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Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer’ varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers’ varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample.

Discriminação varietal e estimativa de produtividade agroindustrial de cana-de-açúcar pelo sensor orbital ETM+/Landsat 7.; Varieties discrimination and sugarcane agroindustrial yield forecast by the orbital sensor ETM+/Landsat 7.

Fortes, Caio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2004 Português
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O desenvolvimento de técnicas de sensoriamento remoto na avaliação da cultura da cana-de-açúcar tem grande importância para o poder público, empresas de melhoramento genético e agricultores, pois proporciona um melhor planejamento de políticas de mercado e otimiza a tomada de decisões. O comportamento espectral de dosséis vegetais reflete características importantes das culturas agrícolas quanto ao seu crescimento, vigor vegetativo e produção de biomassa. O objetivo desta pesquisa é determinar uma metodologia para discriminação de variedades, estimativa da produtividade agrícola da cana-de-açúcar e propriedades industriais importantes como Brixº, Pol % caldo, Pol % cana, Fibra %, Umidade %, Pureza %, Kg de ATR/Mg cana e Impureza %, pelo sensor orbital ETM+/LANDSAT 7. Sabe-se que as plantas e culturas de uma forma geral apresentam comportamentos espectrais e interações com a energia eletromagnética em determinadas bandas do espectro eletromagnético devido sua composição/estrutura e também ao efeito dos diversos fatores de produção (solo, clima e variedade). Dessa forma, levanta-se a hipótese de que é possível estabelecer relações entre as características espectrais da cultura de cana-de-açúcar e sua produtividade agrícola e industrial. Para tanto...

Propriedade intelectual na cadeia de flores e plantas ornamentais: uma análise da legislação brasileira de proteção de cultivares; Intellectual property rights in the flower

Sá, Camila Dias de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2010 Português
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28.620532%
O mercado de flores e plantas ornamentais segue tendências internacionais de moda e decoração e por isso precisa estar em constante inovação. No Brasil, a inovação em plantas foi influenciada pela Lei de Proteção de Cultivares (LPC) que trata do reconhecimento da propriedade intelectual sobre novas variedades vegetais. A lei brasileira contemplou a prática de uso próprio que tem origem na tradição dos agricultores em guardar grãos de uma safra para serem utilizados como sementes na safra seguinte, com o intuito de garantir a segurança alimentar e a viabilidade econômica dos pequenos produtores. No entanto, a floricultura apresenta uma dinâmica diferente das culturas alimentícias, em que não existe a preocupação com a segurança alimentar. Alega-se que em decorrência da maneira como o dispositivo de uso próprio está estabelecido na lei, ele não assegura a proteção eficaz das espécies de plantas propagadas vegetativamente como é o caso da maioria das flores de corte. Este trabalho analisa o impacto da LPC na cadeia de flores de corte brasileira no sentido de contribuir para o entendimento das relações entre o ambiente institucional no qual esta cadeia se insere e o desenvolvimento da mesma. Tal análise baseia-se na abordagem teórica da Nova Economia Institucional...

Population Structure of Barley Landrace Populations and Gene-Flow with Modern Varieties

Bellucci, Elisa; Bitocchi, Elena; Rau, Domenico; Nanni, Laura; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Giardini, Alessandro; Rodriguez, Monica; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/12/2013 Português
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Landraces are heterogeneous plant varieties that are reproduced by farmers as populations that are subject to both artificial and natural selection. Landraces are distinguished by farmers due to their specific traits, and different farmers often grow different populations of the same landrace. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs) to analyse 12 barley landrace populations from Sardinia from two collections spanning 10 years. We analysed the population structure, and compared the population diversity of the landraces that were collected at field level (population). We used a representative pool of barley varieties for diversity comparisons and to analyse the effects of gene flow from modern varieties. We found that the Sardinian landraces are a distinct gene pool from those of both two-row and six-row barley varieties. There is also a low, but significant, mean level and population-dependent level of introgression from the modern varieties into the Sardinian landraces. Moreover, we show that the Sardinian landraces have the same level of gene diversity as the representative sample of modern commercial varieties grown in Italy in the last decades, even within population level. Thus, these populations represent crucial sources of germplasm that will be useful for crop improvement and for population genomics studies and association mapping...

Breeding programs and availability of non-GM IP seeds for farmers in Brazil.

