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Forest-related partnerships in Brazilian Amazonia: There is more to sustainable forest management than reduced impact logging

ROS-TONEN, Mirjam A. F.; ANDEL, Tinde van; MORSELLO, Carla; OTSUKI, Kei; ROSENDO, Sergio; SCHOLZ, Imme
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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There is more to sustainable forest management than reduced impact logging. Partnerships between multiple actors are needed in order to create the institutional context for good forest governance and sustainable forest management and stimulate the necessary local community involvement. The idea behind this is that the parties would be able to achieve more jointly than on their own by combining assets, knowledge, skills and political power of actors at different levels of scale. This article aims to demonstrate by example the nature and variety of forest-related partnerships in Brazilian Amazonia. Based on the lessons learned from these cases and the authors` experience, the principal characteristics of successful partnerships are described, with a focus on political and socioeconomic aspects. These characteristics include fairly negotiated partnership objectives, the active involvement of the public sector as well as impartial brokers, equitable and cost-effective institutional arrangements, sufficient and equitably shared benefits for all the parties involved, addressing socioeconomic drawbacks, and taking measures to maintain sustainable exploitation levels. The authors argue that, in addition to product-oriented partnerships which focus on sustainable forest management...

Agrupamento das espécies madeireiras ocorrentes em pequenas áreas sob manejo florestal do projeto de colonização Pedro Peixoto (AC) por similaridade das propriedades físicas e mecânicas. ; Grouping of the wood species occurring in small farms under forest management on the Pedro Peixoto colonization project (AC), by similarity of the physical and mechanical properties.

Araújo, Henrique José Borges de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2002 Português
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O manejo florestal sustentado mostra-se uma solução tecnológica adequada para a região amazônica. A exploração seletiva das espécies madeireiras tradicionais vem ocasionando a escassez dessas espécies. É necessário melhorar o aproveitamento dos recursos florestais amazônicos, aproveitando o máximo de suas potencialidades. As espécies de madeira exploradas para fins comerciais são poucas, sendo que há muitas outras com potencial de uso. Vários fatores mostram que o estado do Acre tem aptidão para atividades florestais. O objetivo do presente trabalho é agrupar, por similaridade das propriedades físicas e mecânicas, as madeiras ocorrentes em áreas sob manejo florestal, identificando espécies com potencial de uso e comercialização. A revisão bibliográfica abordou aspectos relacionados ao mercado internacional de madeiras, ao consumo da produção madeireira amazônica, ao uso sustentado dos recursos florestais, a novas espécies de madeira, à caracterização geral do material Madeira, e, à análise estatística multivariada. A área do estudo é composta por 12 pequenas propriedades localizadas no estado do Acre. A área total sob manejo florestal das propriedades é de 431 ha. O plano de manejo florestal prevê a exploração de 8...

Efeitos do manejo florestal na estrutura da avifauna na floresta Amazônica de Paragominas (Pará); Effects of the forest management on birds structure in Paragominas Amazonian forest (Para)

Cardona, Miguel Angel Quimbayo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/12/2012 Português
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O Pará é o estado Amazônico mais visado pela atividade madeireira. Possui a maior gama de serrarias da Amazônia, e produze mais de 50% da madeira em tora do Brasil. A zona Leste do Estado é a responsável por 45% da produção de madeira em tora. Nessa zona se localiza o município de Paragominas, onde o 56% da população urbana depende diretamente da indústria madeireira para sua subsistência. Esta região faz parte da chamada área de endemismo Belém, cuja perda de floresta nativa é de 67,48% devido ao desmatamento. Historicamente as explorações madeireiras foram desenvolvidas com técnicas convencionais, que produzem danos tanto na floresta quanto no solo, e com impactos diretos sobre a fauna que depende da floresta. Na última década estabeleceram-se uma série de diretrizes técnicas para promover o manejo florestal em florestas de terra firme da Amazônia Brasileira, recomendadas pelo Conselho de Manejo Florestal (FSC) para todas as operações de exploração em florestas nativas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do manejo florestal, incluída a exploração de impacto reduzido, em áreas exploradas em diferentes temporadas (1997, 2000, 2003, 2006 e 2009) e uma área não explorada sob a comunidade de aves...

