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Financiamento da educação: do FUNDEF ao FUNDEB - repercussões da política de fundos na valorização docente da rede estadual de ensino do Pará - 1996 a 2009; Financing of Education: from FUNDEF to FUNDEB- repercussion of the policy of Funds in the Teachers Valorization in the State Education Network of Pará- 1996 to 2009

Carvalho, Fabricio Aarão Freire
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/02/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar as repercussões do FUNDEF/FUNDEB na valorização dos profissionais do magistério da rede estadual de ensino de educação básica do Pará no período de 1996 a 2009. Configura-se como uma análise de políticas públicas, tendo como foco o exame das implicações da política de fundos para a efetivação/materialização da valorização docente no Estado. Para a realização da pesquisa, foi desenvolvida uma revisão bibliográfica sobre financiamento, política de fundos e valorização docente, com base nos trabalhos e obras de autores renomados da área. A pesquisa também envolveu a análise documental da legislação federal e estadual referente ao financiamento e à valorização docente, de documentos elaborados pelos órgãos oficiais do Estado e por outras instituições tais como sindicatos da categoria. Foi organizada de modo a articular informações quanti-qualitativas, tal como proposto por Gamboa (1995) dos indicadores de remuneração docente, carreira e formação dos professores na rede estadual de ensino do Estado do Pará durante o período de vigência do FUNDEF (1996 a 2006) e os três primeiros anos de vigência do FUNDEB (2007 a 2009). A análise dos dados foi complementada com a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas com ex-presidente do INEP (2003-2004) e ex-assessor de financiamento educacional da UNDIME Nacional (2004-2006); aos membros dirigentes do SINTEPP...

As políticas públicas de financiamento à exportação no Brasil (BNDES Exim e Proex) : características e efeitos sobre as exportações das empresas industriais brasileiras; Public policies for export financing in Brazil (BNDES Exim and Proex) : characteristics and effects on exports of Brazilian industrial companies

Jefferson Ricardo Galetti
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os resultados dos dois principais programas públicos de financiamento à exportação - BNDES Exim e Proex - no apoio aos exportadores industriais no período que se estende de 2000 a 2007. A análise se concentra em dois eixos principais, o acesso aos recursos dos programas pelas empresas exportadoras da indústria de transformação e a articulação da política de financiamento à exportação com as políticas industrial e tecnológica, em um contexto mais amplo, inseridas em uma política de desenvolvimento. Esta tarefa foi possibilitada pelo acesso à base de dados organizada pelo IPEA que reúne informações sobre as empresas exportadoras nacionais. Com os microdados foi possível elaborar um extensivo quadro com as características das empresas apoiadas em relação ao seu tamanho, quais os setores que receberam apoio e para quais países se destinaram as exportações apoiadas. Os programas públicos mostraram-se complementares aos recursos privados ao apoiar empresas de setores de maior criação de valor, no caso do BNDES Exim, e empresas de menor porte, no caso do Proex. A estrutura institucional dispersa de apoio à exportação brasileira foi cotejada com a existente em alguns países selecionados...

Impact of State Vaccine Financing Policy on Uptake of Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

Stokley, Shannon; Shaw, Kate M.; Barker, Lawrence; Santoli, Jeanne M.; Shefer, Abigail
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2006 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2006
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Objective. We examined heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) uptake among children aged 19 to 35 months in the United States and determined how uptake rates differed by state vaccine financing policy.

Health Care Financing Policy for Hospitalized Black Patients

Muñoz, Eric; Johnson, Houston; Goldstein, Jonathan; Benacquista, Theresa; Mulloy, Katherine; Wise, Leslie
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1988 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The Medicare diagnostic-related group (DRG) prospective payment model is changing hospital payment. Currently many states are using DRG prospective “all payer systems” for hospital reimbursement. In all payer systems, Medicare, Medicaid, Blue Cross, and other commercial insurers pay by the DRG mode; New York State has had an all payer system since January 1, 1988. This study simulated DRG all payer methods on a large sample (N = 6,134) of adult black medical and surgical patients for a three-year period using both federal and New York DRG reimbursement. Both Medicare and Medicaid patients had, on average, a longer hospital stay and total hospital cost compared with patients covered by Blue Cross and other commercial insurers. Medicare and Medicaid patients also had a greater severity of illness compared with those of Blue Cross and others. All insurers (ie, Medicaid, Blue Cross, Medicare, and commercial) generated substantial financial risk under the DRG all payer scheme. These data suggest that federal, state, and private payers may be under-reimbursing for the care of the hospitalized black patient using the DRG prospective hospital payment scheme. Health care financing policy such as that demonstrated in this study may limit both the access and quality of care for many black patients in the future.

Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan

Kutzin, Joseph; Ibraimova, Ainura; Jakab, Melitta; O’Dougherty, Sheila
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues – the main source of public funding for health – from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy...

O livro didático na educação de jovens e adultos.; The didact book in the youth education of and adult.

Oliveira, Elisabete Duarte de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Educação brasileira; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Educação brasileira; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
This work firstly aims to rescue the history of Didactic Books DBs in Youth and Adult Education YAE of the state of Alagoas. We believe that the relevance of this study is to bring to the surface discussions that permeate the schools of the Municipal and State Education from Maceió and Alagoas, respectively, on the treatment of governmental actions and initiatives for acquisition of YAE DBs. It also aims to make administrators and teachers reflect on the DBs produced and acquired, and also evaluate them; to encourage the government to define an effective policy of financial resources and systematic selection criteria for evaluation and purchase of DBs; and to stimulate further research in order to produce DBs. It is a qualitative base research developed through bibliographic and field research, using questionnaires, interviews and focal groups as instruments of collection. These procedures enabled us to notice the look and say of teachers, coordinators and technicists that constitute the staff of the Youth and Adult Education Department DEJA of Municipal Bureau of Education of Maceió - SEMED and of the Program for Youth and Adult Education PROEJA of the Executive Secretary of Education of the State of Alagoas, on the process of selection...

Making Health Financing Work for Poor People in Tanzania

Haazen, Dominic
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.61%
This policy note is designed to support the development of the health financing strategy in Tanzania. It is directed at decision makers in the areas of health and social policy as well as the Ministry of Finance, which will play a crucial role in integrating the financial implications of this note into the overall fiscal situation in Tanzania. It is also hoped that this note will stimulate debate among interested stakeholders on the best funding modalities for health and the most appropriate ways to integrate those modalities. On the basis of the data and options described in this policy note, the World Bank will work with authorities and other interested stakeholders to develop a financing program to support the needed reforms in these sectors. This policy note provides background information, cross-country examples, and policy options, which can all be incorporated into the development of a comprehensive health financing strategy. It also provides a framework for looking at the various elements of the health financing system...

Financing Patterns Around the World : Are Small Firms Different?

Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Maksimovic, Vojislav
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Using a firm-level survey database covering 48 countries, we investigate how financial and institutional development affects financing of large and small firms. Our database is not limited to large firms but includes small and medium-size firms and data on a broad spectrum of financing sources, including leasing, supplier, development, and informal finance. Small firms and firms in countries with poor institutions use less external finance, especially bank finance. Protection of property rights increases external financing of small firms significantly more than of large firms, mainly due to its effect on bank finance. Small firms do not use disproportionately more leasing or trade finance compared with larger firms, so these financing sources do not compensate for lower access to bank financing of small firms. We also find that larger firms more easily expand external financing when they are constrained than small firms. Finally, we find suggestive evidence that the pecking order holds across countries.

Bank Financing for SMEs: Evidence across Countries and Bank Ownership Types

Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Using data for 91 large banks from 45 countries, this paper finds that foreign, domestic private, and government-owned banks use different lending technologies and organizational structures for SME financing. The extent, type, and pricing of SME loans, however, is not strongly correlated with lending technologies and organizational structures, suggesting that SME financing need not be based only on "relationship lending". Consistent with these results, we find few significant differences in the extent, type, and pricing of SME loans across bank types. Instead, we find significant differences across developed and developing countries, driven by differences in the institutional and legal environment.

Subjective Perceptions of Financing Constraints: How Well Do They Reflect Credit Market Conditions?

Bouton, Lawrence; Tiongson, Erwin R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Many cross-country enterprise surveys have recently become widely available. They are the basis of rankings of dimensions of the business environment in emerging markets and developing economies. Although the literature is concerned about "perception bias", there has been little effort at analyzing whether subjective appraisals of credit market constraints correspond to objectively measurable indicators. This note assesses a predominantly used subjective measure of "access to finance" and relates it to indicators of financial development and credit availability and costs. It finds a significant relationship between subjective and objective indexes of financing constraint but the relationship varies substantially across indicators.

