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Diversidade genética entre acessos de pimentas e pimentões da Embrapa Clima Temperado; Genetic diversity in peppers and sweet peppers of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank

BÜTTOW, Miriam Valli; BARBIERI, Rosa Lía; NEITZKE, Raquel Silviana; HEIDEN, Gustavo; CARVALHO, Fernando Irajá Félix de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Os acessos de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum annuum L.) da Embrapa Clima Temperado constituem parte dos recursos genéticos de Capsicum. Contudo, é necessário conhecer o quanto esses genótipos são divergentes para que possam ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar e caracterizar a divergência genética entre os acessos de C. annuum do banco ativo de germoplasma de Capsicum da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Foram caracterizados 20 acessos com base em 36 descritores morfológicos multicategóricos. A diversidade genética foi avaliada por meio do método de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA. O método de Tocher formou três grupos de acessos. Pelos critérios utilizados, os dois métodos foram concordantes em agrupar isoladamente o acesso P77, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos particulares em relação aos demais. O estudo realizado evidencia a existência de variabilidade genética moderada entre os 20 acessos de C. annuum estudados e apresenta acessos com características ornamentais, os quais podem ser incorporados em programas de melhoramento.; Accessions of peppers and sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum) of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank (Pelotas - RS) integrate Capsicum genetic resources. However...

Recursos genéticos e desenvolvimento: os desafios furtadiano e gramsciano.; Genetic resources and development: the Furtadian and Gramscian challenges.

Luis, Alessandro Serafim Octaviani
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/04/2008 Português
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A presente tese localiza-se no âmbito do direito econômico, investigando um de seus eixos, a regulação sobre os recursos genéticos, que será analisada a partir de dois pontos de vista: os desafios furtadiano e gramsciano, que dizem respeito, respectivamente, à condição periférica e à condição subalterna. quando tomados em perspectiva geral, e, quando tomados de maneira particularizada. (i) à construção de um sistema nacional de inovação periférico com sentido distributivo e (ii) à construção de uma democracia participativa quente. Inicio apresentando um panorama político e metodológico (Capítulo I) e a configuração do campo biodiversidade/biotecnologia, com os recursos genéticos como epicentro (Capítulo lI). Após, enfrento a questão sobre a capacidade da regulação brasileira enfrentar o desafio furtadiano, concluindo positivamente, mas apenas "moderadamente" (Capítulo III). Em seguida, realizo o mesmo procedimento em relação à capacidade de a regulação brasileira enfrentar o desafio gramsciano, concluindo negativamente, sendo o arranjo institucional falho, apesar do mandamento constitucional (Capítulo IV). A conclusão apresenta um condensado resumo do trabalho (Capítulo V).; This thesis is located in the sphere of economic law and investigates one of its axis...

Impactos socioambientais locais decorrentes de acesso aos recursos genéticos para fins comerciais; Socio-environmental impacts resulting from the access to genetic resources for commercial purposes

Cavalcanti, Cintia Munch
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/11/2010 Português
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O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar através de um estudo de caso os impactos socioambientais locais decorrentes de dois acordos comerciais para o acesso aos recursos genéticos e participação nos benefícios entre uma empresa de cosméticos e um grupo de pequenos produtores rurais da região do Vale do Ribeira-SP. Embora acordos entre empresas privadas e comunidades locais para a utilização comercial de componentes da biodiversidade venham sendo estimulados atualmente como forma de conciliar o uso sustentável dos recursos naturais com desenvolvimento local, alguns estudos têm demonstrado que, além de benefícios, tais acordos podem ter efeitos socioambientais negativos sobre as condições locais em que são estabelecidos. No Brasil, desde 2001, vigora a Medida Provisória 2.186-16/01 que regulamenta a Convenção sobre Diversidade Biológica (CDB) no país instituindo normas para o acesso a componentes do patrimônio genético e aos conhecimentos tradicionais associados. Tais normas baseiam-se, fundamentalmente, na anuência prévia e na repartição de benefícios junto a seus provedores. Apesar da existência desses instrumentos jurídicos, ainda pouco se sabe a respeito de sua aplicação prática e de seus impactos locais. A partir de técnicas qualitativas (entrevistas semiestruturadas...

