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AC impedance spectroscopy: a new equivalent circuit for titania thick film humidity sensors

Faia, P. M.; Furtado, C. S.; Ferreira, A. J.
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
The variation of the electrical signal with humidity in ceramic sensors is originated by the chemical and physical sorptions of water molecules existing in the atmosphere. The aim of the work described in the present paper is to establish an equivalent electrical circuit for the case of two titania thick-film samples. It is shown, at least for the temperature of 23 °C, that the same type of circuit represents adequately these two samples for various relative humidities. Chemisorption and physisorption are responsible for the different charge transport mechanisms - ion hopping, ion diffusion and electrolytic conduction. Complex impedance data were obtained at the temperature of 23 °C and various relative humidities, in the frequency range 0.1 Hz-40 MHz. The best and simpler circuit representation we found, which gives the best fitting for the Cole-Cole and Bode plots, consists of two RC parallel circuits in series with two constant-phase elements (CPEs). The values of the electrical components are tabled and, as an example, the Cole-Cole and Bode plots fitting obtained for one of our samples, the sample B, for 87.5% RH, in the frequency range 0.1 Hz-40 MHz is shown.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6THH-4DYW4YK-3/1/8a4bd418ee28187eecebe9d1e1d8a6f0

Equivalent Circuits and Nanoplasmonics

NUNES, Frederico D.; WEINER, John
Fonte: IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC Publicador: IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We show how a circuit analysis, used widely in electrical engineering, finds application to problems of light wave injection and transport in subwavelength structures in the optical frequency range. Lumped circuit and transmission-line analysis may prove helpful in the design of plasmonic devices with standard, functional properties.; Fundacao de Amparo A Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Centro de Pesquisa em Optica e Fotonica (CePOF) at the Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, in 2007; Centro de Pesquisa em Optica e Fotonica (CePOF) at the Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, in 2007

Proposta de identificação dos parâmetros do modelo de bateria para uso na modelagem de sistemas de partida de veículos automotivos.; Identification proposal of battery model parameters for usage in the modeling of start system of automotive vehicles.

Ogawa, Vanessa Gomes Cruz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar o modelo matemático para baterias de chumbo-ácido, usada em aplicações veiculares, mais adequado para a condição de descarga, que ocorre durante o teste de Cold Crank, e propor uma metodologia para identificar os parâmetros da bateria, a partir de ensaios experimentais. A simulação do teste de Cold Crank foi a motivação para o início da pesquisa. Dentre os diversos modelos pesquisados, foram selecionados aqueles que representam a dinâmica da bateria durante a descarga e que são baseados em circuitos elétricos. O modelo de Jackey foi escolhido, por possuir um circuito equivalente com adequada complexidade para o objetivo estudado. Após algumas simplificações e usando a 1ª Lei de Kirchhoff, definiu-se a equação da bateria, que calcula a tensão nos terminais para um dado valor de corrente de descarga constante. Adotaram-se ainda algumas leis de formação propostas por Jackey e uma forma alternativa para a descrição de R1. Alguns parâmetros da equação da bateria foram calculados usando a curva de tensão em aberto (OCV) em função do estado de carga (SOC), a equação da variação do estado de carga em função do tempo (SOC(t)) e o circuito simplificado para o instante inicial. Para os demais parâmetros...

A simplified method for determining the high frequency induction motor equivalent electrical circuit parameters to be used in EMI effect

Riehl, Rudolf Ribeiro; Ruppert Filho, Ernesto
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 1244-1248
Português
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The aim of this paper is to present a simple method for determining the high frequency parameters of a three-phase induction motor to be used in studies involving variable speed drives with PWM three-phase inverters, in which it is necessary to check the effects caused to the motor by the electromagnetic interference, (EMI) in the differential mode, as well as in the common mode. The motor parameters determination is generally performed in adequate laboratories using accurate instruments, such as very expensive RLC bridges. The method proposed here consists in the identification of the motor equivalent electrical circuit parameters in rated frequency and in high frequency through characteristic tests in the laboratory, together with the use of characteristic equations and curves, shown in the references to be mentioned for determining the motor high frequency parasite capacitances and also through system simulations using dedicated software, like Pspice, determining the characteristic waveforms involved in the differential and common mode phenomena, comparing and validating the procedure through published papers [01].