Resultados da avaliação do manejo florestal comunitário sobre os meios de vida de seus protagonistas: destaque para conservação ambiental em detrimento a produção e autonomia; Results of evaluation of community forest management on livelihoods of its protagonist: emphasis on environmental conservation rather than production and autonomy

Waldhoff, Philippe
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2015 Português
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As mudanças nas políticas públicas ambientais que ocorreram a partir da década de 1990 têm levado comunidades tradicionais a trilharem novos caminhos na busca da adequação aos paradigmas contemporâneos de produção, renda e legalização ambiental. Neste contexto, passa a ser adotado um modelo de manejo florestal comunitário introduzido por agentes externos às comunidades. Este modelo tem sido objeto de avaliações econômicas que apontam para a inviabilidade financeira dos projetos, a despeito de outros benefícios sociais e ambientais. Os objetivos desta tese foram: analisar os desafios vivenciados pelas comunidades tradicionais para se adequarem às novas políticas ambientais e avaliar os resultados de projetos de manejo comunitários em relação aos meios de vidas de seus protagonistas. Será o modelo introduzido manejo florestal viável? Quais os resultados que os projetos que adotaram este modelo alcançaram em relação aos meios de vida? A tese compreende quatro estudos de casos, apresentados em capítulos. As análises e avaliações dos projetos foram realizadas utilizando-se como marco analítico os "meios de vida sustentáveis" (capital humano, social, físico, financeiro e natural). O levantamento de dados foi realizado por meio dos métodos de entrevistas...

Computer-based tools for supporting forest management. The experience and the expertise world-wide

Borges, J.G.; Nordstrom, E.M.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Hujala, T.; Trasobares, A.
Fonte: Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences Publicador: Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em 29/06/2014 Português
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Report of Cost Action FP 0804 Forest Management Decision Support Systems (FORSYS); Computer-based tools for supporting forest management. The experience and the expertise world-wide answers a call from both the research and the professional communities for a synthesis of current knowledge about the use of computerized tools in forest management planning. According to the aims of the Forest Management Decision Support Systems (FORSYS) (http://fp0804.emu.ee/) this synthesis is a critical success factor to develop a comprehensive quality reference for forest management decision support systems. The emphasis of the book is on identifying and assessing the support provided by computerized tools to enhance forest management planning in real-world contexts. The book thus identifies the management planning problems that prevail world-wide to discuss the architecture and the components of the tools used to address them. Of importance is the report of architecture approaches, models and methods, knowledge management and participatory planning techniques used to address specific management planning problems. We think that this synthesis may provide effective support to research and outreach activities that focus on the development of forest management decision support systems. It may contribute further to support forest managers when defining the requirements for a tool that best meets their needs. The first chapter of the book provides an introduction to the use of decision support systems in the forest sector and lays out the FORSYS framework for reporting the experience and expertise acquired in each country. Emphasis is on the FORSYS ontology to facilitate the sharing of experiences needed to characterize and evaluate the use of computerized tools when addressing forest management planning problems. The twenty six country reports share a structure designed to underline a problem-centric focus. Specifically...

Using stand-scale forest models for estimating indicators of sustainable forest management

Makela, Annikki; Rio, Miren; Hynynen, Jari; Hawkins, Michael J.; Reyer, Christopher; Soares, Paula; Oijen, Marcel van; Tomé, Margarida
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Criteria and indicators (C & I) to evaluate the sustainability of forest management have been proposed by the Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe. Although primarily defined at the national scale, these C & I also have implications at scales ranging from forest stands to the forest management unit. In this paper, we review existing forest growth and ecosystem models from the point of view of applicability to prediction of indicators of sustainable management, focusing on stand scale models and management. To do this, we first present a conceptual framework for understanding the role of models in assessing forest management at the stand level in the context of sustainability criteria and indicators. We classify the criteria into those predictable using models operating at the stand scale, and those derivable either through scaling up or as solutions of a multi-objective management optimisation problem. We conclude that to date, no comprehensive models exist that could be used to predict all the indicators simultaneously. The most promising approach seems to be a modular system where different models are combined and run simultaneously, with shared inputs and well defined mutual links. More modelling efforts are needed especially regarding the state of the soil...

An approach to cork oak forest management planning: a case study in southwestern Portugal

Costa, A.; Oliveira, A.C.; Vidas, F.; Borges, J.G.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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This paper presents results of research aiming at the development of tools that may enhance cork oak (Quercus suber L.) forest management planning. Specifically, it proposes an hierarchical approach that encompasses the spatial classification of a cork oak forest and the temporal scheduling of cork harvests. The use of both geographical information systems and operations research techniques is addressed. Emphasis is on the achievement of cork even flow objectives. Results from an application to a case study in the Charneca Plioce´nica of Ribatejo in southern Portugal encompassing a cork oak forest extending over 4.8 thousand ha are discussed. They suggest that the proposed approach is capable of effective spatial classification of cork oak management units. They further suggest that it may be used to select optimal cork even flow scheduling strategies. Results also show that the proposed approach may lead to a substantial increase in net present value when compared to traditional approaches to cork oak forest management planning.

