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Glial fibrillary acidic protein in tumor types with cartilaginous differentiation

SANTOS, Giscle Caravina; CARVALHO, Katia Candido; FALZONI, Roberto; SIMOES, Ana Carolina Q.; ROCHA, Rafael Malagoli; LOPES, Ademar; VASSALLO, Jose; REIS, Luiz Fernando Lima; SOARES, Fernando Augusto; CUNHA, Isabela Werneck da
Fonte: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP Publicador: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a member of the intermediary filament protein family. It is an important component of astrocytes and a known diagnostic marker of glial differentiation. GFAP is expressed in other neural tumors and pleomorphic adenoma and, less frequently, in cartilage tumors, chordomas, and soft tissue myoepitheliomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GFAP and its reliability in nonglial tumors as an immunohistochemical marker. We evaluated GFAP gene and protein expression using Q-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 81 and 387 cases of soft tissue, bone tumors, and salivary pleomorphic adenomas. Immunohistochemistry staining for GFAP was observed in all osteosarcomas (8 cases), all pleomorphic adenomas (7 cases), in 5 of 6 soft tissue myoepitheliomas, and in 21 of 76 chondrosarcomas. By Q-PCR, GFAP was highly expressed in pleomorphic adenomas and, to a lesser extent, chondrosarcomas, soft tissue myoepitheliomas, and chondroblastic osteosarcomas. The results that we obtained by immunohistochemistry and Q-PCR were well correlated. GFAP is a potential marker for tumors with cartilaginous differentiation, supported by evidence that GFAP is expressed in certain cases of myoepithelial tumors by immunohistochemistry...

Padrões de expressão gênica de proteínas marcadoras neurais e dos sistemas purinérgico e cininérgico durante o desenvolvimento encefálico de camundongos Knockout para o receptor B2 de cininas; Gene expression patterns of neural marker proteins and of purinergic and kininergic systems during embryonic brain development of kinin-B2 receptor knock-out mice

Souza, Hellio Danny Nobrega de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2013 Português
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O sistema nervoso central é o mais complexo de todos os sistemas de órgãos dos vertebrados. Células progenitoras neurais ao se diferenciarem em neurônios e outros tipos celulares, desenvolvem um padrão altamente organizado de conexões, criando uma rede neuronal que forma o cérebro e o restante do sistema nervoso. Para que se possa gerar os diferentes tipos de neurônios e glias deste sistema, as células embrionárias proliferam-se e diferenciam-se através de processos altamente controlados. Este estudo visou avaliar a importância do receptor B2BkR durante o desenvolvimento encefálico do camundongo. Como modelo estudo, foram utilizados animais knockout (B2BkR-/-) para o gene do receptor B2BKR como modelo para avaliação do padrão de expressão de proteínas marcadoras neurais e dos sistemas purinérgicos e de cininas durante o desenvolvimento encefálico de camundongos B2BkR-/-. Há evidências que mostram que o sistema nervoso de mamíferos contém todos os componentes do sistema calicreína-cininas e que as cininas podem atuar como neuromediadores. Os transcritos do receptor B2BkR foram encontrados em células localizadas em regiões neurogênicas a partir do dia 9.5 do desenvolvimento, esta expressão ampliou-se para toda a extensão do sistema nervoso a partir do dia 12...

Glial fibrillary acidic protein in tumor types with cartilaginous differentiation

