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Gender stereotypes in politics: what changes when a woman becomes the local political leader?

Arvate, Paulo; Firpo, Sergio; Pieri, Renan
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.380925%
This study documents how the presence of a woman in an executive political role affects the gender stereotype of women in politics. We use Brazilian electoral data and restrict our focus to close mayoral races (using an RDD design) in which the top two candidates are of opposite sexes. Our most important result was a reduction in the number of candidates and votes for female mayoral candidates after a woman is elected, regardless of her eligibility status for reelection. This negative result is linked only to the position of mayor and not to other political positions (councilor, state or federal deputy). In addition, our results may be interpreted as evidence that voters do not use their update on women as local leaders to change their beliefs on women’s ability to run for other political positions. Finally, female mayors do not appear to have a role model effect on younger cohorts of women. We also note that our results are not influenced by differences in mayoral policies (generally and specifically for women), which could influence voters’ gender stereotypes.

A representação discursiva da identidade feminina em quadros humoristicos; The discursive representation of the female identity in comic strips

Erika de Moraes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Esta pesquisa investiga os discursos que circulam sobre a mulher na atualidade, a partir de sua representação em quadros humorísticos impressos que põem em destaque personagens femininas, especialmente os de Maitena (autora das obras Mulheres Alteradas, Superadas e Curvas Perigosas), Miguel Paiva (autor da personagem Radical Chic) e Adão Iturrusgarai (autor da personagem Aline). Propõe-se uma reflexão sobre como os discursos estereotipados em relação à mulher emergem nesses textos, a partir da memória discursiva, e, de certa forma, podem revelar representações que extrapolam o nível do humor e se tornam constitutivas do sentido corrente dos discursos sobre ser mulher. O respaldo teórico é o da Análise do Discurso de linha francesa (AD) e o conceito de discurso utilizado é o de Maingueneau (1984: 2005), que o entende como uma "dispersão de textos cujo modo de inscrição histórica permite definir como um espaço de regularidades enunciativas". O corpus permite a análise de aspectos verbais e não-verbais do discurso, conforme propõe o conceito de Semântica Global (MAINGUENEAU, 1984: 2005). A opção de priorizar o discurso humorístico se justifica pelo fato de que, como sabemos, o humor, para ser compreendido e provocar riso...

Expressividade e estereótipo de género na liderança política

Ribeiro, Gladston Nelson Afonso
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.514963%
Dissertação de mestrado em Marketing e Gestão Estratégica; Este trabalho tem o foco na discussão da influência da aparência física do candidato político em particular na expressão facial usando o apelo ao sorriso “smiling appeal” combinado com o estereótipo de género com o efeito think manager-think male na competência da percepção de liderança no contexto da eleição Britânica. Um novo modelo conceptual da imagem política foi sugerido. O 2 (trabalhista, conservador) x 2 (macho, fêmea) x 2 (sorriso, não sorriso) o plano factorial foi desenhado na ordem do acesso ao efeito do género e do apelo ao sorriso “smiling appeal”. O estudo foi conduzido no efeito estrangeiro na Inglaterra para garantir que os respondentes não conheciam os candidatos para eliminar o enviesamento do conhecimento prévio. Os respondentes avaliavam uma imagem como estímulo ao anúncio impresso e respondiam um questionário com 73 traços, a fim de medir a competência de liderança percebida. Uma análise factorial por componentes principais extraiu 17 dimensões da liderança percebida no contexto do marketing político. A análise deu diferenças significativas na classificação dos traços e pontuação das dimensões...

Female teachers’ math anxiety affects girls’ math achievement

Beilock, Sian L.; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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People’s fear and anxiety about doing math—over and above actual math ability—can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers’ anxieties relate to girls’ math achievement via girls’ beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers’ classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher’s math anxiety and her students’ math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year’s end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that “boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading” and the lower these girls’ math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school...