Biodiversity Conservation in the Context of Tropical Forest Management

Putz, Francis E.; Redford, Kent H.; Robinson, John G.; Fimbel, Robert; Blate, Geoffrey M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper disaggregates the term "biodiversity" into components (landscapes, ecosystems, communities, species/populations, and genes) and attributes (structure, composition, and function). It then disaggrgates "logging" by detailing the vast range of activities subsumed under the term including variation of logging intensities, logging methods, collateral damage, and silvicultural approaches. Using the richness present in both terms, a framework for considering the impacts of logging and other forest management activities on the various components and attributes of biodiversity is presented. This framework is, in turn, used to evaluate the extensive literature covering different studies of logging in tropical forests. This paper does not conclude with uncritical support for sustainable forest managmement of timber as a conservation strategy. Such an endorsement is unwarranted given widespread illegal logging in the tropics, widespread frontier logging and logging of areas of high priority for biodiversity protection...

Community Institutions, Sustainable Forest Management, and Forest Cover Change in Southern Japan

Fabusoro, E.; Maruyama, M.; Shoyama, K.; Braimoh, A.K.
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This research explores the activities of community institutions in achieving sustainable forest management (SFM) and sustained forest cover. Three institutions representing the administrative, economic, and social/traditional institutions were identified. The institutions had 30 forest management activities and satisfied about 66% of SFM Criteria and Indicators. A loss of 122 ha of forest cover was estimated over the last 30 yr, attributed to conversion of forests to built-up areas. Cooperative culture and economic incentives, among others, influenced institutions’ effectiveness and collective behavior toward achieving SFM. Coordinated strategies that can increase wood demand will motivate forest owners toward SFM.

Community Forest Management and REDD+

International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Network
Fonte: Washington, DC: Program on Forests (PROFOR) Publicador: Washington, DC: Program on Forests (PROFOR)
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The urgent need to limit anthropogenic carbon emissions has led to a global initiative to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). But designing national architectures for REDD+ that integrate local actions on forests with national-level outcomes and do so effectively, efficiently, and equitably continues to be challenging. One option to facilitate the design and implementation of REDD+ is to learn from the experience of other programs that have historically been successful in achieving sustainable tropical forest management, such as community forest management (CFM). Lessons about the factors that contribute to CFM success will be useful in designing REDD+ programs. REDD+ may also benefit from harnessing the capital developed by CFM. Of course, REDD+ and CFM represent both opportunities and challenges for each other. Identifying how CFM can contribute to REDD+ goals, and the potential benefits and risks in using CFM to achieve REDD+ implementation requires careful analysis of available evidence because the two sets of interventions do not have a complete overlap in terms of their objectives and mechanisms.

Financial viability of forest certification in industrial plantations: a case study from the Solomon Islands

Pesce, Fabio; Lal, Padma
Fonte: Environmental Management and Development Programme, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Environmental Management and Development Programme, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Australian National University; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 19 pages
Português
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Forest certification has been promoted to encourage sustainable use of natural forests. While its use in industrial plantation forests has not always been welcomed (World Rainforest Movement 2002), forest certification offers great opportunities in the tropics. This paper assesses the profitability of forest certification of an industrial hardwood plantation in the Solomon Islands by the Forest Stewardship Council. The results of this study suggest that industrial plantations can achieve significant financial benefits from sustainable forest management confirmed by a recognised certification scheme. This positive outcome will, however, depend on the marginal costs incurred by the plantation company to adapt its practices to meet sustainability requirements stipulated by the certification scheme, and the price premiums obtained by the firm. In the case of the Solomon Islands forestry, the additional costs of sustainable forest management and forest certification, including the transaction cost of forest certification, were far less than the market premium that was obtained from certified logs. The company’s costs would have had to increase by almost two thousand folds before certification could be regarded as financially not profitable. This case study thus demonstrates that it is possible for tropical plantations to have a ‘win win’ outcome from forest certification...