Pre-breeding: a link between genetic resources and maize breeding

Nass,Luciano Lourenço; Paterniani,Ernesto
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2000 Português
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Activities related to genetic resources are characterized by high cost and long term return. Thus the conservation of genetic variability for the future and the efficient utilization of available accessions are two important goals to be attained. However, the low utilization of germplasm banks is not restricted to Brazil but to other developing countries as well. Therefore, pre-breeding is a promising alternative to link genetic resources and breeding programs. Several aspects for maize are discussed such as concept, importance, methods and results. Problems to be investigated and suggestions are also presented.

Genetic diversity of table grape based on morphoagronomic traits

Leão,Patrícia Coelho de Souza; Cruz,Cosme Damião; Motoike,Sérgio Yoshimitsu
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 Português
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The conservation and characterization of grape (Vitis spp) genetic resources in germplasm banks have been the basis of its use in breeding programs that result in development of new cultivars. There are at least 10,000 grape cultivars kept in germplasm collection. The genetic diversity in 136 table grape accessions from the state of Bahia, Brazil, was evaluated. Continuous and discrete morphoagronomic traits were assessed. The clustering analysis by the Tocher otimization method resulted in 30 clusters (considering continuous morphoagronomic traits), and 9 clusters (taking into consideration multicategorical traits). There was no agreement between clusters obtained by both, continuous or discrete phenotypic descriptors, independent of the cluster method analysis used. A satisfactory genetic variability among the table grape accessions was observed.

Managing genetic diversity and society needs

Mariante,Arthur da Silva; Egito,Andréa Alves; Albuquerque,Maria do Socorro Maués; Paiva,Samuel Rezende; Ramos,Alexandre Floriani
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2008 Português
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Most livestock are not indigenous to Brazil. Several animal species were considered domesticated in the pre-colonial period, since the indigenous people manage them as would be typical of European livestock production. For over 500 years there have been periodic introductions resulting in the wide range of genetic diversity that for centuries supported domestic animal production in the country. Even though these naturalized breeds have acquired adaptive traits after centuries of natural selection, they have been gradually replaced by exotic breeds, to such an extent, that today they are in danger of extinction To avoid further loss of this important genetic material, in 1983 Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources among its priorities. In this paper we describe the effort to genetically characterize these populations, as a tool to ensure their genetic variability. To effectively save the threatened local breeds of livestock it is important to find a niche market for each one, reinserting them in production systems. They have to be utilized in order to be conserved. And there is no doubt that due to their adaptive traits, the Brazilian local breeds of livestock can play an important role in animal production...

A comparison of RAPD and ISSR markers reveals genetic diversity among sweet potato landraces (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

Moulin,Monique Moreira; Rodrigues,Rosana; Gonçalves,Leandro Simões Azeredo; Sudré,Cláudia Pombo; Pereira,Messias Gonzaga
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
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Small farmers have played an important role in maintaining genetic resources of traditional varieties. Collecting and characterizing germplasm, especially landraces and heirloom varieties, are strategic activities that would create a knowledge base describing the traditional varieties of a given region and reduce the risk of genetic erosion. The objectives of this work were as follows: collect sweet potato roots from rural properties and local markets in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; characterize the accessions using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers, comparing the efficiency in discrimination of these two types of molecular markers; and estimate the genetic variability of the population. Fifty-nine samples from rural properties and 19 from local markets were studied. A matrix of binary data was developed to analyze the molecular data using the Jaccard index to estimate genetic differences among accessions, and clusters were made using the UPGMA method. The molecular techniques detected genetic variability among the accessions, with cophenetic correlation coefficients (CCC) of 0.80 for RAPDs and 0.89 for ISSRs. The RAPD and ISSR marker results corresponded well, with a correlation of 0.55. All of the accessions were considered distinct...