Testing the Model Minority Stereotype: Youth Behaviors across Racial and Ethnic Groups

Choi, Yoonsun; Lahey, Benjamin B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Using data from a large nationally representative sample of adolescents attending school, this study tests the stereotype that youth of Asian Pacific Islander ethnicity (API) are the model minority. The results suggest that, except for substance use, API American youth do not report fewer delinquent behaviors than white youth; in fact, API American youth report slightly higher numbers of aggressive offenses than white youth, and female API American youth report greater numbers of nonaggressive offenses than white female youth. Also, API American youth report higher rates of nonaggressive offenses and substance use than do black youth. The mental health and social service needs of API American youth are thus at least as great as those of white youth. The need for such services increases with the length of residency in the United States.

Watching Aggressive, Attractive, Female Protagonists Shapes Gender Roles for Women Among Male and Female Undergraduate Viewers

Taylor, Laramie D.; Setters, Tiffany
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The impact of exposure to media representations of aggressive, attractive, female protagonists on audiences’ gender role expectations for women was explored through a laboratory experiment with 122 undergraduates from a large university on the west coast of the United States. Participants viewed a segment of a major Hollywood motion picture that featured a female protagonist who was either highly attractive or less attractive and either highly aggressive or not aggressive. Viewing clips featuring a female protagonist who was both aggressive and stereotypically attractive led to greater endorsement of stereotypically feminine and stereotypically masculine gender role expectations for women. The effect on endorsement of stereotypically masculine expectations was partially mediated by the perception that the protagonist was a good role model for women. Although women endorsed both feminine and masculine gender role expectations for women more strongly than men, the effects of exposure to aggressive, attractive, female protagonists were similar for both male and female participants. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotype activation and superwoman expectations for women.

Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination...

Are All Interventions Created Equal? A Multi-Threat Approach to Tailoring Stereotype Threat Interventions

Shapiro, Jenessa R.; Williams, Amy M.; Hambarchyan, Mariam
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one’s group—and self-as-target stereotype threats—concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one’s own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students’ performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women’s interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students...

Neural Correlates of Stereotype Application

Mitchell, Jason; Banaji, Mahzarin; Ames, Daniel L.; Jenkins, Adrianna C.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recent research has focused on the disparate mechanisms that support the human ability to "mentalize" about the thoughts and feelings of others. One such process may rely on precompiled, semantic beliefs about the characteristics common to members of a social group, that is, on stereotypes; for example, judging that a woman may be more likely than a man to have certain interests or opinions. In the current study, we identified a pattern of neural activity associated with the use of stereotypes to judge another person’s psychological characteristics. During fMRI scanning, participants mentalized about the likely responses of a female and male target to a series of questions, some of which were related to gender stereotypes (e.g., "enjoys shopping for new clothes"). Trials on which participants applied a stereotype were segregated from those on which participants avoided stereotype use. The BOLD response in an extensive region of the right frontal cortex differentiated stereotype-applied from -unapplied trials. Moreover, this neural difference was correlated with a behavioral index of gender associations—the Implicit Association Test—administered after scanning. Results suggest that stereotype application may draw on cognitive processes that more generally subserve semantic knowledge about categories.; Psychology

A legitimação de uma identidade masculina por meio de estereótipos femininos constituídos nas/pelas cenografias presentes em propagandas de cerveja

Vaz, Veanney Monod Emidio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.252512%
Nos últimos anos, seja na imprensa televisiva ou em outros veículos de comunicação impressa, tem sido notória a presença de uma materialidade discursiva produzindo efeitos apelativos e de exploração da sensualidade feminina cada vez mais explícita nas propagandas de cerveja veiculadas pela mídia brasileira. Considerando essa questão, o que se apresenta nessa dissertação, fundamentalmente com base nos conceitos de cena de enunciação e dêixis discursiva, postulados por Dominique Maingueneau em vários de seus escritos, é como se constituem os discursos publicitários de propagandas de cerveja, buscando demonstrar em que medida a constante presença de certo estereótipo feminino nas cenografias discursivas desses anúncios acaba por constituir/reforçar determinada identidade masculina. O corpus de nossa pesquisa constitui-se de 10 cartazes de propaganda de cerveja de 5 das marcas nacionalmente mais comercializadas - Antarctica, Brahma, Skol, Kaiser e Schincariol -, que foram veiculados em campanhas publicitárias promovidas no Brasil nos últimos 10 anos. ________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT; In recent years, whether in print or television to other media outlets in print...

