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Financial Distress and Depressive Symptoms among African American Women: Identifying Financial Priorities and Needs and why it Matters for Mental Health

Starkey, Angelica JoNel; Keane, Christopher R.; Terry, Martha Ann; Marx, John H.; Ricci, Edmund M.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Prior research found that financial hardship or distress is one of the most important underlying factors for depression/depressive symptoms, yet factors that contribute to financial distress remain unexplored or unaddressed. Given this, the goals of the present study were (1) to examine the relationship between perceived financial distress and depressive symptoms, and (2) to identify financial priorities and needs that may contribute to financial distress. Surveys from 111 African American women, ages 18–44, who reside in Allegheny County, PA, were used to gather demographic information and measures of depressive symptoms and financial distress/financial well-being. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that perceived financial distress was significantly associated with levels of depressive symptoms. To assess financial priorities and needs, responses to two open-ended questions were analyzed and coded for common themes: “Imagine you won a $10,000 prize in a local lottery. What would you do with this money?” and “What kinds of programs or other help would be beneficial to you during times of financial difficulties?” The highest five priorities identified by the participants were paying bills and debt, saving, purchasing a home or making home repairs...

Predicting Financial Distress and the Performance of Distressed Stocks

Campbell, John Y.; Hilscher, Jens Dietrich; Szilagyi, Jan
Fonte: Journal of Investment Management Publicador: Journal of Investment Management
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this paper, we consider the measurement and pricing of distress risk.We present a model of corporate failure in which accounting and market-based measures forecast the likelihood of future financial distress. Our best model is more accurate than leading alternative measures of corporate failure risk.We use our measure of financial distress to examine the performance of distressed stocks from 1981 to 2008. We find that distressed stocks have high stock return volatility and high market betas and that they tend to underperform safe stocks by more at times of high market volatility and risk aversion. However, investors in distressed stocks have not been rewarded for bearing these risks. Instead, distressed stocks have had very low returns, both relative to the market and after adjusting for their high risk. The underperformance of distressed stocks is present in all size and value quintiles. It is lower for stocks with low analyst coverage and institutional holdings, which suggests that information or arbitrage-related frictions may be partly responsible for the underperformance of distressed stocks.; Economics

Bank Competition and Financial Stability : Friends or Foes?

Beck, Thorsten
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Theory makes ambiguous predictions about the relationship between market structure and competitiveness of the banking system and banking sector stability. Empirical studies focusing on individual countries provide similarly ambiguous results, while cross-country studies point mostly to a positive relationship between competition and stability in the banking system. Where liberalization and unfettered competition have resulted in fragility, this has been mostly the consequence of regulatory and supervisory failures. The advantages of competition for an efficient and inclusive financial system are strong, and regulatory and supervisory policies should focus on an incentive-compatible environment for banking rather than try to fine-tune market structure or the degree of competition.

Resolution of Financial Distress : An International Perspective on the Design of Bankruptcy Laws

Claesens, Stijn; Djankov, Simeon; Mody, Ashoka
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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The institutions of bankruptcy have been at the center of the great economic events of the last decade, ranging from the Asian economic crisis, to the transition from socialism to capitalism. Our understanding of the economic, and legal structure of these institutions, as well as of their impact on economic development, has advanced considerably during this period as well. This study provides valuable information on the advances for resolution of financial distress, through theoretical studies, historical data, and evidence from recent worldwide experiences. It illustrates the possibilities, and methods of beneficial legal reform of bankruptcy procedures, as well as the pitfalls of misguided political action. The study is a timely, and valuable resource for economists, lawyers, and all others interested in institutional reform in emerging financial markets.

Bangladesh : Financial Sector Distress and Lost Economic Growth

Kojo, Naoko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The financial system in Bangladesh has suffered from years of systemic and chronic problems, represented by weak supervision and enforcement, deficient accounting and reporting practices, and more importantly, widespread loan defaults and delinquencies. It is widely perceived that major inadequacies in the financial sector have had a considerable growth restraining effect over the years, by inhibiting private investment activities and productivity growth, as well as promoting misallocation of resources. It is paramount important that the government takes an urgent policy action to reform the mal-functioning financial sector. The main objective of such reforms is to develop a market oriented, disciplined modem system for mobilization of resources, efficient allocation of resources from both domestic and foreign sources, and reduction of poverty through sustained economic growth. This paper is organized as follows. Section two reviews the recent theoretical and empirical literature on finance and growth. Section three summarizes the main findings of our cross-country analysis...