Power and the Global Governance of Plant Genetic Resources

Sutherland, Johanna
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
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This thesis explores the location and nature of the power that is deepening and broadening the revolution in modern biotechnologies, and which is inherent in the global governance of one type of genetic resource — plant genetic resources. Plant genetic resources are of increasing importance within the global political economy and ecology because of the power/knowledge networks contributing to, and responding to developments in the biotechnology sector, and concerned with the rampant erosion of biological diversity. The thesis argues that transnational norms, values and knowledge are important aspects of power. Discursive power, and particularly the power inherent in discourses of sustainable development, security and human rights, are a central focus of the thesis. The thesis challenges realist, neo-realist and other structural analyses of power which focus on relative distributions of power at the level of individual states or at the global level.; Note: This thesis may also appear under the author name "Jaireth"; yes

Fair shares or biopiracy? Developing ethical criteria for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits from crop genetic resources; Gerechte Nutzung oder Biopiraterie? Ethische Kriterien für ein ausgewogenes und gerechtes benefit-sharing für pflanzengenetische Ressourcen in der Landwirtschaft

Rojahn, Julia
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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One main objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity is the “fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources” (Art. 1). In my PhD thesis, I have addressed the question what exactly “fair and equitable” benefit sharing could mean, differentiating it into questions concerning aims and purposes, legitimate property rights, who should receive benefits and who should be required to share them, what elements they should consist of, and how these demands could be implemented. For answering these questions, I have first derived general principles of justice in benefit sharing from the conceptions of justice by John Rawls and Thomas Pogge, before then employing them for developing concrete criteria for fair and equitable benefit sharing for crop genetic resources. In a nutshell, fair and equitable benefit sharing according to the principles and criteria identified here should be conceived and designed (also) as compensation for existing inequalities and injustices. Another central result is the observation that benefit sharing based primarily upon private contracts between individual users and providers is probably not able to meet important demands of justice, such as the protection of the rights of resource holders...

National measures on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing: the case of the Philippines

SMAGADI, Aphrodite
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) was not merely to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, but to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation. The Convention stresses the sovereignty that signatory states exert over the biological wealth within their jurisdiction and calls on them to enact national legislation that will contribute to fleshing out the provisions on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing. The Philippines was the first country to enact such legislation and has thus accrued a decade of experience in this field. The first and much-analysed access and benefit sharing instrument enacted by the Government of the Philippines, was Executive Order 247 of 1995. However, due to problems experienced during the implementation of the Order, draft guidelines based on the 2001 Implementing Rules to the Wildlife Act have been drafted and are expected to correct the failures of the previous law. This article takes the example of the Philippines to assess the extent to which laws regulating the access and benefit sharing of biological resources can be effective in any country.

Cucurbitaceae genetic resources in the Czech gene bank. Current status of the collection

Karlová, K.
Fonte: INRA. Centre de Recherche d'Avignon. Unité Génétique et Amélioration des Fruits et Légumes, Montfavet (France) Publicador: INRA. Centre de Recherche d'Avignon. Unité Génétique et Amélioration des Fruits et Légumes, Montfavet (France)
Tipo: Poster
Português
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The Crop Research Institute, Dept. of Vegetables and Special Crops in Olomouc is responsible for the conservation and documentation of genetic resources of vegetable, medicinal, aromatic, and spice plants. Collections maintained by the department in Olomouc include more than 10,000 accessions of about 430 botanical species and the collection of cucurbitaceous genetic resources with 1,713 accessions potentially available is one of the largest. Unfortunately only about 40 % of them is already regenerated. The collection is distributed in 11 species and the biggest part of collection shapes Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita sp.; Cucurbitaceae 2008. IX EUCARPIA Meeting. Avignon (France), 21-24 May 2008