SANTOS, Giscle Caravina; CARVALHO, Katia Candido; FALZONI, Roberto; SIMOES, Ana Carolina Q.; ROCHA, Rafael Malagoli; LOPES, Ademar; VASSALLO, Jose; REIS, Luiz Fernando Lima; SOARES, Fernando Augusto; CUNHA, Isabela Werneck da
Fonte: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP Publicador: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a member of the intermediary filament protein family. It is an important component of astrocytes and a known diagnostic marker of glial differentiation. GFAP is expressed in other neural tumors and pleomorphic adenoma and, less frequently, in cartilage tumors, chordomas, and soft tissue myoepitheliomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GFAP and its reliability in nonglial tumors as an immunohistochemical marker. We evaluated GFAP gene and protein expression using Q-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 81 and 387 cases of soft tissue, bone tumors, and salivary pleomorphic adenomas. Immunohistochemistry staining for GFAP was observed in all osteosarcomas (8 cases), all pleomorphic adenomas (7 cases), in 5 of 6 soft tissue myoepitheliomas, and in 21 of 76 chondrosarcomas. By Q-PCR, GFAP was highly expressed in pleomorphic adenomas and, to a lesser extent, chondrosarcomas, soft tissue myoepitheliomas, and chondroblastic osteosarcomas. The results that we obtained by immunohistochemistry and Q-PCR were well correlated. GFAP is a potential marker for tumors with cartilaginous differentiation, supported by evidence that GFAP is expressed in certain cases of myoepithelial tumors by immunohistochemistry...

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP): modulation by growth factors and its implication in astrocyte differentiation

Gomes,F.C.A.; Paulin,D.; Moura Neto,V.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/1999 Português
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Intermediate filament (IF) proteins constitute an extremely large multigene family of developmentally and tissue-regulated cytoskeleton proteins abundant in most vertebrate cell types. Astrocyte precursors of the CNS usually express vimentin as the major IF. Astrocyte maturation is followed by a switch between vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, with the latter being recognized as an astrocyte maturation marker. Levels of GFAP are regulated under developmental and pathological conditions. Upregulation of GFAP expression is one of the main characteristics of the astrocytic reaction commonly observed after CNS lesion. In this way, studies on GFAP regulation have been shown to be useful to understand not only brain physiology but also neurological disease. Modulators of GFAP expression include several hormones such as thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids and several growth factors such as FGF, CNTF and TGFß, among others. Studies of the GFAP gene have already identified several putative growth factor binding domains in its promoter region. Data obtained from transgenic and knockout mice have provided new insights into IF protein functions. This review highlights the most recent studies on the regulation of IF function by growth factors and hormones.

Brain-specific expression of an exogenous gene after i.v. administration

Shi, Ningya; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Chunni; Boado, Ruben J.; Pardridge, William M.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The treatment of brain diseases with gene therapy requires the gene to be expressed throughout the central nervous system, and this is possible by using gene targeting technology that delivers the gene across the blood–brain barrier after i.v. administration of a nonviral formulation of the gene. The plasmid DNA is targeted to brain with pegylated immunoliposomes (PILs) using a targeting ligand such as a peptidomimetic mAb, which binds to a transporting receptor on the blood–brain barrier. The present studies adapt the PIL gene targeting technology to the mouse by using the rat 8D3 mAb to the mouse transferrin receptor. Tissue-specific expression in brain and peripheral organs of different exogenous genes (β-galactosidase, luciferase) is examined at 1–3 days after i.v. injection in adult mice of the exogenous gene packaged in the interior of 8D3-PIL. The expression plasmid is driven either by a broadly expressed promoter, simian virus 40, or by a brain-specific promoter taken from the 5′ flanking sequence of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene. The transgene is expressed in both brain and peripheral tissues when the simian virus 40 promoter is used, but the expression of the exogenous gene is confined to the brain when the transgene is under the influence of the brain-specific GFAP promoter. Confocal microscopy colocalizes immunoreactive bacterial β-galactosidase with immunoreactive GFAP in brain astrocytes. These studies indicate that tissue-specific gene expression in brain is possible after the i.v. administration of a nonviral vector with the combined use of gene targeting technology and tissue-specific gene promoters.

Structure of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein gene: implications for the evolution of the intermediate filament multigene family.

Balcarek, J M; Cowan, N J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/1985 Português
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36.42%
We report the complete sequence of the gene encoding mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the intermediate filament (IF) protein specific to astrocytes. The 9.8 kb gene includes nine exons separated by introns ranging in size from 0.2 to 2.5 kb. A comparison of the organization of the GFAP gene with that of genes encoding other IF proteins reveals that the structure of IF genes is highly conserved in spite of considerable divergence at the amino acid level. Thus, most of the evolutionary events leading to the placement of introns in IF genes must have occurred prior to the duplication and subsequent divergence of IF genes from a presumptive common ancestral sequence. The conserved gene organization is unrelated to structural features of IF proteins. A curious feature of the GFAP gene is the large number of repeated sequences found in the introns. Six tracts of reiterated di- or trinucleotides are present, plus tandem repeats of two different novel sequences. One repeat is unique to the GFAP gene; the other occurs elsewhere in the mouse genome, although at relatively low frequency.