Harnessing Emotional Connections to Improve Financial Decisions: Evaluating the Impact of Financial Education in Mainstream Media

Zia, Bilal; Berg, Gunhild
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
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This paper exploits the emotional connections and viewer attentiveness of mainstream media to evaluate the economic impact of financial education messages on debt management delivered through a popular television soap opera in South Africa. The study uses a symmetric encouragement design to compare outcomes of individuals who were randomly assigned to watch a soap opera with financial messages, "Scandal!" to those of individuals who were invited to watch a similar soap opera without financial messages, "Muvhango." Both shows overlapped in evening primetime and had similar past viewership profiles. The financial storyline spanned two months and featured one of the leading characters of the show borrowing excessively and irresponsibly through hire-purchase, gambling, and ending up in financial distress; and eventually seeking help to find her way out. Two intermediate and one final follow-up surveys were conducted as part of the study. The analysis finds individuals assigned to watch Scandal had significantly higher financial knowledge of the issues highlighted in the soap opera storyline...

Financial Intermediary Distress in the Republic of Korea : Small Is Beautiful?

Bongini, Paola; Ferri, Giovanni; Kang, Tae Soo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Taking the Korean experience as a laboratory experiment in systemic financial crises, the authors analyze distress in individual institutions among two groups of financial intermediaries. They pool together a group of large financial intermediaries (commercial banks, merchant banking corporations) and another group of tiny mutual savings and finance companies. Both the too-big-to-fail doctrine and the credit channel approach suggest that the probability of distress would be greater for small intermediaries. But the authors find that proportionately fewer small intermediaries were distressed than were large intermediaries. They offer two hypothetical explanations for this unexpected result: 1) Exchange rate exposure - a major shock to Korean intermediaries - was presumably negligible for the small financial intermediaries. 2) Small financial intermediaries allocated loans better, because of the "peer monitoring" natural to their mutual nature and deep local roots. Available data did not allow the authors to test the first hypothesis, but they did find support for the second one. Estimating a logit model, they find that the probability of distress was systematically smaller for the mutual savings and finance companies that stayed closer to their origins (for example...

A theoretical analysis of the stages and events experienced by financially distressed firms

Hamoto, Azad; Correia, Ricardo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
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This paper analyses the events that start with financial distress and may eventually lead to the liquidation and/or abandonment of the assets of the firm. It develops a scheme describing the sequence of possible outcomes starting with financial distress based on the existing literature and taking into account the legal environment in terms of liability and priority rules and bankruptcy law. An analysis of the treatment of financial distress in the theoretical financial literature is also performed, showing that there is no consensus in the treatment of financial distress. The common case of assuming simultaneous default and bankruptcy is shown to lead to suboptimal bankruptcy. Other theoretical approaches are shown to address this problem in different ways such as separating default from bankruptcy or by including protective covenants. The case of separation between default from bankruptcy or liquidation highlights the importance of the interaction between the different options present in financial distress. The general case of exogenously determined default is shown to represent a special case that implies the existence of financial and credit constraints

Moldova Financial Sector Assessment Program; Insolvency and Creditor/Debtor Regimes--Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
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The World Bank assessed the insolvency and creditor or debtor regimes (ICR) of Moldova pursuant to the joint international monetary fund (IMF) and World Bank initiative on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC). The Moldovan authorities have made remarkable progress over the last decade in taking on board a broad range of reform related to the commercial law regime, including the laws pertaining to creditor protection and insolvency. Loans are often over collateralized, reducing available credit and increasing the incentives for lenders to rely primarily on their collateral for repayment rather than to support restructuring efforts. The secured transactions regime requires improvement, importantly regarding the facilitation of important credit instruments over category of assets. The rules aimed at encouraging good corporate behavior at times of financial distress may be improved and obstacles on insolvency filing by creditors removed to ensure timely filing of insolvency proceedings. There are also certain risks to creditor rights...

Conflicts of interest, employment decisions, and debt restructuring: evidence from Spanish firms in financial distress

Padilla, A. Jorge; Requejo, Alejandro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/1999 Português
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We examine the employment decisions of Spanish manufacturing firms in financial distress. Our sample comprises 4,566 firms operating during 1983-1994. We find that firms in distress reduce their employment significantly. These reductions are positively associated with asset sales, but cannot be fully explained by them. They are also negatively related to firm size and to firing costs. Our main finding, however, is that firms that restructure their debt in response to distress are more likely to reduce their employment. Employment falls as the firm's debt exposure is reduced, but also as a consequence of a bank debt restructuring involving exclusively an extension of maturity. These empirical findings provide a clear-cut quantitative illustration of the agency costs of debt emerging from stockholder-bondholder conflicts.