CATTELAN, A. J.
Fonte: In: WORKSHOP ON MARKET FOR NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED IDENTITY PRESERVED CROPS AND DERIVED PRODUCTS, 2012, Seville. Proceedings... Luxembourg, Eurpean Commission, 2012. Prepared by Pascal Tillie, Mauro Vigani, Koen Dillen and Emilio Rodríguez Cerezo. Publicador: In: WORKSHOP ON MARKET FOR NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED IDENTITY PRESERVED CROPS AND DERIVED PRODUCTS, 2012, Seville. Proceedings... Luxembourg, Eurpean Commission, 2012. Prepared by Pascal Tillie, Mauro Vigani, Koen Dillen and Emilio Rodríguez Cerezo.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: p. 30-32.
Português
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Embrapa is the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. It coordinates the national agricultural research system in Brazil and has for mission to provide solutions for the sustainable development of Brazilian agribusiness through knowledge and technology transfer. As such, it is involved in the development of GM and non-GM soybean varieties to provide farmers with the best germplasm they want. Soybean in Brazil: The area devoted to soybean in Brazil has been multiplied by about 60 in the last 50 years, while in the same time average yield has increased by 150%. Currently about three fourth of Brazilian soybean production is coming from only four States (by order of importance, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Goías). In last years, the adoption of GM soybean by Brazilian farmers has still increased significantly, as it went from 62% of all soy cultivated area during the 2008/09 cropping season to 81% in 2010/11. However, there is an important variation across regions, since some States are still free of GM planting (e.g. Rondonia in the North, representing 1% of national soy production) and other are virtually integrally using GM soybean seeds (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul, 17% of national soy production). The most important States in terms of non-GM soybean production are Mato Grosso...

Integrating Seasonal Forecasts and Insurance for Adaptation among Subsistence Farmers : The Case of Malawi

Osgood, Daniel E.; Suarez, Pablo; Hansen, James; Carriquiry, Miguel; Mishra, Ashok
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Climate variability poses a severe threat to subsistence farmers in southern Africa. Two different approaches have emerged in recent years to address these threats: the use of seasonal precipitation forecasts for risk reduction (for example, choosing seed varieties that can perform well for expected rainfall conditions), and the use of innovative financial instruments for risk sharing (for example, index-based weather insurance bundled to microcredit for agricultural inputs). So far these two approaches have remained entirely separated. This paper explores the integration of seasonal forecasts into an ongoing pilot insurance scheme for smallholder farmers in Malawi. The authors propose a model that adjusts the amount of high-yield agricultural inputs given to farmers to favorable or unfavorable rainfall conditions expected for the season. Simulation results - combining climatic, agricultural, and financial models - indicate that this approach substantially increases production in La Niña years (when droughts are very unlikely for the study area)...

Assessing the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Egypt : A Ricardian Approach

Eid, Helmy M.; El-Marsafawy, Samia M.; Ouda, Samiha A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This study employed the Ricardian approach to measure the economic impacts of climate change on farm net revenue in Egypt. Farm net revenue were regressed against climate, soil, socioeconomic and hydrological variables to determine which factors influence the variability of farm net revenues. 900 households from 20 governorates were interviewed. The standard Ricardian model was applied, in addition to three other models, each representing an adaptation option that could be used to reduce the harmful effects of temperature stress. A further adaptation strategy was tested: raising livestock on the farm to cope with the harmful effects of climate change. Besides this, the effects of two climate change scenarios (using MAGICC/SCENGEN and GCMs-General Circulation Models) were considered. The results from the two climate change scenarios showed that high temperatures will constrain agricultural production in Egypt. Irrigation and technology are therefore the recommended adaptation options. However, warming may also affect water resources and that would pose another problem for agricultural production. A policy should be developed to cope with the adverse effects of climate change on agriculture. It should focus on three areas: crop management...

Do Farmers Choose to Be Inefficient? Evidence from Bicol, Philippines

Larson, Donald F.; Plessmann, Frank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Farming households that differ in their ability, or willingness to take on risks are likely to make different decisions when allocating resources, and effort among income-producing activities, with consequences for productivity. The authors measure voluntary, and involuntary departures from efficiency for rice-producing households in Bicol, Philippines. They take advantage of a panel of household observations from 1978, 1983, and 1994. The unusually long-time span of the panel provides ample opportunities for the surveyed households to learn, and apply successful available technologies. The authors find evidence that diversification, and technology choices do effect outcomes among farmers, although these effects are not dominant. Accumulated wealth, past decisions to invest in education, favorable market conditions, and propitious weather are also important determinants of efficiency outcomes among Bicol rice farmers.