Bank Financing to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Colombia

Stephanou, Constantinos; Rodriguez, Camila
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
The objective of this paper is to shed light on current trends and policy challenges in the financing of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by banks in Colombia. The paper is motivated by the well-documented financing gap for SMEs, whose causes are complex and multi-dimensional. Based on data collection and interviews with the authorities, a representative sample of banks, and other relevant entities, the authors analyze the evolution and characteristics of this market in recent years. Bank financing to SMEs is becoming a strategic segment for Colombian credit institutions. The current business and risk management models for SME lending are still relatively underdeveloped, but greater sophistication is expected as the market matures. Important institutional and policy constraints to SME lending remain, but are not yet binding. In order to address these constraints before they "begin to bite", the authors identify and describe a potential policy reform agenda.

Demand-side Financing for Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Low and Middle-Income Countries : A Review of the Evidence

Witter, Sophie; Somanathan, Aparnaa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Demand-side financing approaches have been introduced in a number of low and middle-income countries, with a particular emphasis on sexual and reproductive health. This paper aims to bring together the global evidence on demand-side financing mechanisms, their impact on the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services, and the conditions under which they have been effective. The paper begins with a discussion of modalities for demand-side financing. It then examines 13 existing schemes, including cash incentives, vouchers, and longer term social protection policies. Based on the available literature, it collates evidence of their impact on utilization of services, access for the poor, financial protection, quality of care, and health outcomes. Evidence on costs and cost-effectiveness are examined, along with analysis of funding and sustainability of policies. Finally, the paper discusses the preconditions for effectiveness of demand-side financing schemes and the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. It also highlights the extent to which results for sexual and reproductive health services are likely to be generalizable to other types of health care. It is clear that some of these policies can produce impressive results...

Health Financing for Poor People : Resource Mobilization and Risk Sharing

Preker, Alexander S.; Carrin, Guy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints, political instability, and lack of good governance. Usually government taxation capacity is weak, formal mechanisms of social protection for vulnerable populations absent, and government oversight of the informal health sector lacking. In this context of extreme public sector failure, community involvement in the financing of health care provides a critical albeit insufficient first step in the long march towards improved access to health care by the poor and social protection against the cost of illness. Health Financing for Poor People stresses that community financing schemes are no panacea for the problems that low-income countries face in resource mobilization. They should be regarded as a complement to - not as a substitute for - strong government involvement in health care financing and risk management related to the cost of illness. Based on an extensive survey of the literature, the main strengths of community financing schemes are the extent of outreach penetration achieved through community participation...

Potentials and Constraints of Using Warehouse Receipts Financing

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
The paper starts with an overview of Cambodia’s rice sector, with a particular attention to aspects which affect its need for external working capital finance, and characteristics and constraints that could hinder access to such finance (e.g., warehousing capacity, processing constraints, logistics, and market risks). Chapter two describes the general conditions for crop-based financing in Cambodia’s rice sector. Chapter three discusses policy options for enhancing the use of paddy and rice as collateral for financing. The chapter sets out the two main modalities: collateral management, and public warehousing. Both collateral management and public warehousing work best when certain support structures are in place, in particular an indemnity system, a system for the electronic trading of warehouse receipts, and a facility for refinancing warehouse receipt loans (which could be managed by the Central Bank or outsourced to another competent entity such as an investment fund). These are discussed in separate sections. The various sections describe the situation as currently prevails in Cambodia...

Assessment of policies for innovative financing in infrastructure systems

Mostafavi, Ali; Abraham, Dulcy; Sullivan, Charlene
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
Infrastructure systems are drivers of the economy in the nation. A dollar spent on infrastructure development yields roughly double the initial spending in ultimate economic output in the short term; and over a twenty-year period, and generalized ‘public investment’ produces an aggregated $3.21 of economic activity per $1.00 spent [1]. Thus, formulation of policies pertaining to infrastructure investment and development is of significance affecting the social and economic wellbeing of the nation. The aim of this policy brief is to evaluate innovative financing in infrastructure systems from two different perspectives: (1) through consideration of the current condition of infrastructure in the U.S., the current trends in public spending, and the emerging innovative financing tools; (2) through evaluation of the roles and interactions of different agencies in the creation and the diffusion of innovative financing tools. Then using the example of transportation financing, the policy brief provides an assessment of policy landscapes which could lead to the closure of infrastructure financing gap in the U.S and proposes strategies for citizen involvement to gain public support of innovative financing.