How to Accelerate Corporate and Financial Sector Restructuring in East Asia

Claessens, Stijn; Djankov, Simeon; Klingebiel, Daniela
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
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Resolving systemic banking and corporate distress is not easy. The large scale of the East Asian financial crisis has made the task even more daunting in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and Thailand. Two years into the process, bank and corporate restructuring is still a work in progress. Governments should act to accelerate it. Besides adopting common policy prescriptions - improving financial regulation, corporate governance, and bankruptcy procedures and shoring up banks' capital positions - governments could take three additional steps: Set up competitive, privately managed specialized funds, to hold nonperforming loans and depoliticize restructuring. Allow auctions as an alternative to negotiations, to speed debt restructuring. And allow employee ownership participation schemes, to reduce workers' resistance to changes in ownership.

Company in Distress?; Directors Needn't Be--Mitigating Risks at the Board

Rechden, Claudio N.; Miller, Kalina B.
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Brief
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Investors see value in nominating members to the boards of companies they have invested in. Through board members, they can help improve the company's operations, define corporate strategy, adjust inefficiencies, improve governance, and ultimately increase the expected return on their investment. The authors examine the shift in the relative position of stakeholders when a company enters the penumbra of insolvency. In good times, directors rightly think of the shareholders as the parties to whom their duties to the company (and legal responsibilities) most directly extend. But once the enterprise s very survival as a going concern comes into question, the profile and legal rights of creditors and other stakeholders take on greater importance. The board must be able to demonstrate that it is doing everything it can to maximize the enterprise value of the company, and hence the likelihood that the company will meet its obligations to parties with claims (on the cash flow and assets of the company) that come before the residual interest of shareholders. This paper lists other actions (including...

Systemic Financial Distress and Auction-Based Bankruptcy Reorganization; International Review of Economics and Finance

Hausch, Donald B.; Ramachandran, S.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
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Most bankruptcy procedures try to reorganize a financially-distressed firm's debts to a serviceable level through negotiations overseen by courts. Markets are an alternative to such negotiations. This paper develops a market-based approach that is appropriate if claimants are severely cash-constrained and there is merit in having existing owners-managers remain in control. This approach was developed in response to the 1997 Asian Crisis, where the sheer numbers of over-indebted firms, creditors with poor incentives, and inexperienced courts stymied negotiated resolution. The scheme, however, can be applied to other crisis settings that exhibit particular characteristics. One such setting could be the resolution of external sovereign debts, a situation where creditors obviously cannot take possession of a country. The scheme arranges creditors in a queue to be serviced in sequence from the firm's operating cash flows. Creditors bid for their position in this queue, and those accepting a greater proportionate reduction in the face value of their claims are placed ahead of the others. Any existing hierarchy of claims is honored by having claimants bid for their positions within the relevant segment of the queue. No one in the queue (including owners who are last) is paid anything until the (reduced) debts of the first in line are fully discharged using the firm's operating cash surpluses. The queue then moves up and the next claimant in line is serviced. The paper shows that...

Sovereign Debt Distress and Corporate Spillover Impacts

Dailami, Mansoor
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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In much of the standard corporate finance literature in which sovereign debt is treated as a risk free asset, corporate bond prices are seen to depend on idiosyncratic risk factors specific to the issuing company, with public debt playing an indirect role to the extent that it affects the term structure of interest rates. In the corporate world, however, the ability of a borrower to access international capital markets and the terms according to which it can raise capital depend not only on its own creditworthiness, but also on the financial health of its home-country sovereign. In times of financial stress, when investors lose confidence in the government's ability to use public finances to stabilize the economy or provide a safety net for corporations in distress, markets' assessment of private credit risk takes on a completely different dynamic than during normal times, incorporating an additional risk premium to compensate investors for the potential consequences of sovereign default. Using a new database that covers nearly every emerging-market corporate and sovereign entity that has issued bonds on global markets between 1995 and 2009...

Subnational Insolvency : Cross-Country Experiences and Lessons

Liu, Lili; Waibel, Michael
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Subnational insolvency is a reoccurring event in development, as demonstrated by historical and modern episodes of subnational defaults in both developed and developing countries. Insolvency procedures become more important as countries decentralize expenditure, taxation, and borrowing, and broaden subnational credit markets. As the first cross-country survey of procedures to resolve subnational financial distress, this paper has particular relevance for decentralizing countries. The authors explain central features and variations of subnational insolvency mechanisms across countries. They identify judicial, administrative, and hybrid procedures, and show how entry point and political factors drive their design. Like private insolvency law, subnational insolvency procedures predictably allocate default risk, while providing breathing space for orderly debt restructuring and fiscal adjustment. Policymakers' desire to mitigate the tension between creditor rights and the need to maintain essential public services...