Deregulating the Transfer of Agricultural Technology : Lessons from Bangladesh, India, Turkey, and Zimbabwe

Gisselquist, David; Nash, John; Pray, Carl
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Many transition and developing economies have reduced direct public involvement in the production and trade of seed and other agricultural inputs. This trend creates opportunities for farmers to realize improved access to inputs, including technology from international private research. Unfortunately, input regulations often derail these opportunities by blocking private entry and the introduction of private technology. This study looks at the experience in Bangladesh, India, Turkey, and Zimbabwe to see whether regulations make a difference in agriculture and input industries in developing economies. In all countries, companies and farmers responded to regulatory reforms by introducing and adopting more new technology and by expanding the production, trade, and use of inputs. The increased use of private technology has brought higher yields and incomes, allowing farmers and consumers to reach higher levels of welfare. These results challenge governments to open their regulatory systems to allow market entry and the introduction of private technology through seeds and other inputs.

Stories of Impact : Agribusiness

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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By 2050, it is estimated that the world s agricultural system will need to produce approximately 50 percent more food to feed an estimated 9 billion people. In emerging markets, agriculture is the most important economic sector and source of employment; more specifically, 75 percent of the world s poor live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their incomes. With volatility in food prices putting additional pressure on social and political systems, increasing global demand for scarce resources, widespread droughts, and rising concerns over food safety issues, sustainable agricultural development is an urgent priority. IFC also contributes to transforming agribusiness at the country level by working with groups of smallholders and industry associations. For instance, IFC has helped to upgrade the operations of Cambodian rice farmers and millers so that their national industry can compete on an international level. In the following pages, there will be numerous illustrations of the work that we do with our private sector clients...

Risk management strategies by Australian farmers

Nguyen, N.; Wegener, M.; Russell, I.; Cameron, D.; Coventry, D.; Cooper, I.
Fonte: International Farm Management Association Publicador: International Farm Management Association
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Australian farmers operate in one of the most risky environment in the world. They have to cope with various sources of risk in their businesses. This paper reports results of two case studies undertaken to examine the issues of farming risks and risk management strategies in Australia. The first case study found that climate variability, financial risk, marketing risk, and personal risk were regarded as the major sources of farming risk in the Upper Eyre Peninsula of South Australia. The main management strategies used by farmers included diversifying varieties, minimising tillage, minimising area of risky crops and maximising area of the least-risky crop, having high equity, having farm management deposits and other off-farm investments, and “leaving marketing to experts”. The second case study revealed that climate variability was ranked as the most important source of farming risk in southwest Queensland. This was then followed by financial risks, government policy, and marketing risks. The main management strategies used were enterprise diversification (having predominantly cattle and farming cash crops), conserving moisture, using zero till planting, diversified sales (selling only part of the farm’s production at any one time)...

Response of salt-tolerant rice varieties to biocompost application in sodic soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh

Khan, A.H.; Singh, A.K.; Mubeen; Singh, S.; Zaidi, N.W.; Singh, U.S.; Haefele, S.M.
Fonte: Scientific Research Publishing Publicador: Scientific Research Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Sodic soils have immense productivity potential, if managed through proper technology interventions. Biocom-post is prepared by composting pressmud (a sugar industry byproduct) received from cane juice filtration and spent wash received from distilleries through microbial aerobic decomposition and can be used to reclaim sodic soils. Field experiments were conducted during the wet season of 2011 and 2012 to study the effect of incorpora-tion of biocompost in sodic soil with four treatments: T1—Control, T2—Biocompost at 2 t ha⁻¹, T3—Biocompost at 4 t ha⁻¹ and T4—Biocompost at 6 t ha⁻¹. The two promising salt tolerant rice varieties preferred by farmers, Narendra usar 3 and NDR 359 were used as test crops, which can produce yields ranging between 2 - 4 t ha⁻¹ in soil having a pH range of 9.2 to 10.5. Among the different doses of biocompost tested, application of biocompost at 6 t ha⁻¹ registered highest yields, enabled by a higher biomass, ear bearing tiller (EBT), and grain fertility in both varieties. Narendra usar 3 was more responsive to treatments even at lower doses of biocompost than NDR 359, but NDR 359 yielded slightly higher than Narendra usar 3 in all treatments. Soil health was also improved evidently on better fertility and low soil pH and EC at harvest. Thus...