General status of cucurbit genetic resources in Turkey

Sari, N.; Tan, A.; Yanmaz, R.; Yetisir, H.; Balkaya, A.; Solmaz, I.; Aykas, L.
Fonte: INRA. Centre de Recherche d'Avignon. Unité Génétique et Amélioration des Fruits et Légumes, Montfavet (France) Publicador: INRA. Centre de Recherche d'Avignon. Unité Génétique et Amélioration des Fruits et Légumes, Montfavet (France)
Tipo: Conference Paper
Português
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67.195044%
Turkey is very rich in cucurbit genetic resources due to its diverse geographical and ecological situation. Turkey is one of the important diversity centers for cultivated cucurbits because of the adaptation to diverse ecological conditions as result of natural selection and also the farmers selection in accordance with their preference. National collection of Cucurbitaceae species at National Gene Bank of Turkey (AARI) consists of 2223 accessions. Collecting activities have been systematically conducted since early 1960s. 25.7 % of this amount is melon, 20.5 % is Cucurbita spp., 16.1 % is watermelon, 13.4 % is cucumber, 7.7 % is bottle gourd, 7.2 % is squash, 4.2 % is winter squash, 3.3 % is snake melon, 1.3 % is pumpkin, 0.3 % is other cucumbers, 0.2 % squirting cucumber and 0.1 % of bryony. Melon and watermelon genetic resources collections and their morphological and molecular characterization trials were done in Çukurova University and approximately 400 melon and 355 watermelon accessions were collected. Squash and pumpkin studies were done in Ondokuz Mayıs and Ankara University and 128 winter squash, 40 pumpkin populations and 20 snack seed squash were collected and characterized. Selected pumpkins also were characterized molecularly. Bottle gourd characterization trials were done in Mustafa Kemal University and 188 accessions were characterized. Snake melon research activities were conducted at Ankara and Çukurova Universities and 62 accessions were characterized. The evaluation and breeding programs of these genetic resources are ongoing.; Cucurbitaceae 2008. IX EUCARPIA Meeting. Avignon (France)...

Caracterização genética e morfoagronômica de germoplasma de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw.; Genetic and morpho-agronomic characterization of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. germplasm.

KARIA, Cláudio Takao
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Agronomia; Ciências Agrárias Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Agronomia; Ciências Agrárias
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
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57.164766%
Plant genetic resources maintained ex situ, in germplasm banks, are few used in agricultural systems and genetic plant breeding programs. One of the main reasons of this incipient use is the difficulty to obtain information about stored accessions, especially the characterization and preliminary evaluation data. Stylosanthes guianensis is a predominantly self-pollinated and diploid species, which has a great number of this stored accessions and potential for use in agricultural systems. There are approximately one thousand accessions of the S. guianensis in Embrapa‟s germplasm bank. Moreover, only one genotype of this species is now available to commercial growers in Brazil, the cultivar Mineirão. To promote the use of these resources, this study aimed to characterize accessions of S. guianensis, stored in the germplasm bank of Embrapa, using morpho-agronomic traits and microstellites markers (SSR). In morpho-agronomic characterization 535 accessions were evaluated using 23 quantitative traits. The data were analyzed by a principal component analysis (PCA), the Ward's agglomerative hierarchical clustering method, and by univariate analysis of variance, associated to a Tukey test for comparisons among means of the established groups. Thirteen similarity accession groups were established...

Use of Brazilian genetic diversity in cassava breeding program.

FUKUDA, W. M. G.
Fonte: In: MARIANTE, A. da S.; SAMPAIO, M. J. A.; INGLIS, M. C. V. (Ed.). The State of Brazil´s plant genetic resources: second national report : conservation and sustainable utilization for food and agriculture. Brasília, DF : Embrapa Technological Information, 2009. p.116-119 il. Publicador: In: MARIANTE, A. da S.; SAMPAIO, M. J. A.; INGLIS, M. C. V. (Ed.). The State of Brazil´s plant genetic resources: second national report : conservation and sustainable utilization for food and agriculture. Brasília, DF : Embrapa Technological Information, 2009. p.116-119 il.
Tipo: Capítulo em livro técnico-científico (ALICE)
Português
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In Brazil, Cassava has a wide genetic diversity chiefly represented by landraces, and the country is considered as the possible center of origin and diversification of cultivated cassava. About 4,132 cassava accessions have already been catalogued in Brazil, and they are stored in collections and germplasm banks disseminated over the national territory. Brazilian diversity constitutes a wide genetic base for cassava breeding programs in ali tropical areas in the world, as it includes resistance genes to main pests and diseases affecting this crop. Furthermore, these genes allow adaptation to different edapho-climatic conditions. Indeed, genetic variability had already been identified for almost ali features, including morphological, agronomic, as well as nutritional quality and technological features. Variations for physiological features are more seldom studied, but there is evidence indicating high variability as a consequence of temperature, photosynthesis and sensitivity of stomata to relative humidity of the air. Although Brazil's cassava genetic resources are not very much exploited relative to the collections' size, its use is extremely successful in our country.; 2009