Biologically Closed Electrical Circuits in Venus Flytrap[OA]

Volkov, Alexander G.; Carrell, Holly; Markin, Vladislav S.
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
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45.96%
The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is a marvel of plant electrical, mechanical, and biochemical engineering. The rapid closure of the Venus flytrap upper leaf in about 0.1 s is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. We found earlier that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges and, when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Here, we investigated the electrical properties of the upper leaf of the Venus flytrap and proposed the equivalent electrical circuit in agreement with the experimental data.

6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Fall 2000; Circuits and Electronics

Lang, Jeffrey (Jeffrey H.); Agarwal, Anant
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Português
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Fundamentals of the lumped circuit abstraction. Resistive elements and networks; independent and dependent sources; switches and MOS devices; digital abstraction; amplifiers; and energy storage elements. Dynamics of first- and second-order networks; design in the time and frequency domains; analog and digital circuits and applications. Design exercises. Alternate week laboratory. Enrollment may be limited. From the course home page: Course Description 6.002 introduces the fundamentals of the lumped circuit abstraction. Topics covered include: resistive elements and networks; independent and dependent sources; switches and MOS transistors; digital abstraction; amplifiers; energy storage elements; dynamics of first- and second-order networks; design in the time and frequency domains; and analog and digital circuits and applications. Design and lab exercises are also significant components of the course. 6.002 is worth 4 Engineering Design Points.

An aid for the optimum design of antenna systems for very low frequencies.

Gobbel, James Thomas.
Fonte: Monterey, California. U.S. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This thesis will be concerned with the antenna systems used for high power transmitters operating at Very Low Frequencies (10-20 kHz). General problems involved in antenna systems, from the viewpoint of their equivalent electrical circuits, will be discussed. The required matching networks will be covered and and their relative performances indicated. A brief survey of signaling methods commonly used at VLF in included, and the relation between these methods and the aerial systems is discussed. A computer program (VLFANT) will be developed for a typical VLF aerial installation which may be used in the selection of component values for optimum operation. Written in FORTRAN IV, it is for use on a high-speed computer. Circuit parameter values may be changed at will, and the system response using different network arrangements easily determined. With this program as a design tool proposed systems may be completely evaluated and the proposed changes to operational systems easily studied.

Problemas de electr??nica b??sica (130 problemas con soluciones)

Jim??nez Tejada, Juan Antonio; L??pez Villanueva, Juan Antonio
Fonte: Granada: Univ. de Granada. Dpto. de electr??nica y tecnolog??a de computadores Publicador: Granada: Univ. de Granada. Dpto. de electr??nica y tecnolog??a de computadores
Tipo: Livro
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En este texto se presenta una colecci??n de problemas con soluciones sobre diferentes temas de Electr??nica B??sica. Gran parte de estos problemas han sido propuestos en ex??menes de asignaturas de iniciaci??n a la Electr??nica en diferentes titulaciones de la Universidad de Granada. El objetivo de este texto es ayudar a los estudiantes a auto-evaluarse. En este sentido, en algunos problemas solo se da una sugerencia y la soluci??n num??rica, sin detallar el c??lculo. Si a pesar de tal sugerencia, el estudiante no consigue resolver el problema el consejo de los autores es que repase los conocimientos te??ricos de la materia a la que corresponde el problema. De todas formas, el texto se ha compuesto para ser estudiado secuencialmente, de manera que la dificultad que pueda encontrar el estudiante en un problema concreto puede ya haber sido tratada con m??s detalle en un problema anterior. Se han incluido al principio del texto unos apartados dedicados a Teor??a de Circuitos. Los problemas de esta parte, tambi??n propuestos en ex??menes, tienen como objeto preparar al estudiante para abordar los circuitos el??ctricos equivalentes que se obtendr??n cuando se sustituyan los dispositivos electr??nicos por sus modelos de circuito. A veces...