Essais sur les frictions financières dans les modèles d'équilibre général dynamique

Solomon, Bernard Daniel
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Cette thèse examine les effets des imperfections des marchés financiers sur la macroéconomie. Plus particulièrement, elle se penche sur les conséquences de la faillite dans les contrats financiers dans une perspective d'équilibre général dynamique. Le premier papier construit un modèle qui utilise l'avantage comparatif des banques dans la gestion des situations de détresse financière pour expliquer le choix des firmes entre les prêts bancaires et les prêts du marché financier. Le modèle réussit à expliquer pourquoi les firmes plus petites préfèrent le financement bancaire et pourquoi les prêts bancaires sont plus répandus en Europe. Le premier fait est expliqué par le lien négatif entre la valeur nette de l'entreprise et la probabilité de faire faillite. Le deuxième fait s'explique par le coût fixe d'émission de bons plus élevé en Europe. Le deuxième papier examine l'interaction entre les contraintes de financement affectant les ménages et les firmes. Une interaction positive pourrait amplifier et augmenter la persistance de l'effet d'un choc agrégé sur l'économie. Je construis un nouveau modèle qui contient des primes de financement externes pour les firmes et les ménages. Dans le modèle de base avec prix et salaires flexibles...

Essays in Corporate Finance

Milanez, Anna Catherine
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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Written in the wake of the 2007-08 financial crisis, the following essays explore the nature and implications of firm-level financial distress. The first essay examines the external effects of financial distress, while the second and third essays examine its internal consequences. The first essay investigates the potential contagion effects of financial distress among retail firms using a novel measure of retailers' geographic exposure to one another and, in particular, to liquidated chain stores. The second essay draws on new, hand-collected data on firm-level layoff instances to look into the ways in which financial distress impinges on firms' employment behavior. Building on the second essay, the third essay considers financial market reactions to layoff decisions, particularly those resulting from financial strain. Each essay sheds additional light on the ways in which financial distress propagates through to affect the economy at large. Overall, the picture that emerges is one in which firm-level financial distress appears to be an important factor behind the long and protracted nature of the current economic recovery.; Economics

Financial literacy, financial behaviour and individuals' over-indebtedness

Santos, Elisabete; Abreu, Margarida
Fonte: ISEG. Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG. Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2013 Português
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This work analyses the impact of financial literacy and financial behaviour of individuals on the likelihood of over-indebtedness, controlling for socioeconomic factors, the type of mortgage and the event of a negative income shock. Using the data from the 2009 National Financial Capability Study of the United States, we consider three self-reported measures of over-indebtedness: financial distress, arrears and foreclosure. Using the data from the National Financial Capability Study carried out in the United States in 2009, we have defined three measures of over-indebtedness – financial distress, arrears and foreclosure -, and constructed a financial literacy index and a financial behaviour index. The financial literacy index is constructed using questions on the compounding of interest rate, inflation, bonds and stocks, mortgage payment and risk diversification. The financial behaviour index is based on questions concerning individuals’ financial choices related with budget management, savings, bank accounts, credit, insurance and financial advice. Results show that gender matters for the intensity of over-indebtedness. Men have higher probability of experience financial distress or being in arrears but have lower probability of getting involved in a foreclosure process. In addition to the impact of socioeconomic factors...

Privatization and macroeconomic financial distress in emerging market countries.

Lynn, David James
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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This dissertation examines privatization and the relationship between macroeconomic financial distress and the propensity to privatize in emerging market countries. The research was undertaken to investigate the rationales of privatization and to attempt to explain the pattern and behavior of privatization in emerging market countries (EMCs). The central hypothesis under investigation is that countries with fiscal pressures such as high debt levels, significant budget deficits, and large current account deficits, ceteris paribus, are more likely to increase their privatization activities. The study begins by providing a background on privatization and state-owned-enterprises (SOEs) in EMCs. It then reviews the theoretical literature underlying privatization and financial distress. Next it provides a comparative profile of EMCs that have or are in the process of privatizing. The empirical analysis supports the hypothesis of a positive relationship between financial distress (with an emphasis on debt as a primary driver of distress) and privatization. In particular, higher levels of debt cause financial distress and unproductive investment and this in turn causes countries to privatize relatively more assets.

A parsimonious model to forecast financial distress, based on audit evidence

Piñeiro Sánchez,Carlos; de Llano Monelos,Pablo; Rodríguez López,Manuel
Fonte: Facultad de Contaduría y Administración, UNAM Publicador: Facultad de Contaduría y Administración, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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This paper provides evidence that audit reports convey relevant evidence for inferring the existence of underlying, unrevealed, financial imbalances. Unlike previous works, which studied US listed-firms bankruptcy, our research deals with Spanish non-financial SMEs under financial stress. Our results indicate that the audit of distressed SMEs has several distinctive features: higher auditor rotation, more qualified reports, and non-compliance with deadlines to approve and ile the annual inancial statements. We use this evidence to build and test a parsimonious and reliable forecast model. Several implications for auditors' independence, information quality, and failure forecast are discussed.