Corpo, discursos e carnaval: imagens do corpo feminino no desfile de escolas de samba do carnaval carioca

Pinto, Danilo Corrêa
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.552144%
Este trabalho se filia à disciplina Análise do Discurso Francesa com vistas a analisar os sentidos construídos para o corpo da mulher nas imagens de desfiles das escolas de samba do carnaval carioca, produzidas e veiculadas pelo discurso da mídia. Compreendemos que o corpo é uma materialidade simbólica que pode, por sua visibilidade e pela injunção no/pelo discurso, ter diferentes sentidos, por exemplo, um tipo de feminino, tal qual exploraremos neste estudo. A análise traz algumas imagens midiáticas produzidas pela Revista Manchete e pela Rede Globo de Televisão sobre a festa carnavalesca brasileira, mais especificamente os desfiles de escolas de samba da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Essas imagens, em seus recortes da festa, fazem circular um imaginário de corpo feminino que tende a ser tomado como estereótipo nacional em alguns discursos. Entendemos que há diferentes maneiras de significar o corpo ao longo da história da humanidade a partir das inscrições dos sujeitos em diferentes discursos, como o do carnaval, por exemplo, e existem variadas relações interpessoais que se estabelecem a partir de sua presença ou ausência no nível do que é opticamente apreensível. Dessa forma, apontamos que (1) as imagens veiculadas por algumas mídias sobre o corpo da mulher...

The relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control across adult age-groups

Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Anstey, Kaarin J
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 30 pages
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.514963%
OBJECTIVE: This study integrates healthy ageing and health psychology theories to explore the mechanisms underlying the relationship between health control expectancies and age-attitudes on the process of ageing well. Specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control. DESIGN: A population-based survey of 739 adults aged 20 to 97 years (mean=57.3 years, SD=13.66; 42% female) explored attitudes towards ageing and health attitudes. A path-analytical approach was used to investigate moderating effects of age and gender. RESULTS: Higher age-stereotype endorsement was associated with higher chance (β=2.91, p<.001) and powerful other (β=1.07, p=.012) health expectancies, after controlling for age, gender, education and self-rated health. Significant age and gender interactions were found to influence the relationship between age-stereotypes and internal health locus of control. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control dimensions must be considered within the context of age and gender. The findings point to the importance of targeting health promotion and interventions through addressing negative age-attitudes.

Geschlechterstereotype - Qualifikationsbarrieren von Frauen in der Fußballtrainerausbildung?; Gender stereotypes - qualification barriers for women in football (soccer) coaching education?

Weigelt-Schlesinger, Yvonne
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.67031%
Eines der letzten fast vollständig männlichen dominierten Reservoirs des Sports ist der Trainerbereich. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Einsicht setzt sich die Arbeit mit der Frage auseinander, weshalb Frauen erst gar keine Ausbildung zur Trainerin beginnen oder die begonnene Ausbildung wieder abbrechen. Dabei interessiert insbesondere die Bedeutung von Geschlechtsstereotypen bei der Ausgrenzung von Frauen aus oder der Benachteiligung während der Trainerausbildung. So fragt die Autorin danach, unter welchen Bedingungen z.B. Athletinnen eine Trainerausbildung aufnehmen bzw. die Trainerausbildung wieder abbrechen würden, darüber hinaus werden aber auch Ausbildungskonzepte auf potentiell exkludierende Wirkungen untersucht. Schließlich setzt sich die Arbeit mit den organisationalen Barrieren einer Trainertätigkeit von Frauen auseinander, wobei die Tiefenstrukturen der Sportorganisationen auf deren exkludierende Wirkungen hin beleuchtet werden. Die Dissertation ist in sechs Teile aufgegliedert. Nach einer Darstellung der Problemstellung wird der umfangreiche Literaturbestand zum Thema beleuchtet. Die daraus resultierenden Ergebnisse bilden den Ausgangspunkt für die Untersuchung, indem sie verdeutlichen, an welchen Stellen die Forschungsarbeit auf bereits vor-handenes Material rekurriert und wo neue Wege gesucht werden. Um das Phänomen der Trainerausbildung bzw. der Trainerinnenausbildung darzu-legen...