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Filaments Can Tolerate the Incorporation of Assembly-compromised GFAP-δ, but with Consequences for Filament Organization and αB-Crystallin Association

Perng, Ming-Der; Wen, Shu-Fang; Gibbon, Terry; Middeldorp, Jinte; Sluijs, Jacqueline; Hol, Elly M.; Quinlan, Roy A.
Fonte: The American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: The American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2008 Português
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The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene is alternatively spliced to give GFAP-α, the most abundant isoform, and seven other differentially expressed transcripts including GFAP-δ. GFAP-δ has an altered C-terminal domain that renders it incapable of self-assembly in vitro. When titrated with GFAP-α, assembly was restored providing GFAP-δ levels were kept low (∼10%). In a range of immortalized and transformed astrocyte derived cell lines and human spinal cord, we show that GFAP-δ is naturally part of the endogenous intermediate filaments, although levels were low (∼10%). This suggests that GFAP filaments can naturally accommodate a small proportion of assembly-compromised partners. Indeed, two other assembly-compromised GFAP constructs, namely enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-tagged GFAP and the Alexander disease–causing GFAP mutant, R416W GFAP both showed similar in vitro assembly characteristics to GFAP-δ and could also be incorporated into endogenous filament networks in transfected cells, providing expression levels were kept low. Another common feature was the increased association of αB-crystallin with the intermediate filament fraction of transfected cells. These studies suggest that the major physiological role of the assembly-compromised GFAP-δ splice variant is as a modulator of the GFAP filament surface...

Combinatorial Control of Suicide Gene Expression by Tissue-specific Promoter and microRNA Regulation for Cancer Therapy

Wu, Chunxiao; Lin, Jiakai; Hong, Michelle; Choudhury, Yukti; Balani, Poonam; Leung, Doreen; Dang, Lam H; Zhao, Ying; Zeng, Jieming; Wang, Shu
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Transcriptional targeting using a tissue-specific cellular promoter is proving to be a powerful means for restricting transgene expression in targeted tissues. In the context of cancer suicide gene therapy, this approach may lead to cytotoxic effects in both cancer and nontarget normal cells. Considering microRNA (miRNA) function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, we have developed a viral vector platform combining cellular promoter–based transcriptional targeting with miRNA regulation for a glioma suicide gene therapy in the mouse brain. The therapy employed, in a single baculoviral vector, a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene promoter and the repeated target sequences of three miRNAs that are enriched in astrocytes but downregulated in glioblastoma cells to control the expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene. This resulted in significantly improved in vivo selectivity over the use of a control vector without miRNA regulation, enabling effective elimination of human glioma xenografts while producing negligible toxic effects on normal astrocytes. Thus, incorporating miRNA regulation into a transcriptional targeting vector adds an extra layer of security to prevent off-target transgene expression and should be useful for the development of gene delivery vectors with high targeting specificity for cancer therapy.

Autophagy induced by Alexander disease-mutant GFAP accumulation is regulated by p38/MAPK and mTOR signaling pathways

Tang, Guomei; Yue, Zhenyu; Talloczy, Zsolt; Hagemann, Tracy; Cho, Woosung; Messing, Albee; Sulzer, David L.; Goldman, James E.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the principle intermediate filament (IF) protein in astrocytes. Mutations in the GFAP gene lead to Alexander disease (AxD), a rare, fatal neurological disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal astrocytes that contain GFAP protein aggregates, termed Rosenthal fibers (RFs), and the loss of myelin. All GFAP mutations cause the same histopathological defect, i.e. RFs, though little is known how the mutations affect protein accumulation as well as astrocyte function. In this study, we found that GFAP accumulation induces macroautophagy, a key clearance mechanism for prevention of aggregated proteins. This autophagic response is negatively regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The activation of p38 MAPK by GFAP accumulation is in part responsible for the down-regulation of phosphorylated-mTOR and the subsequent activation of autophagy. Our study suggests that AxD mutant GFAP accumulation stimulates autophagy, in a manner regulated by p38 MAPK and mTOR signaling pathways. Autophagy, in turn, serves as a mechanism to reduce GFAP levels.