Genetic resources of vegetable crops: a survey in the Brazilian germplasm collections pictured through papers published in the journals of the Brazilian Society for Horticultural Science

Sudré,Cláudia P; Leonardecz,Eduardo; Rodrigues,Rosana; Amaral Júnior,Antônio T do; Moura,Maria da CL; Gonçalves,Leandro SA
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Horticultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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The research on plant genetic resources is essential for the conservation of genetic diversity and accessions' divergence studies, as a basis for plant breeding. Aiming to know the state of art in this subject, a historical survey was carried out in Revista de Olericultura and in Horticultura Brasileira, from 1961 to 2006, searching for papers dealing with vegetable crops genetic resources. In each of the papers, the species studied, first author institution, publication year, applied software, number of accessions and descriptors, and the multivariate techniques used were registered. Based on these characteristics, papers were grouped using multivariate analysis. Sixty-one papers dealt somehow with genetic resources in the time covered by the survey, from which 91.8% were published after 1990 (60.7% from 2001 to 2005). The use of multivariate analysis was reported in 57.3% of the papers, with an average of 2.3 and maximum of 6 multivariate procedures per paper. The Tocher Method, reported in 34% of the papers, was the most frequently used multivariate analysis. Twenty-five species were studied. Capsicum was the most frequently studied genus, either considering number of papers (seven) or accessions (664). Research institutions located in the Southeast region concentrated the highest number of papers. UFV (Federal University of Viçosa)...

Diversidad genética en girasol cultivado: análisis de una colección de germoplasma local para su aplicación en programas de mejoramiento; Genetic diversity in sunflower: analysis of a local germplasm collection as a tool to assist management and breeding programs

Moreno, María Valeria
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
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57.13118%
Los bancos de semillas ofrecen una valiosa fuente de diversidad para el mejoramiento genético de los cultivos. Para un aprovechamiento óptimo de los recursos genéticos, la caracterización fenotípica de los materiales conservados (resistencia a estreses bióticos y abióticos, índices de calidad química, nutricional y rendimiento, entre otros) debe ser acompañada por la caracterización genética de los mismos. De este modo, la diversidad alélica evaluada a través de marcadores moleculares es uno de los mejores indicadores del potencial genético de las entradas (accessions) de un banco. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: a) estudiar la diversidad genética en un conjunto de entradas de girasol cultivado preservadas en el Banco Activo de Germoplasma de INTA Manfredi (BAG-IM), b) estudiar la distribución de los polimorfismos detectados y la estructura poblacional, c) evaluar la consistencia entre metodologías de fenotipificación para el carácter de tolerancia a sequía, comparando ensayos de campo con ensayos en condiciones controladas, y d) analizar los patrones de variación nucleotídica en regiones candidatas asociadas al carácter tolerancia a déficit hídrico en líneas endocriadas pertenecientes al programa de mejoramiento de tolerancia a sequía del BAGIM. A fin de cuantificar los niveles de variabilidad se genotipificaron 337 individuos pertenecientes a 21 entradas representativas de las distintas categorías conservadas en el banco (líneas...

Genetic Resources and Associated Traditional Knowledge: Legislative Aspects of Protection and Access; Recursos genéticos e conhecimentos tradicionais associados: aspectos legislativos sobre sua proteção e acesso