Gender and Compositional Choice: Four Songs on a Poem of Heinrich Heine by Female and Male Composers

Piersall, Paul
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.967554%
As an accepted genre of female composition, song lies in a unique position among musical genres. This allows it to stand largely outside the area of Claude Steele’s notion of “stereotype threat,” and being absent such weighty pressures, it could then furnish an arena in which female composers can do their best work. As a genre that combines the arts of music and poetry, song is based upon a given set of symbols that provide the composer with inspiration. The study of these symbols and their possible metaphorical meanings can offer a guide to that inspiration. By studying two settings by male composers and two settings of female composers, we can compare their individual and gendered approach to those symbols for elements of a masculine or feminine style. Heinrich Heine’s 23rd poem in Die Heimkehr, analyzed thoroughly in Chapter 2, is the focal text in this study. In Chapters 3 through 6 each of the settings is examined at length using both a standard formal analysis and the “Grundgestalt” concept of Schoenberg. The settings examined are “Ihr Bild” by Franz Schubert, “Ich stand in dunkeln Träumen” and “Ihr Bildniss” (two versions of the same work) by Clara Schumann, “Ich stand in dunkeln Träumen” by Hugo Wolf...

Estereótipos de gênero : o efeito da exposição à mídia filme sobre brincadeiras de crianças

Nery, Lorena Bezerra
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.514963%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Psicologia, Departamento de Processos Psicológicos Básicos, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Comportamento, 2012.; Desde a mais tenra infância, crianças têm contato com diversos valores ou regras socialmente transmitidas que contribuem para a formação de sua identidade de gênero, uma vez que são valorizados determinados tipos de comportamento para as meninas e outros para os meninos. Há, portanto, uma regulação social que reproduz os padrões comportamentais mais comumente aceitos na sociedade de acordo com as diferenças de gênero. Uma importante fonte de valores sobre gênero para as crianças é a mídia filmes infantis, os quais constroem ideais de feminilidade e masculinidade. A manutenção de papéis de gênero estereotipados envolve altos custos, como a limitação de oportunidades para meninas e meninos, negligenciando-se afinidades e habilidades individuais, além de contribuir para a perpetuação de relações marcadas pela desigualdade e pelo desequilíbrio de poderes e direitos. Tendo em vista a relevância da influência da mídia sobre a aprendizagem e a formação de valores, este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o efeito de três vídeos infantis – Estereótipo Feminino (Barbie)...

Subversão do estereótipo feminino na cinematografia de Hitchcock

Braz, Patrícia Raquel Costa
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.670605%
O projeto aqui apresentado atende à temática da subversão do estereótipo feminino na cinematografia de Alfred Hitchcock e fundamenta a investigação para a realização de recriações fotográficas de frames de filmes do realizador em que o estereótipo feminino se evidencia. O trabalho de fotografia pretende subverter os paradigmas da típica “loira de Hitchcock” e a sua objetificação pelo olhar dominante masculino ao atribuir mais autonomia, otimismo e naturalidade à figura feminina representada. Neste sentido, considera-se fundamental abordar três grandes temáticas e uni-las num conjunto coeso: o estereótipo feminino no cinema (tema geral que abrange todo o projeto); o cinema do realizador Alfred Hitchcock (como contextualização para a abordagem ao estereótipo feminino) e a recriação baseada em imagens prévias (principalmente da filmografia hitchcockiana), que configura a parte artístico-criativa e prática do projeto. O estudo analisa a objetificação feminina em filmes-chave de Hitchcock como sustentação para a posterior recriação fotográfica onde o papel feminino é subvertido: de vulnerável a confiante. Após esta abordagem teórica, analisamos as fotografias produzidas. O resultado final revela a recriação de dezoito frames dos filmes de Hitchcock em dezoito fotografias apresentadas numa exposição fotográfica e pretende subverter os arquétipos femininos típicos de Hitchcock.; This project focuses on the subversion of the female stereotype in Alfred Hitchcock’s cinema and substantiates an investigation with the purpose of recreating photographs based upon frames from the director’s films that accentuate the female stereotype. The photographic work intends to subvert the paradigms of the typical “Hitchcock blonde” and her objectification by the dominant male gaze by assigning more autonomy...