Epigenetic regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein by DNA methylation in human malignant gliomas

Restrepo, Andres; Smith, Christian A.; Agnihotri, Sameer; Shekarforoush, Maryam; Kongkham, Paul N.; Seol, Ho Jun; Northcott, Paul; Rutka, James T.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament expressed in glial cells that stabilizes and maintains the cytoskeleton of normal astrocytes. In glial tumors, GFAP expression is frequently lost with increasing grade of malignancy, suggesting that GFAP is important for maintaining glial cell morphology or regulating astrocytoma cell growth. Most permanent human glioma cell lines are GFAP negative by immunocytochemistry. Given that the GFAP gene is not mutated in human glioma specimens or glioma cell lines, we considered epigenetic mechanisms, such as promoter methylation, as a cause of silencing of GFAP in these tumors. In this study, we treated known GFAP-negative glioma cell lines with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine to examine GFAP promoter hypermethylation. Additionally, we performed bisulfite sequencing on primary glioma samples and glioma cell lines and showed an inverse relationship between GFAP promoter methylation status and GFAP expression. Using a gene reporter assay with the GFAP promoter cloned upstream of a luciferase gene, we showed that methylation of the GFAP promoter downregulates the expression of the luciferase gene. Our results suggest that epigenetic silencing of the GFAP gene through DNA methylation of its promoter region may be one mechanism by which GFAP is downregulated in human gliomas and glioma cell lines.

The Unique Transcriptional Activation Domain of Nuclear Factor-I-X3 Is Critical to Specifically Induce Marker Gene Expression in Astrocytes*

Singh, Sandeep K.; Wilczynska, Katarzyna M.; Grzybowski, Adrian; Yester, Jessie; Osrah, Bahiya; Bryan, Lauren; Wright, Sarah; Griswold-Prenner, Irene; Kordula, Tomasz
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Transcription factors of the nuclear factor 1 (NFI) family regulate normal brain development in vertebrates. However, multiple splice variants of four NFI isoforms exist, and their biological functions have yet to be elucidated. Here, we cloned and analyzed human NFI-X3, a novel splice variant of the nfix gene, which contains a unique transcriptional activation (TA) domain completely conserved in primates. In contrast to previously cloned NFI-X1, overexpression of NFI-X3 potently activates NFI reporters, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) reporter, in astrocytes and glioma cells. The GAL4 fusion protein containing the TA domain of NFI-X3 strongly activates the GAL4 reporter, whereas the TA domain of NFI-X1 is ineffective. The expression of NFI-X3 is dramatically up-regulated during the differentiation of neural progenitors to astrocytes and precedes the expression of astrocyte markers, such as GFAP and SPARCL1 (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteines-like 1). Overexpression of NFI-X3 dramatically up-regulates GFAP and SPARCL1 expression in glioma cells, whereas the knockdown of NFI-X3 diminishes the expression of both GFAP and SPARCL1 in astrocytes. Although activation of astrocyte-specific genes involves DNA demethylation and subsequent increase of histone acetylation...

