then we propose an inequality decomposition method which minimizes equivalence scales' potential contamination problems. We find that most of the change in overall inequality is due to a reduction in the within-group term in the partition by household size. The bulk of this reduction is accounted for by changes at the lower tail of the distribution in the partitions by the socioeconomic category and educational level of the household head. These two findings are independent of the equivalence scales parameter.; This work has been completed under the research programme of the Cátedra Gumersindo de Azcárate, financed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. It has been presented in the 1996 meeting of the network “Distribution and Redistribution of Income”, in Bordeaux, financed by European Communities (Contract #ERBCHRXCT940647). Financial help from Project PB96-0118 of the Spanish DGES is also acknowledged; The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com

An inequality decomposition method which minimizes equivalence scales contamination problems

Río, Coral del; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.807783%
Decomposable measures are a useful tool to analyze the impact of households characteristics on income or expenditure inequality. However, the results are sensitive to the choice of equivalence scales in a heterogenous population. In this paper, we assume that equivalence scales depend only on the number of persons in the household. In this context, we suggest a method to free the decomposition analysis from the possible 'contamination' that will arise if we use an inappropiate equivalence scale. The method is applied to the evolution of the standard of living in Spain during the 80' s. We study the structure of Spanish inequality in 1980-81 and 1990-91, as well as the trend in overall inequality over time in terms of three factors: i) the change in within-group inequality, ii) the change in between-group inequality, and iii) the demographic change across partition subgroups.

Indigenous and other Australian poverty: Revisiting the importance of equivalence scales

Hunter, Boyd; Kennedy, Steven; Biddle, Nicholas
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.73472%
Equivalence scales attempt to control for family size and composition, as well as the relative costs of maintaining various family types. The 1995 National Health Survey is used to examine how variations in the assumptions underlying equivalence scales, such as household composition and economies of size, affect poverty measures for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The main finding is that the assumptions about the costs of children can increase Indigenous poverty by a factor of two-and-a-half. Another finding is that the choice of equivalence scales can induce large threshold effects that influence the composition of poverty.

Household composition, equivalence scales and the reliability of income distributions: Some evidence for Indigenous and other Australians

Hunter, Boyd; Kennedy, Steven; Smith, Daniel
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.221963%
Indigenous families experience substantial and multiple forms of economic burden arising from the size and structure of their families and households. Indigenous households are more likely to have more than one family in residence than other Australian households and are more likely to be multigenerational with older Indigenous people living with younger people in extended family households. This paper seeks to characterise the economies of household size in Indigenous and other Australian households using equivalence scales that cover the range of feasible values and 1995 National Health Survey data.

An Equivalence Scale for Time

Bittman, Michael; Goodin, Robert
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.221963%
This article proposes an 'equivalence scale for time' by which information about total working time in both paid and unpaid labour can be derived just from information about paid working time and household structure. Different scales are offered for males and females, and an adjustment according to year is also provided. These proposal is based on highly significant and robust OLS analyses of time-use surveys involving 99,137 respondents from 28 surveys in 13 western countries.

Mid-point for open-ended income category and the effect of equivalence scales on the income-health relationship; Punto medio en categoria abierta de renta y el efecto de escalas de equivalencia en las relaciones renta-salud; Ponto medio em categoria aberta de renda e o efeito de escalas de equivalencia nas relacoes renda-saude

Celeste, Roger Keller; Bastos, Joao Luiz
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.221963%
Objetivou-se estimar o ponto médio de categoria aberta de renda e o efeito de escalas de equivalência nas associações renda-saúde. Dados foram obtidos da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal 2010 (SBBrasil). A renda foi convertida da variável categórica para contínua ( per capita e equivalizada) para cada ponto médio. A mediana da categoria aberta de renda foi R$ 14.523,50 e a média, R$ 24.507,10. O percentual da população abaixo da linha de pobreza foi de 53% com renda per capita e 15% com renda equivalizada. A magnitude das associações foi similar na escala contínua, mas, quando categorizada, a renda equivalizada reduziu sua força.; To estimate the mid-point of an open-ended income category and to assess the impact of two equivalence scales on income-health associations. Data were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey ( Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal – SBBrasil 2010). Income was converted from categorical to two continuous variables ( per capita and equivalized) for each mid-point. The median mid-point was R$ 14,523.50 and the mean, R$ 24,507.10. When per capita income was applied, 53% of the population were below the poverty line, compared with 15% with equivalized income. The magnitude of income-health associations was similar for continuous income...

Equivalence scales and inequality

Cowell, Frank; Mercader-Prats, Magda
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.539385%
At the heart of any distributional analysis there is the problem of allowing for differences in people's non-income characteristics. We examine the role of standard equivalence scales in distributional comparisons and the welfare implications of the basis for constructing equivalence scales. We consider the use of alternative approaches that do not require the specification of a single scale and implement one of these in practical comparison of Spain and the UK.

Construct equivalence of the OPQ32n for Black and White people in South Africa

Visser,Deléne; Viviers,Rian
Fonte: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology Publicador: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.430593%
ORIENTATION: The construct equivalence of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32n) for black and white groups was investigated. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the structural invariance of the OPQ32n for two South African population groups. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The OPQ32n is often used for making a variety of personnel decisions in South Africa. Evidence regarding the suitability of personality questionnaires for use across South Africa's various population groups is required by practitioners for selecting appropriate psychometric instruments. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the results were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. The sample consisted of 248 Black and 476 White people from the SHL (South Africa) database. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the structural equivalence of the OPQ32n scale scores for these two groups. MAIN FINDINGS: A good fit regarding factor correlations and covariances on the 32 scales was obtained, partially supporting the structural equivalence of the questionnaire for the two groups. The analyses furthermore indicated that there was structural invariance, with the effect of the Social Desirability scale partialled out. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The present study focused on aspects of structural equivalence only. The OPQ32n therefore passed the first hurdle in this particular context...

Mid-point for open-ended income category and the effect of equivalence scales on the income-health relationship

Celeste,Roger Keller; Bastos,João Luiz
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.221963%
To estimate the mid-point of an open-ended income category and to assess the impact of two equivalence scales on income-health associations. Data were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey ( Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde Bucal – SBBrasil 2010). Income was converted from categorical to two continuous variables ( per capita and equivalized) for each mid-point. The median mid-point was R$ 14,523.50 and the mean, R$ 24,507.10. When per capita income was applied, 53% of the population were below the poverty line, compared with 15% with equivalized income. The magnitude of income-health associations was similar for continuous income, but categorized equivalized income tended to decrease the strength of association.