Opinion: a critical appraisal of the new higher education charges for students

Chapman, Bruce
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 272197 bytes; 360 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
The legislation concerning the financing of Australian higher education passed the Senate in the last Parliamentary sitting week of 2003. The changes introduced will begin in 2005, and after this time the system will start to move away from its current settings. It is argued in what follows that these reforms have the strong potential to change radically the policy landscape with respect to student charges. A premise of the paper is that the transformation of Australian higher education funding after 2005 is likely to be more profound than was the case with all other financing changes over the last 30 years or so. As background, the discussion offers a brief historic overview of university funding reforms: the abolition of fees by Labor in 1973; the introduction of the Higher Education Administration Charge in 1987; the major extension of user pays through the Higher Education Contribution Scheme which began in 1989; and the considerable changes to HECS implemented in 1997. While some reforms are considered to have been fundamental with respect to the incidence and nature of higher education charges for students, it is argued that the new policy arrangements are very likely to have a much greater impact. To this end, the analysis includes an explanation of the critical role played by the indexation of government grants to Australian universities. While this might seem like a strange place to start given the lack of attention to the issue in public debate...

Good Practices in Health Financing : Lessons from Reforms in Low and Middle-Income Countries

Gottret, Pablo; Schieber, George J.; Waters, Hugh R.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
This volume focuses on nine countries that have completed, or are well along in the process of carrying out, major health financing reforms. These countries have significantly expanded their people's health care coverage or maintained such coverage after prolonged political or economic shocks. In doing so, this report seeks to expand the evidence base on good performance in health financing reforms in low- and middle-income countries. The countries chosen for the study were Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Estonia, the Kyrgyz Republic, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia, and Vietnam. With health at the center of global development policy on humanitarian as well as economic and health security grounds, the international community and developing countries are closely focused on scaling up health systems to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), improving financial protection, and ensuring long-term financing to sustain these gains. With the scaling up of aid, both donors and countries have come to realize that money alone cannot buy health gains or prevent impoverishment due to catastrophic medical bills. This realization has sent policy makers looking for reliable evidence about what works and what does not...

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Financing and Policy Network : Options Study and Proceedings of the International Forum

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
This report documents the proceedings of a scoping study conducted by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank on the needs and options for a Financing and Policy Network for Scaling-Up Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Developing Countries. At the Bonn International Conference on Renewable Energies in June 2004, global leaders from governments, industry, financial institutions, non-governmental organizations, and multilateral organizations paved the way for a new energy future that will transform the energy structures of today and increase the global use of renewable energy. To build upon the success of the Bonn Conference, the idea of a "global policy network" was proposed - the Renewable Energy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), The network would bring together a range of stakeholders to address the scaling-up of renewable energy and energy efficiency by focusing on such key issues as policies, capacity building, technology transfer, research and development...

Financing Infrastructure and Monitoring Fiscal Risks at the Subnational Level

Liu, Lili; Pradelli, Juan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
This paper explores the building blocks of an institutional framework to govern borrowing by subnational entities to finance infrastructure investment. The framework should help in achieving sustainable financing of development needs and sound management of fiscal risks. Based on international experience, the authors suggest a minimum set of indicators for monitoring fiscal and debt developments. Recognizing the different nature and operations of the subnational entities, they propose specific indicators for special purpose vehicles and the government's general budget. The paper outlines an analytical framework to inform policy decisions concerning subnational debt limits, which are country-specific and should not be mechanically applied. Basic notions underpinning medium-term macro-fiscal frameworks and debt sustainability analyses provide effective guidance for identifying prudent levels of subnational debt. The authors argue that developing fiscal and debt indicators and setting borrowing limits should be part of a broader strategy to put in place an adequate fiscal architecture to coordinate and monitor the budgetary and borrowing policies conducted by individual subnational governments. Consistent with this general principle, they explore several areas of subnational public finance and management that need to be addressed with adequate governance structures and policy choices.

ESSAYS ON THE IMPACT OF NON-FINANCIAL STAKEHOLDERS ON FIRMS’ FINANCING POLICIES

WANG, JIN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
In this thesis we investigate whether firms’ relationships with non-financial stakeholders affect their financing policies. We find that the firms that place a higher value on reputation for treating employees generously maintain lower debt ratios. Furthermore, we find that the firms whose business relies on major customer-supplier relationships adopt more flexible payout policies because of relationship-specific investments. Finally, we find that the high financial distress costs rather than the hold-up problem associated with relationship-specific investments affect firms’ financing policies. Overall, our results suggest that firms’ relationships with non-financial stakeholders are important determinants of their financing policies.; Thesis (Ph.D, Management) -- Queen's University, 2011-04-17 06:13:01.556