Computational Characterization of 3′ Splice Variants in the GFAP Isoform Family

Boyd, Sarah E.; Nair, Betina; Ng, Sze Woei; Keith, Jonathan M.; Orian, Jacqueline M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2012 Português
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Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament (IF) protein specific to central nervous system (CNS) astrocytes. It has been the subject of intense interest due to its association with neurodegenerative diseases, and because of growing evidence that IF proteins not only modulate cellular structure, but also cellular function. Moreover, GFAP has a family of splicing isoforms apparently more complex than that of other CNS IF proteins, consistent with it possessing a range of functional and structural roles. The gene consists of 9 exons, and to date all isoforms associated with 3′ end splicing have been identified from modifications within intron 7, resulting in the generation of exon 7a (GFAPδ/ε) and 7b (GFAPκ). To better understand the nature and functional significance of variation in this region, we used a Bayesian multiple change-point approach to identify conserved regions. This is the first successful application of this method to a single gene – it has previously only been used in whole-genome analyses. We identified several highly or moderately conserved regions throughout the intron 7/7a/7b regions, including untranslated regions and regulatory features, consistent with the biology of GFAP. Several putative unconfirmed features were also identified...

The glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter directs sodium/iodide symporter gene expression for radioiodine therapy of malignant glioma

LI, WEI; TAN, JIAN; WANG, PENG; LI, NING; ZHANG, FUHAI
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Radioiodine is a routine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancers. Non-thyroid cancers may be treated with radio-iodine following transfection with the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene. The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter is an effective tumor-specific promoter for gene expression and thus may be useful in targeted gene therapy of malignant glioma. The present study used GFAP promoter-modulated expression of the hNIS gene in an experimental model of radioiodine-based treatment for malignant glioma. Cells were transfected using a recombination adeno-virus and evaluated in cells by studying the transfected transgene expression through western blot analysis, 125I uptake and efflux, clonogenicity following 131I treatment and radioiodine therapy using a U87 xenograft nude mouse model. Following transfection with the hNIS gene, the cells showed 95–70-fold higher 125I uptake compared with the control cells transfected with Ad-cytomegalovirus (CMV)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The western blotting revealed bands of ∼70, 49 and 43 kDa, consistent with the hNIS, GFAP and β-actin proteins. The clonogenic assay indicated that, following exposure to 500 μCi of 131I-iodide for 12 h, >90% of cells transfected with the hNIS gene were killed. Ad-GFAP-hNIS-transfected and 2 mCi 131I-injected U87 xenograft nude mice survived the longest of the three groups. The hNIS-expressing tumor tissue accumulated 99mTcO4 rapidly within 30 min of it being intraperitoneally injected. The experiments demonstrated that effective 131I therapy was achieved in the malignant glioma cell lines following the induction of tumor-specific iodide uptake activity by GFAP promoter-directed hNIS gene expression in vitro and in vivo. 131I therapy retarded Ad-GFAP-hNIS transfected-tumor growth following injection with 131I in U87 xenograft-bearing nude mice.

Alternative mRNA Splicing from the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) Gene Generates Isoforms with Distinct Subcellular mRNA Localization Patterns in Astrocytes

Thomsen, Rune; Daugaard, Tina F.; Holm, Ida E.; Nielsen, Anders Lade
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/08/2013 Português
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The intermediate filament network of astrocytes includes Glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap) as a major component. Gfap mRNA is alternatively spliced resulting in generation of different protein isoforms where Gfapα is the most predominant isoform. The Gfapδ isoform is expressed in proliferating neurogenic astrocytes of the developing human brain and in the adult human and mouse brain. Here we provide a characterization of mouse Gfapδ mRNA and Gfapδ protein. RT-qPCR analysis showed that Gfapδ mRNA and Gfapα mRNA expression is coordinately increased in the post-natal period. Immunohistochemical staining of developing mouse brain samples showed that Gfapδ is expressed in the sub-ventricular zones in accordance with the described localization in the developing and adult human brain. Immunofluorescence analysis verified incorporation of Gfapδ into the Gfap intermediate filament network and overlap in Gfapδ and Gfapα subcellular localization. Subcellular mRNA localization studies identified different localization patterns of Gfapδ and Gfapα mRNA in mouse primary astrocytes. A larger fraction of Gfapα mRNA showed mRNA localization to astrocyte protrusions compared to Gfapδ mRNA. The differential mRNA localization patterns were dependent on the different 3′-exon sequences included in Gfapδ and Gfapα mRNA. The presented results show that alternative Gfap mRNA splicing results in isoform-specific mRNA localization patterns with resulting different local mRNA concentration ratios which have potential to participate in subcellular region-specific intermediate filament dynamics during brain development...