A Numerical Resistor Network Model for the Determination of Electrical Properties of Nanocomposites

Ward, Bradley
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 120 p.; application/pdf
Português
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This thesis introduces a comprehensive numerical model for the determination of the electrical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites. Procedures of this model are based on a new spanning network identification algorithm and the resistor network method. First, realistic nanotube geometry is generated from input parameters defined by the user. The spanning network algorithm then determines the connectivity between nanotubes in the representative volume element. Next, interconnected nanotube networks are converted to equivalent resistor circuits. Finally, Kirchhoff's Current Law is used in conjunction with finite element analysis to solve for the voltages and currents in the system and calculate the effective electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite. The Monte Carlo method is used to eliminate statistical variation by simulating five hundred random geometries. The model accounts for electrical transport mechanisms such as electron hopping and simultaneously calculates percolation probability, identifies the backbone, and determines effective conductivity. The accuracy of the model is validated by comparison to both models and experiments reported in the literature.

Circuito equivalente e extração de parametros em um amplificador optico a semicondutor; Equivalent circuit and parameters extraction in a semiconductor optical amplifier

Murilo Guimarães
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2007 Português
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O advento das comunicações por fibras ópticas esteve intrinsecamente ligado aos lasers a diodo semicondutor. Posteriormente, principalmente na área de redes metropolitanas, iniciaram-se as aplicações envolvendo o amplificador óptico a semicondutor (SOA, em inglês). O SOA é muito similar ao laser a diodo semicondutor, pois também amplifica a luz incidente através da emissão estimulada, a qual advém da emissão pelos portadores elétricos da região ativa. Estes são bombeados na região ativa através da corrente elétrica injetada na porta elétrica do SOA. A similaridade não é completa devido ao fato do amplificador não possuir realimentação de luz através de uma cavidade óptica ressonante, uma vez que sua região ativa é terminada por faces anti-refletivas. Dessa forma, a luz é amplificada apenas em uma passagem pela região ativa do SOA, sendo também denominado neste caso, SOA-TW, ou de onda caminhante. Desta forma, fazendo-se uma analogia com circuitos, a diferença SOAlaser é semelhante à diferença amplificador-oscilador eletrônico. Devido a esta semelhança, o estudo desenvolvido no presente trabalho, sobre o comportamento da impedância do amplificador óptico a semicondutor, foi baseado em um modelo equivalente de circuito de microondas desenvolvido para o laser a diodo semicondutor. O comportamento da impedância do SOA...

Through-substrate interconnects for 3-D integration and RF systems

Wu, Joyce H. (Joyce Hsia-Sing), 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 132 p.
Português
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Interconnects on silicon chips are fabricated on the top surface with an ever-increasing number of metal layers necessary to just meet performance needs. While devices have scaled according to Moore's law, interconnects have lagged. As metal line widths shrink and line lengths increase, parasitic resistance, capacitance, and inductance degrade circuit performance by increasing delays, loading, and power consumption. Separately, silicon has been supplanting GaAs in low-end, consumer RF applications. Improving the high-frequency performance of silicon by reducing ground inductance will project silicon technology into high-end RF and mm-wave applications. Furthermore, silicon-based systems allow for integration with digital blocks for system-on-chip (SoC). However, this introduces digital noise into the substrate, which interferes with the operation of RF/analog circuits. To address these challenges, we have developed a low-impedance, high-aspect ratio, through-substrate interconnect technology in silicon. Through-substrate vias exploit the third dimension by connecting the front to the backside of a chip so that power, ground, and global signals can be routed on the backside. Substrate vias can also be used to connect chip stacks in system-in-package designs.; (cont.) They also provide a low-inductance ground for RFICs and enable a novel way to reduce substrate noise for SoC. The fabrication process features backside patterning for routing of different signals on the back of the chip. Fabricated through-substrate vias were fully characterized using S parameters measured up to 50 GHz. The via resistance...