Identifiability and self-presentation: Computer-mediated communication and intergroup interaction

Douglas, Karen; McGarty, Craig
Fonte: The British Psychological Society Publicador: The British Psychological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.760117%
This research investigated the intergroup properties of hostile 'flaming' behaviour in computer-mediated communication and how flaming language is affected by Internet identifiability, or identifiability by name and e-mail address/geographical location as is common to Internet communication. According to the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE; e.g. Reicher, Spears, & Postmes, 1995) there may be strategic reasons for identifiable groups members to act in a more group-normative manner in the presence of an audience, to gain acceptance from the in-group, to avoid punishment from the out-group, or to assert their identity to the out-group. For these reasons, it was predicted that communicators would produce more stereotype-consistent (group-normative) descriptions of out-group members' behaviours when their descriptions were identifiable to an audience. In one archival and three experimental studies, it was found that identifiability to an in-group audience was associated with higher levels of stereotype-consistent language when communicators described anonymous out-group targets. These results extend SIDE and suggest the importance of an in-group audience for the expression of stereotypical views.

THE FEMALE FIGURE AND THE STEREOTYPE OF EVIL: THE EXEMPLE OF “ LA CORRIVEAU”; A figura feminina e o estereótipo da maldade: o exemplo de "La Corriveau"

Przybylski, Mauren Pavao; UFRGS
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.380925%
Marie Josephte Corriveau, know as “La Corriveau”, was according the ethnologist Luc Lacourcière, the women that charges the worst reputation of Canadian history and, even though she died more than two centuries , she continues, like a ghost, feeding the imagination of her people. Corriveau was sentenced to death for the murder of her second husband, although legend has it that she had killed seven. From the analysis of these representations of women, this study intends to demonstrate how  these fictional beings had influenced  on the reputation of women and the establishment of a female identity.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2010v15n2p78Marie Josephte Corriveau, conhecida como “La Corriveau”, foi, segundo o etnólogo Luc Lacourcière, a mulher que carregou a pior reputação da história canadense e, mesmo tendo morrido há mais de dois séculos, ela continua, como um fantasma, alimentando o imaginário de seu povo. A Corriveau foi condenada à morte pelo assassinato de seu segundo marido, embora a lenda conte que ela teria matado sete. A partir da análise dessas representações femininas, o presente estudo pretende demonstrar como esses seres ficcionais tiveram influência na reputação da mulher e na constituição da identidade feminina.

Female household headship and the feminisation of poverty : facts, fictions and forward strategies

Chant, Sylvia
Fonte: Gender Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Gender Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper interrogates the common assumption that a large part of the so-called ‘feminisation of poverty’ in recent decades is due to the progressive ‘feminisation of household headship’. Its specific aims are three-fold. The first is to summarise how and why women-headed households have come to be widely equated with the ‘poorest of the poor’ in development discourse. The second is to trace the evolution of challenges to this stereotype from a growing and increasingly diverse body of macro- and micro-level research. The third is to explore some of the implications and outcomes of competing constructions of female household headship, especially in relation to policy. At one end of the spectrum, what kinds of attitudes and actions flow out of the mantra that female-headed households are the ‘poorest of the poor’? At the other extreme, what happens when the links between the ‘feminisation of poverty’ and the ‘feminisation of household headship’ are disrupted? In particular, I am concerned to reflect on the potential consequences of acknowledging that the epithet ‘women-headed households are the poorest of the poor’ may be more ‘fable’ than ‘fact’.

The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students

Bodiba,P; Madu,SN; Ezeokana,JO; Nnedum,OAU
Fonte: Curationis Publicador: Curationis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data...