CDK5-induced p-PPARγ(Ser 112) downregulates GFAP via PPREs in developing rat brain: effect of metal mixture and troglitazone in astrocytes

Rai, A; Tripathi, S; Kushwaha, R; Singh, P; Srivastava, P; Sanyal, S; Bandyopadhyay, S
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a group of ligand-activated transcriptional factors, is expressed in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes. Here, we investigated the role of PPARγ in regulating GFAP using a mixture of As, Cd and Pb (metal mixture, MM) that induces apoptosis and aberrant morphology in rat brain astrocytes. We observed a phospho PPARγ (serine 112 (S112)) (p-PPARγ (S112))-mediated downregulation of GFAP in the MM-exposed astrocytes. We validated this using pure PPARγ agonist, troglitazone (TZ). As reported with MM, TZ induced astrocyte damage owing to reduced GFAP. In silico analysis in the non-coding region of GFAP gene revealed two PPARγ response elements (PPREs); inverted repeat 10 and direct repeat 1 sequences. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated enhancement in binding of p-PPARγ (S112) to the sequences, and luciferase reporter assay revealed strong repression of GFAP via PPREs, in response to both MM and TZ. This indicated that suppression in GFAP indeed occurs through direct regulation of these elements by p-PPARγ (S112). Signaling studies proved that MM, as well as TZ, activated the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and enhanced its interaction with PPARγ resulting into increased p-PPARγ (S112). The p-CDK5 levels were dependent on proximal activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and downstream Jun N-terminal kinase. Taken together...

Transgenic Analysis of GFAP Promoter Elements

Yeo, Sujeong; Bandyopadhyay, Susanta; Messing, Albee; Brenner, Michael
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.36%
Transcriptional regulation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene (GFAP) is of interest because of its astrocyte specificity and its upregulation in response to CNS injuries. We have used a transgenic approach instead of cell transfection to identify promoter elements of the human GFAP gene, since previous observations show that GFAP transcription is regulated differently in transfected cultured cells from in the mouse. We previously showed that block mutation of enhancer regions spanning from bp −1488 to −1434 (the C1.1 segment) and −1443 to −1399 (C1.2) resulted in altered patterns of expression and loss of astrocyte specificity, respectively. This analysis has now been extended upstream to bp −1612 to −1489 (the B region), which previously has been shown especially important for expression. Block mutation of each of four contiguous sequences, which together span the B region, each decreased the level of transgene activity by at least 50%, indicating that multiple sites contribute to the transcriptional activity in a cooperative manner. Several of the block mutations also altered the brain region pattern of expression, astrocyte specificity and/or the developmental time course. Transgenes were then analyzed in which mutations were limited to specific transcription factor binding sites in each of the 4 B block segments as well as in C1.1 and C1.2. Whereas mutation of the conserved consensus AP-1 site unexpectedly had little effect on transgene expression; NFI...

Glial-specific cAMP response of the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene cell lines.

Kaneko, R; Hagiwara, N; Leader, K; Sueoka, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/1994 Português
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36.5%
Expression of the rat glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene is responsive to the intracellular level of cAMP. We have examined the sequence 5'-upstream of the transcription start site of the rat GFAP-encoding gene to determine the elements responsible for regulating the cAMP response. The RT4 cell lines consist of a neural stem-cell type RT4-AC and its three derivative cell types, one glial-cell type, RT4-D, and two neuronal-cell types, RT4-B and RT4-E. GFAP is expressed in the stem-cell type and the glial-cell type but is not expressed in the neuronal-cell types. Luciferase expression vectors containing various areas of the 10.8-kb region upstream of the transcription start site of the GFAP gene were transiently transfected into these RT4 cells. The effect of cAMP was examined by quantitating the transient expression of luciferase. We found that (i) the 5'-upstream region alone (up to 10.8 kb) allows expression of the GFAP gene in the stem-cell type, the glial-cell type, and a neuronal-cell type; (ii) there are negative and positive cAMP-responsive elements that are juxtaposed within the region between -240 bp and -110 bp upstream and are functional in the stem-cell and glial-cell types but are not functional in the neuronal-cell type RT4-E; (iii) there may be elements that respond to dibutyryl-cAMP in all three RT4 cell types within the region from 2 kb to 10.8 kb upstream of the transcription start site; and (iv) a regulatory luciferase plasmid pRLgfap-1...