Environmental insecurity, forest management, and state responses in Southeast Asia

Dauvergne, Peter
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 89215 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Most Southeast Asian states now embrace the language of sustainable development, environmental protection, and biodiversity conservation. But the impact of these new policies differs across political and economic systems. This paper compares the links between commercial forest management and community insecurity in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Sarawak (Malaysia), focusing in particular on the roles and responses of the state. Since the late 1980s, the Philippine government has decentralised environmental management, incorporating local governments, communities, and nongovernmental organisations. Although serious problems remain, especially in the areas that retain valuable commercial timber, compared to the years of President Ferdinand Marcos (1965-86), forest management is now far more transparent, inclusive, and responsive to the environmental security of communities. These changes were possible because of the collapse of the commercial timber industry, the fall of powerful logging patrons, and the emergence of democratic practices and a vibrant civil society. Sarawak and Indonesia have also reformed environmental and forest policies since the 1990s, such as raising forest fees, tightening regulations, and increasing the penalties for illegal and destructive loggers. But these new policies have had little impact on powerful...

Indigenous Peoples and Forest Management: Comparative Analysis of Institutional Approaches in Australia and India

Rangan, Haripriya; Lane, Marcus B.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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This article examines recent institutional approaches that address questions of access to forest resources and issues of redistributive justice for indigenous peoples in Australia and India. For over two decades, both countries have seen the emergence of claims to forest access and ownership made by indigenous communities that have been historically disadvantaged and marginalized from the benefits of mainstream social and economic development. The analysis focuses on regional forest agreements (RFA) in Australia and joint forest management (JFM) experiments in India through a comparative analytical framework defined by three concepts access, control, and substantive democracy to assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of institutional processes that aim to engage in sustainable management of forest resources.; Haripriya Rangan, Marcus B. Lane

Sustainable forest management in Cameroon needs more than approved forest management plans

Cerutti, Paolo Omar; Nasi, Robert; Tacconi, Luca
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 13 pages
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One of the main objectives of the 1994 Cameroonian forestry law is to improve the management of production forests by including minimum safeguards for sustainability into compulsory forest management plans. As of 2007, about 3.5 million hectares (60%) of the productive forests are harvested following the prescriptions of 49 approved management plans. The development and implementation of these forest management plans has been interpreted by several international organizations as long awaited evidence that sustainable management is applied to production forests in Cameroon. Recent reviews of some plans have concluded, however, that their quality was inadequate. This paper aims at taking these few analyses further by assessing the actual impacts that approved management plans have had on sustainability and harvesting of commercial species. We carry out an assessment of the legal framework, highlighting a fundamental flaw, and a thorough comparison between data from approved management plans and timber production data. Contrary to the principles adhered to by the 1994 law, we find that the government has not yet succeeded in implementing effective minimum sustainability safeguards and that, in 2006, 68% of the timber production was still carried out as though no improved management rules were in place. The existence of a number of approved management plans cannot be used a proxy for proof of improved forest management.

Approaches to Measuring the Conservation Impact of Forest Management Certification

Romero, Claudia; Castrén, Tuukka
Fonte: Program on Forests (PROFOR), Washington, DC Publicador: Program on Forests (PROFOR), Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Sustainable forest management (SFM) certification emerged in the 1980s and 1990s as a mechanism to promote responsible forest use and as an alternative to boycotts of forest products amid growing concerns about forest degradation and destruction. Since then, forest certification has evolved into a multifaceted market-based mechanism to promote compliance with sets of ecological, social, and economic criteria to enhance sustainability. Commodity certification has evolved from its origins as a means of verifying organic and environmentally sustainable production; issues like social equity, transparency, participation, and legal compliance have become increasingly relevant. One commonality in all certification schemes is that they are voluntary, market-driven ('willing buyer, willing seller') schemes aimed at transformational change toward more sustainable production and consumption patterns within existing market structures. This document presents the state of the current knowledge on how to assess impacts of forest management certification. It also discusses the design...

Participation in Sustainable Forest Management : Linking Forests and People in Kenya

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
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This forest policy note was prepared to provide input to the ongoing forest sector reform in Kenya on participation in sustainable forest management. It offers recommendations on possible priority forest policy actions within the forthcoming Natural Resource Management (NRM) Project. The latter focuses enhancing the capacity of Kenyans to manage the natural resource base and resources available to poor and vulnerable communities. By outlining priority actions, such as improving the forest information base and establishing accountability mechanisms, while at the same time seizing the opportunities for engagement of local communities and private investors, the policy note outlines a set of actions critical for increased participation in sustainable forest management. In this respect the policy note supports the World Bank's Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) and the more recent CAS progress report. The latter emphasizes the Bank's strategy on growth and poverty reduction, but gives enhanced attention to equity and governance. The forest policy note complements previous the World Bank-supported analytical work in the forest sector since 2004...