Risk management strategies by Australian farmers: two case studies

Nguyen, N.; Wegener, M.; Russell, I.; Coventry, D.; Cooper, I.
Fonte: Charles Sturt University, Australian Farm Business Management Network Publicador: Charles Sturt University, Australian Farm Business Management Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.7962%
Australian farmers operate in one of the most risky farming environments in the world. They have to cope with numerous sources of risk including weather uncertainty, variable market prices, and institutional changes in their business management. This paper reports results from two case studies undertaken to examine the issues of farming risks and risk management strategies in Australia. The first case study found that unpredictable weather, financial risk, marketing risk, and personal risk were regarded as the major sources of risk among farmers in the Upper Eyre Peninsula of South Australia. The main risk management strategies used by farmers in that region included diversifying crop varieties, adopting minimum tillage farming practices, minimising the area of risky crops and maximising the area of less-risky crops. They also regarded high equity, having farm management deposits, and other off-farm investments as appropriate risk management strategies, and mostly 'left marketing to the experts'. The second case study among dryland cropping farmers in southwest Queensland revealed that weather uncertainty was ranked as the most important source of risk in farming in that area. The risk from weather uncertainty was then followed by financial risks...

Farmers as Partners in Knowledge Development; Les agriculteurs comme partenaires dans le developpement des connaissances

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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Knowledge can be classified into (i) explicit, which can be easily recorded (e.g., books) and (ii) tacit, which cannot be always articulated. However, much of this tacit knowledge can be shared. The conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge is called externalization. Farmers possess both kinds of knowledge. Scientists often pre-determine ignorance largely because they have little interest in externalizing farmers' tacit knowledge. A new form of knowledge is generated by combining (analyzing, categorizing, and integrating) this externalized explicit knowledge of several individuals/entities so as to create a new explicit from tacit knowledge.

Rural Seed Fairs in Southern Tanzania

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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The low productivity of agricultural crops is among the factors leading to low income and food insecurity for rural people in the Southern Zone of Tanzania. The use of improved seeds is one way of increasing the productivity of agricultural crops. It was realized that the seed supply pipeline from the seed-producing regions in the Southern Zone was not flowing freely partly due to the poor infrastructure prevailing in the zone. In the conventional Transfer of Technology model (TOT), the seed supply pipeline begins with research where breeding work is done and ends with farmers who access a final product of improved seeds/variety. The Multiple Sources of Innovations Model acknowledges the contribution of informal seed systems. Therefore, it is argued by development experts that informal and formal seed/variety development experts can complement each other and improve the supply of seeds of preferred varieties to farmers better than each expert's isolated efforts.

Levelling the Field : Improving Opportunities for Women Farmers in Africa; Harmoniser les règles du jeu : améliorer les perspectives des femmes agricultrices en afrique

World Bank; ONE Campaign
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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37.6915%
There is a growing recognition of agriculture's potential to spur growth and reduce poverty in Africa. Agriculture accounts for one-third of the continent's gross domestic product (GDP), and two-thirds of its citizens rely on the sector for their incomes. Investments in agriculture will hence not only improve productivity and the continent's ability to feed a growing population, but will also lift families out of poverty. Over 90 percent of sub-Saharan Africa's extreme poor are engaged in agriculture, and growth originating in the sector is 2-4 times more effective at directly reducing poverty than growth originating in other sectors. Yet agriculture in Africa has not fulfilled its potential, suffering from a lack of investment and insufficient attention from policy-makers. A key hindrance to agricultural development and broader growth is a wide and pervasive gender gap in agricultural productivity. Women comprise nearly half of the labor force in Africa's agriculture sector, and more than half in several countries...