Fatal encephalopathy with astrocyte inclusions in GFAP transgenic mice.

Messing, A.; Head, M. W.; Galles, K.; Galbreath, E. J.; Goldman, J. E.; Brenner, M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 Português
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36.23%
Increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a hallmark of gliosis, the astrocytic hypertrophy that occurs during a wide variety of diseases of the central nervous system. To determine whether this increase in GFAP expression per se alters astrocyte function, we generated transgenic mice that carry copies of the human GFAP gene driven by its own promoter. Astrocytes of these mice are hypertrophic, up-regulate small heat-shock proteins, and contain inclusion bodies identical histologically and antigenically to the Rosenthal fibers of Alexander's disease. Mice in the highest expressing lines die by the second postnatal week. The results support the notion that Alexander's disease is a disorder of astrocytes, and provide an animal model for studying the causes and consequences of inclusion body disease.

Infantile Alexander Disease: Spectrum of GFAP Mutations and Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

Rodriguez, Diana; Gauthier, Fernande; Bertini, Enrico; Bugiani, Marianna; Brenner, Michael; N'guyen, Sylvie; Goizet, Cyril; Gelot, Antoinette; Surtees, Robert; Pedespan, Jean-Michel; Hernandorena, Xavier; Troncoso, Monica; Uziel, Graziela; Messing, Albee;
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Heterozygous, de novo mutations in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene have recently been reported in 12 patients affected by neuropathologically proved Alexander disease. We searched for GFAP mutations in a series of patients who had heterogeneous clinical symptoms but were candidates for Alexander disease on the basis of suggestive neuroimaging abnormalities. Missense, heterozygous, de novo GFAP mutations were found in exons 1 or 4 for 14 of the 15 patients analyzed, including patients without macrocephaly. Nine patients carried arginine mutations (four had R79H; four had R239C; and one had R239H) that have been described elsewhere, whereas the other five had one of four novel mutations, of which two affect arginine (2R88C and 1R88S) and two affect nonarginine residues (1L76F and 1N77Y). All mutations were located in the rod domain of GFAP, and there is a correlation between clinical severity and the affected amino acid. These results confirm that GFAP mutations are a reliable molecular marker for the diagnosis of infantile Alexander disease, and they also form a basis for the recommendation of GFAP analysis for prenatal diagnosis to detect potential cases of germinal mosaicism.

Astrocyte gene expression in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Manuelidis, L; Tesin, D M; Sklaviadis, T; Manuelidis, E E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1987 Português
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Gliosis (hyperplasia and hypertrophy of astrocytes), the fundamental response of the central nervous system to tissue destruction, typically becomes apparent only several weeks after injury. The biochemical hallmark of this response is a marked accumulation of the specific astrocyte intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). To date despite its importance, the mechanisms of GFAP gene regulation have not been studied in any developmental or pathological system to our knowledge, and the molecular signals for GFAP mRNA and protein accumulation are not defined. In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a progressive dementing illness caused by an "unconventional agent," we find steadily increasing elevations of GFAP mRNA throughout the later stages of disease, using two independent GFAP cDNA clones, representing the entire insert or the 3'-noncoding region (pScr-1). The accumulation of GFAP, assessed immunocytochemically, follows GFAP mRNA elevation. A 5-fold stimulation of GFAP gene expression precedes the development of florid histologic lesions in the cerebrum, and in the cerebellum 5- to 6-fold increases occurred with no detectable spongiform changes at any time during disease. Therefore, these GFAP changes cannot be simply a response to neuronal damage. These effects are directly or indirectly caused by high local concentrations of agent and possibly involve a humoral factor.