Mechanical and electrical anisotropy in Mimosa pudica pulvini

Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Baker, Kara D; Markin, Vladislav S
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Thigmonastic or seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica, such as the response to touch, appear to be regulated by electrical, hydrodynamical and chemical signal transduction. The pulvinus of Mimosa pudica shows elastic properties, and we found that electrically or mechanically induced movements of the petiole were accompanied by a change of the pulvinus shape. As the petiole falls, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus decreases and the volume of the upper part increases due to the redistribution of water between the upper and lower parts of the pulvinus. This hydroelastic process is reversible. During the relaxation of the petiole, the volume of the lower part of the pulvinus increases and the volume of the upper part decreases. Redistribution of ions between the upper and lower parts of a pulvinus causes fast transport of water through aquaporins and causes a fast change in the volume of the motor cells. Here, the biologically closed electrochemical circuits in electrically and mechanically anisotropic pulvini of Mimosa pudica are analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect in a pulvinus and to different kinetics of a capacitor discharge if the applied initial voltage is 0.5 V or higher. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica's pulvini were investigated and the equivalent electrical circuit within the pulvinus was proposed to explain the experimental data. The detailed mechanism of seismonastic movements in Mimosa pudica is discussed.

Molecular electronics in pinnae of Mimosa pudica

Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Markin, Vladislav S
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.26%
Bioelectrochemical circuits operate in all plants including the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica Linn. The activation of biologically closed circuits with voltage gated ion channels can lead to various mechanical, hydrodynamical, physiological, biochemical and biophysical responses. Here the biologically closed electrochemical circuit in pinnae of Mimosa pudica is analyzed using the charged capacitor method for electrostimulation at different voltages. Also the equivalent electrical scheme of electrical signal transduction inside the plant's pinna is evaluated. These circuits remain linear at small potentials not exceeding 0.5 V. At higher potentials the circuits become strongly non-linear pointing to the opening of ion channels in plant tissues. Changing the polarity of electrodes leads to a strong rectification effect and to different kinetics of a capacitor. These effects can be caused by a redistribution of K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and H+ ions through voltage gated ion channels. The electrical properties of Mimosa pudica were investigated and equivalent electrical circuits within the pinnae were proposed to explain the experimental data.

On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

Kagan, Mikhail
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equvalent resistance of non-trivial electrical ciruits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. At the end, we derive - in a closed form - the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The final result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. For the more inquisitive reader, additional proofs and technical details are provided in the appendix.; Comment: 27 pages, 5 figures

Modeling of Circuits with Strongly Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivities for Cryogenic CMOS

Hamlet, J.; Eng, K.; Gurrieri, T.; Levy, J.; Carroll, M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/08/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
When designing and studying circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures understanding local heating within the circuits is critical due to the temperature dependence of transistor and noise behavior. We have investigated local heating effects of a CMOS ring oscillator and current comparator at T=4.2K. In two cases, the temperature near the circuit was measured with an integrated thermometer. A lumped element equivalent electrical circuit SPICE model that accounts for the strongly temperature dependent thermal conductivities and special 4.2K heat sinking considerations was developed. The temperature dependence on power is solved numerically with a SPICE package, and the results are within 20% of the measured values for local heating ranging from <1K to over 100K.; Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures

Generalisation of Helmholtz-Thevenin theorem to three-phase electrical circuits

Mihai, Gheorghe
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/06/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
The scope of this paper is to determine the generalized form for equivalent tension generator theorem (Helmholtz-Thevenin theorem) for three-phase electrical circuit. Any complicated electrical power systems we can reduce depending on any three-phase electrical consumer to a three-phase electrical generator that has certain internal impedance. Starting with this assumption, we have demonstrated the way to obtain the electromotive voltages for an equivalent generator and its internal impedances.; Comment: 12 pages, 12 figures

Synchronization of Nonlinear Circuits in Dynamic Electrical Networks with General Topologies