Godinho, Rosemary de Sampaio; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ); Mota, Maurício Jorge Pereira da; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/08/2014 Português
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The access to the genetic resources and to associated traditional knowledge in Brazil is regulated by the Provisional Law 2.186-16/01. The provisional nature of the legislation has remained for more than ten years, and there is not any prediction for a final definitive law. The Genetic Heritage Management Council (CGEN) created by the Provisional Law was initially the unique body responsible for the analysis and issue of licenses for access and collection of all natural heritage and its associated knowledge. This centralization has generated several difficulties for issuing such licenses. The goal of this work is to show how CGEN handles its skills, to offer more readiness to access its components, avoiding usual law impediments. After introducing the main organisms involved, we will analyze mechanisms applied by CGEN to improve the procedures connected with the genetic resources access and the traditional knowledge. In this sense we will adopt a qualifying methodology, surveying the main public organisms web sites, as well as reviewing the bibliography available.; No Brasil, o acesso aos recursos genéticos e aos conhecimentos tradicionais a eles associados é regulamentado pela Medida Provisória 2.186-16/01. O caráter provisório da legislação que regula o tema perdura há mais de dez anos...

A regulação do acesso a recursos genéticos no Brasil: sugestões para um novo cenário; Regulating the Access to Genetic Resources in Brazil: Suggestions for a New Scenario

Saccaro-Junior, Nilo Luiz; Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada
Fonte: Editora de Livros IABS Publicador: Editora de Livros IABS
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/12/2013 Português
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A relação entre o uso dos recursos genéticos, justiça social e conservação da biodiversidade tem se mostrado uma das principais questões dentro da temática ambiental atual. O Brasil exerce papel de liderança nas discussões internacionais relativas aos recursos genéticos e é pioneiro na criação de uma regulamentação interna específica. Esta, porém, vem sendo duramente criticada pelos stakeholders e precisa ser aprimorada, a fim de manter o protagonismo brasileiro. Este artigo discute os principais pontos de conflito atuais e quais características um marco regulatório nacional deve ter para contorná-los. As sugestões se baseiam em três pilares: uma nova relação com os bioprospectores, pautada pelo incentivo à legalização; uma repartição de benefícios difusa, com regras simples capazes de captar os lucros da bioprospecção; e um aproveitamento da sinergia entre a existência de comunidades tradicionais/indígenas e a manutenção da biodiversidade.; The relationship between the use of genetic resources, social justice and biodiversity conservation has proved to be one of the main matters in current environmental issues. Brazil exercises a leadership role in international debates about genetic resources and is a pioneer in the creation of a specific internal regulation. This...

The impact of local extinction on genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: consequences for the conservation of plant genetic resources

Barrantes,Daniel; Macaya,Gabriel; Guarino,Luigi; Baudoin,Jean Pierre; Rocha,Oscar J
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2008 Português
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Plant populations may experience local extinction and at the same time new populations may appear in nearby suitable locations. Species may also colonize the same site on multiple occasions. Here, we examined the impact of local extinction and recolonization on the genetic structure of wild populations of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Central valley of Costa Rica. We compared genetic diversity from the samples taken from the populations before and after extinction at 13 locations using microsatellite markers. Locations were classified according to the occurrence of extinction episodes during the previous five years into three groups: 1) populations that experienced extinction for more than one year, and were later recolonized (recolonized), 2) populations that did not experience local extinction (control), and 3) populations that did not experience local extinction during the study, but were cut to experimentally simulate extinction (experimental). Our data did not show a clear tendency in variation in allele frequencies, expected heterozygosity, and effective number of alleles within and between groups of populations. However, we found that the level of genetic differentiation between samples collected at different times at the same location was different in the three groups of populations. Recolonized locations showed the highest level of genetic differentiation (mean Fst= 0.2769)...

International Law and its Application: Biodiversity and International Obligations Derived from Natural Genetic Resources in Costa Rica

Peña-Neira,Sergio
Fonte: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas Publicador: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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Sharing benefits arising from the utilization of Natural Genetic Resources is one of the main problems addressed by the Convention on Biological Diversity though the obligation to Member States to take legal, administrative and policy measures towards its application at the national level because all Member States (developing countries as well as developed countries) should honour "pacta sunt servanda". Without honouring this international law obligation derived from an international treaty a violations of an international obligations is derived. It is possible to find one example of such application. This article focuses on the interpretation of article 15. 7 of the Convention on Biological Diversity to apply this international obligation into national legal rights and obligations, to comply with the obligation and the second step, the application of this national legal rules in the territory of a State, Costa Rica.