The contribution of multiple use forest management to small farmers' Annual Incomes in the Eastern Amazon.

SIST, P.; SABLAYROLLES, P.; BARTHELON, S.; SOUSA-OTA, L.; KIBLER, J.-F.; RUSCHEL, A.; SANTOS-MELO, M.; EZZINE-DE-BLAS, D.
Fonte: Forests, v. 5, n. 7, p. 1508-1531, 2014. Publicador: Forests, v. 5, n. 7, p. 1508-1531, 2014.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
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Small-scale farmers in the Brazilian Amazon collectively hold tenure over more than 12 million ha of permanent forest reserves, as required by the Forest Code. The trade-off between forest conservation and other land uses entails opportunity costs for them and for the country, which have not been sufficiently studied. We assessed the potential income generated by multiple use forest management for farmers and compared it to the income potentially derived from six other agricultural land uses. Income from the forest was from (i) logging, carried out by a logging company in partnership with farmers? associations; and (ii) harvesting the seeds of Carapa guianensis (local name andiroba) for the production of oil. We then compared the income generated by multiple-use forest management with the income from different types of agrarian systems. According to our calculations in this study, the mean annual economic benefits from multiple forest use are the same as the least productive agrarian system, but only 25% of the annual income generated by the most productive system. Although the income generated by logging may be considered low when calculated on an annual basis and compared to incomes generated by agriculture, the one-time payment after logging is significant (US$5...

Implementing Australian forest management practices into a full carbon accounting model

Waterworth, Rob; Richards, Gary
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Forest management practices affect carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions and must be considered in carbon accounting models. Forest management practices in Australia have varied over time, depending on forest type, regional influences, availab

Analysis of Community Forest Management in Madagascar

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The major role tropical forests play in biodiversity and climate change has led the world to search for effective ways to slow down deforestation. Community forest management (CFM) is an example of the broader concept of community-based natural resources management (CBNRM). As part of the decentralization policy in many countries, mainly in Africa and Asia, CFM was expected to promote: (i) a more effective stewardship of the resources by involving the local communities in the management of the resources, and (ii) a more locally-driven development with them tapping most of the derived benefits. The precursors of CBNRM and CFM in Madagascar are the centrally-led compensation-based mechanisms to conservation. Madagascar is one of the first countries in the southern hemisphere to have put in place a legal framework for CBNRM and CFM. The CBNRM implementation process starts with the creation of a local natural resources management group. The government has identified the protection of natural capital and the harnessing of its value as a key pillar in its national development plan for 2015-2019. The plan identifies poor governance as a major constraint to achieving the country’s development objectives. It puts strong emphasis on the roles of both natural capital and the necessity for a more inclusive economy to achieve sustainable development. This report will help the Bank take stock of the nearly two-decades of implementation of the national environmental action plan and provide nation-wide facts that will inform future investment in renewable natural resources management...

Forest management in the State of Maranhão, beyond decentralization.; GESTÃO FLORESTAL NO MARANHÃO: ESTRUTURA ESTADUAL PÓS-DESCENTRALIZAÇÃO

de Sá Rocha, José das Dores; Fundação Universidade Federal de Rondônia; Silva, José Arimatéa; UFRRJ; Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso; UFPR; Campello, Francisco Carneiro Barreto; Ministério do Meio Ambiente
Fonte: FUPEF DO PARANÁ Publicador: FUPEF DO PARANÁ
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2014 Português
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As instituições dos estados do Nordeste que assumiram a gestão florestal foram diagnosticadas pelo Ministério do Meio Ambiente em 2009. Decorrente deste estudo regional, o presente trabalho tem como objetivos: i) Caracterizar os instrumentos de política e de gestão florestal no estado do Maranhão; ii) Analisar o atual modelo de gestão florestal estadual. Os dados foram obtidos de fontes secundárias na rede mundial de computadores e através da aplicação de questionários em dois Seminários realizados no próprio estado. Os instrumentos de política e gestão florestal foram classificados segundo suas características legais, econômicas e administrativas afetas ao tema. O modelo de gestão florestal foi analisado com base no modelo de excelência em gestão pública, adaptado para o estudo. As principais conclusões foram: há conflitos legais de competências da gestão florestal no estado, entre a SEMA e a SEAGRO; a SEMA é responsável pela política e pela gestão florestal maranhense; uma Superintendência de Gestão Florestal, ainda não institucionalizada, estava, na prática operando a gestão florestal; planejamento, execução e controle da gestão florestal foram avaliados, de modo geral, em situação insatisfatória...