Implications of Genetically Modified Food Technology Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa

Anderson, Kym; Jackson, Lee Ann
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The first generation of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties sought to increase farmer profitability through cost reductions or higher yields. The next generation of GM food research is focusing also on breeding for attributes of interest to consumers, beginning with "golden rice," which has been genetically engineered to contain a higher level of vitamin A and thereby boost the health of unskilled laborers in developing countries. The authors analyze empirically the potential economic effects of adopting both types of innovation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). They do so using the global economy-wide computable general equilibrium model known as GTAP. The results suggest that the welfare gains are potentially very large, especially from nutritionally enhanced GM wheat and rice, and that-contrary to the claims of numerous interests-those estimated benefits are diminished only slightly by the presence of the European Union's current barriers to imports of GM foods. In particular, if SSA countries impose bans on GM crop imports in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products...

How China's Farmers Adapt to Climate Change

Wang, Jinxia; Mendelsohn, Robert; Dinar, Ariel; Huang, Jikun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC; Policy Research Working Paper; No. 4758 Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC; Policy Research Working Paper; No. 4758
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper uses a cross sectional method to analyze irrigation choice and crop choice across 8,405 farmers in 28 provinces in China. The findings show that Chinese farmers are more likely to irrigate when facing lower temperatures and less precipitation. Farmers in warmer places are more likely to choose oil crops, maize, and especially cotton and wheat, and are less likely to choose vegetables, potatoes, sugar, and especially rice and soybeans. In wetter locations, farmers are more likely to choose soybeans, oil crops, sugar, vegetables, cotton, and especially rice, and they are less likely to choose potatoes, wheat, and especially maize. The analysis of how Chinese farmers have adapted to current climate, provides insight into how they will likely adapt when climate changes. Future climate scenarios will cause farmers in China to want to reduce irrigation and shift toward oil crops, wheat, and especially cotton. In turn, farmers will shift away from potatoes, rice, vegetables, and soybeans. However...

Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer' varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The nutritional and antioxidant composition of four tomato Portuguese farmer’ varieties widely cultivated in homegardens was determined. The analysed components included macronutrients, individual profiles of sugars and fatty acids by chromatographic techniques, hydrophilic antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenolics, flavonols and anthocyanins, and lipophilic antioxidants such as tocopherols, β-carotene and lycopene. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, beta-carotene bleaching inhibition and TBARS formation inhibition. One of the four varieties, which is locally known as round tomato or potato tomato, proved to be the most powerful in antioxidant activity (EC50 values ≤ 1.63 mg/ml), phenolic compounds (phenolics 31.23 mg ClAE/g extract, flavonols 6.36 mg QE/g extract and anthocyanins 3.45 mg ME/g extract) and carotenoids (β-carotene 0.51 mg/100 g and lycopene 9.49 mg/100 g), while the so-called yellow tomato variety revealed interesting nutritional composition, including higher fructose (3.42 g/100 g), glucose (3.18 g/100 g), alpha-linolenic acid (15.53%) and total tocopherols (1.44 mg/100 g) levels. Overall, these farmer’ varieties of garden tomato cultivated in the northeastern Portuguese region could contribute as sources of important antioxidants related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress...

Understanding of the farmers' privilege concept by smallholder farmers in South Africa

Netnou-Nkoana,Noluthando C.; Jaftha,Julian B.; Dibiloane,Mabjang A.; Eloff,Jacobus
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 Português
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Legislation on plant breeders' rights - the Plant Breeders' Rights Act, 1976 (Act No. 15 of 1976) - currently is being reviewed by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. This legislation provides for farmers' privilege, which is one of the exceptions to plant breeders' rights. It allows farmers to save seed of protected varieties for their own use. Farmers' privilege, and particularly its impact on smallholder farmers in developing countries, is a widely debated issue. During the public consultation process, several comments proposing amendments to the farmers' privilege provision were received from various stakeholders. However, no comments were received from the smallholder farmers who may be directly impacted by this provision. This pilot study was undertaken to assess the understanding of the farmers' privilege concept by smallholder farmers from the historically disadvantaged communities and their current practices with regard to seed saving. The results showed that the majority of the smallholder farmers were not aware of the existence of the legislation on plant breeders' rights and therefore do not understand the farmers' privilege concept and its implications. They also did not know whether the varieties they were using were protected by plant breeders' rights or not. Little information has been published on the impact of plant breeders' rights in South Africa in general. We hope that this study might inform policy decisions on matters related to plant breeders' rights and the farmers' privilege.