Dhople, Sairaj; Johnson, Brian; Dorfler, Florian; Hamadeh, Abdullah
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Sufficient conditions are derived for global asymptotic synchronization in a system of identical nonlinear electrical circuits coupled through linear time-invariant (LTI) electrical networks. In particular, the conditions we derive apply to settings where: i) the nonlinear circuits are composed of a parallel combination of passive LTI circuit elements and a nonlinear voltage-dependent current source with finite gain; and ii) a collection of these circuits are coupled through either uniform or homogeneous LTI electrical networks. Uniform electrical networks have identical per-unit-length impedances. Homogeneous electrical networks are characterized by having the same effective impedance between any two terminals with the others open circuited. Synchronization in these networks is guaranteed by ensuring the stability of an equivalent coordinate-transformed differential system that emphasizes signal differences. The applicability of the synchronization conditions to this broad class of networks follows from leveraging recent results on structural and spectral properties of Kron reduction---a model-reduction procedure that isolates the interactions of the nonlinear circuits in the network. The validity of the analytical results is demonstrated with simulations in networks of coupled Chua's circuits.

Development of digital application specific printed electronics circuits : from specification to final prototypes

Llamas, Manuel; Mashayekhi, Mohammad; Alcalde, Ana; Carrabina Bordoll, Jordi; Pallarès, Jofre; Vila, Francesc; Conde, Adrià; Terés Terés, Lluís
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper presents a global proposal and methodology for developing digital printed electronics (PE) prototypes, circuits and application specific printed electronics circuits (ASPECs). We start from a circuit specification using standard Hardware Description Languages (HDL) and executing its functional simulation. Then we perform logic synthesis that includes logic gate minimization by applying state-of-the-art algorithms embedded in our proposed electronic design automation (EDA) tools to minimize the number of transistors required to implement the circuit. Later technology mapping is applied, taking into account the available technology, (i.e., PMOS only technologies) and the cell design style (either Standard Cells or Inkjet Gate Array). These layout strategies are equivalent to those available in application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) flows but adapting them to Printed Electronics, which vary greatly depending on the targeted technology. Then Place & Route tools perform floorplan, placement and wiring of cells, which will be checked by the corresponding layout versus schematic (LVS). Afterwards we execute an electrical simulation including parasitic capacitances and relevant parameters. Finally, we obtain the prototypes which will be characterized and tested. The most important aspect of the proposed methodology is that it is portable to different PE processes...

Equivalent circuit models for package level discontinuities and chip-package intersonnects

Bhagat, Maulin
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
Equivalent circuit models with closed form expressions, in conjunction with a segmentation technique, have been derived to study three different aspects related to chip-package co-design issues. This technique has been successfully applied to package level discontinuities, chip-package interconnects, and the modeling of transients that affect the performance of an integrated microstrip antenna placed at the RF front end. In each case, circuit models have been developed to include coupling by the use of coupling capacitance and mutual inductance. All circuit elements are defined by closed form expressions. To analyze package level discontinuities various microstrip transmission lines placed in close proximity to each other have been considered. Typical via structures such as the single via connecting signal lines placed on either side of a ground plane, and two-via structures between transmission lines placed on different layers have also been modeled. In each case the S-matrix from the equivalent circuit model compared to that obtained using a full wave simulator shows excellent agreement, thereby establishing the validity of the model. To address chip-package co-design issues associated with RF front end a test bed consisting of a microstrip antenna with an embedded matching network has been implemented in a Multi-Layered Organic (MLO) material. The impact on the antenna's input and radiation characteristics due to neighboring circuitry is found to be significant in both the frequency and time domains. Using the equivalent circuit model the coupling has been characterized and compared with that obtained from a full wave simulator.

Analysis of Equivalent Circuits for Cells: A Fractional Calculus Approach

Gómez-Aguilar,F.; Rosales-García,J.; Guía-Calderón,M.; Bernal-Alvarado,J.
Fonte: Facultad de Ingeniería, UNAM Publicador: Facultad de Ingeniería, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 Português
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Fractional order systems are considered by many mathematicians the systems of the XXI century. The reason is that nature has proved to be best described in terms of systems composed of fractional order derivatives. This emerging area of research is slowly gaining more strength in engineering, biochemistry, medicine, biophysics, among others. This paper presents an analysis in the frequency domain equivalent of cellular systems described by equations of integer and fractional order; it also carries out an analysis in time domain in order to display the memory capacity of fractional systems. It presents the fractional differential equations equivalent models and simulations comparing integer and fractional order.