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Avaliação de métricas para determinar o grau de heterogeneidade de sistemas computacionais; Evalution of metrics to determine the degree of heterogeneity of computing systems

Ide, Fábio Hitoshi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/2008 Português
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Este trabalho avalia de maneira detalhada diferentes parâmetros para a definição de níveis de homogeneidade e heterogeneidade em sistemas computacionais distribuídos. O objetivo é analisar a eficiência da métrica GH - Grau de Heterogeneidade - em relação a diferentes perspectivas. Métricas encontradas na literatura e benchmarks de código aberto (reconhecidos pela comunidade científica) são utilizados para quantificar a heterogeneidade do sistema computacional. A métrica GH também é empregada no AMIGO, um ambiente de escalonamento real, para analisar a sua utilização em algoritmos de escalonamento de processos. Os principais resultados obtidos neste trabalho são: a comprovação da estabilidade da métrica GH para determinar o grau de heterogeneidade de plataformas computacionais distribuídas, o uso da métrica GH com sucesso em um ambiente de escalonamento real e o desenvolvimento de um algoritmo de escalonamento adaptativo. Sub-produtos deste trabalho são: um levantamento dos principais benchmarks com código aberto e livre disponíveis na literatura, os quais podem ser utilizados em trabalhos futuros no grupo de pesquisa e a continuidade do desenvolvimento do ambiente de escalonamento AMIGO; This work evaluates several parameters in a detailed way for the definition of homogeneity and heterogeneity levels in distributed computing systems. The objective is to analise the GH metric efficiency (heterogeneity degree) according to different perspectives. Metrics found in the literature and open source benchmarks (recognized by the scientific community) are both used to quantify the heterogeneity of the computational system. The GH metric is also employed in the AMIGO...

Heterogeneidade espacial e a qualidade das águas superficiais do Reservatório Guarapiranga (São Paulo-SP-Brasil); Spatial heterogeneity and water quality of superficial water at the Guarapiranga reservoir (São Paulo-SP- Brazil)

Silva, Sheila Cardoso da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/11/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
O estudo da heterogeneidade ambiental é de fundamental importância em ecologia, uma vez que interfere na estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas. Reservatórios em particular são ecossistemas artificiais com alto grau de heterogeneidade espacial e temporal. Com intuito de testar a hipótese da existência de um padrão de heterogeneidade nas águas superficiais do reservatório Guarapiranga e discutir a qualidade de suas águas, com base na resolução CONAMA 357/05, foram efetuadas coletas, durante as estações seca e chuvosa, de variáveis físicas, químicas e hidrobiológicas, em 33 estações distribuídas ao longo da represa Guarapiranga. Os dados foram analisados por meio de Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP) e os resultados corroboraram a hipótese testada. Foi possível identificar quatro compartimentos: 1) um compartimento localizado na região da entrada do córrego de Parelheiros, com características de zona fluvial; 2) um compartimento na região do braço da represa Guarapiranga onde ocorre a entrada do Rio Embu-Guaçu, local em que foram observados os menores valores para condutividade elétrica, sólidos totais, fósforo total, nitrogênio total e material particulado em suspensão; 3) um compartimento com características de zona de transição...

Heterogeneidade espacial e temporal do zooplâncton em sistemas lóticos e lênticos da bacia hidrográfica do Lobo (Itirapina-Brotas/SP); Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of zooplankton in lotic and lentic systems in the Lobo hydrographic basin (Itirapina-Brotas/SP)

Freitas, Luciana Diniz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A represa do Lobo (Broa) é um ecossistema bastante estudado, entretanto, nos últimos anos foram observadas várias alterações nas suas condições, devido, principalmente, ao processo de eutrofização. Para o maior entendimento dos processos que ocorrem nos sistemas aquáticos, a análise integrada do ecossistema em termos de bacia hidrográfica é de suma importância. Além disso, as comunidades biológicas, com destaque o zooplâncton, representam as respostas estruturais e funcionais do sistema. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi analisar a distribuição da comunidade zooplanctônica frente à heterogeneidade ambiental, de sistemas lóticos e lêntico e dos impactos na área de entorno da bacia hidrográfica do Lobo. Para tanto, foram realizadas coletas em quatro períodos (chuvoso, seco e intermediários) em 17 pontos de coleta distribuídos no reservatório e nos tributários. Foram avaliadas as variáveis físicas e químicas da água (temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade, transparência da água, nutrientes, material em suspensão e metais), variáveis climatológicas (temperatura do ar, precipitação e velocidade do vento) e variável biológica (clorofila a). Para a comunidade zooplanctônica foi determinada a composição...

Habitat heterogeneity and use of physical and acoustic space in anuran communities in Southeastern Brazil

Da Silveira Vasconcelos, Tiago; De Cerqueira Rossa-Feres, Denise
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 127-142
Português
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Habitat heterogeneity and use of physical and acoustic space in anuran communities in Southeastern Brazil. We intended to verify if structural and physiognomical characteristics of water bodies influence on the degree of overlap among calling sites of 23 anurans species, if anuran species use different calling sites in different water bodies, and if there is some relationship between the degree of advertisement call (based on seven call features) and calling site differentiation. Then, we determined calling sites (based in four variables) and recorded the advertisement call for anuran species that occurred in 10 water bodies of northwestern São Paulo State. We also determined the environmental heterogeneity (based in four environmental descriptors) for each water body. Males of most species used similar calling sites in each water body, probably because of the high uniformity of the environment, as a consequence of agricultural impacts on edge vegetation of the studied ponds. Most species (18 out of 19 species) called from different sites in the ponds where they occurred, which can be associated with differences in horizontal and vertical distribution of vegetation in the studied ponds. From the 19 species analyzed, only males of Pseudopaludicola aff. saltica called in sites with the same characteristics in different ponds. Advertisement call of Hylidae species was more similar to each other than were Leiuperidae and Leptodactylidae among themselves. The aquatic/terrestrial anurans (Bufonidae...

The effects of grazing management in montado fragmentation and heterogeneity

Almeida, M.; Azeda, C.; Guiomar, N.; Pinto-Correia, T.
Fonte: Agroforestry Systems Publicador: Agroforestry Systems
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The Portuguese silvo-pastoral system montado is broadly classified as a High Nature Value (HNV) system since it corresponds to farmland hosting high biodiversity levels, and such biodiversity depends on specific land use practices. However, in recent decades a decline both in the total montado area and in the tree cover density within the montado has been observed, driven mainly by management changes. This decline may result in biodiversity loss. Grazing is a central aspect determining the long-term sustainability of the montado system and it has implications also on the montado structural diversity, particularly on connectivity and heterogeneity, which is crucial for the maintenance of montado HNV. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how variations in montado structural diversity are correlated with grazing management and its implications on the value of the system for conservation. The empirical data derives from a case study composed of 41 montado farms in two municipalities of the Alentejo region. Data on grazing management, biophysical and spatial factors were collected and several metrics were calculated to assess montado fragmentation and heterogeneity. A multivariate analysis was performed using generalized additive models. Results show that different grazing patterns...

Bayesian estimation of inefficiency heterogeneity in stochastic frontier models

Galán, J. E.; Veiga, H.; Wiper, M. P.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Estimation of the one sided error component in stochastic frontier models may erroneously attribute firm characteristics to inefficiency if heterogeneity is unaccounted for. However, unobserved inefficiency heterogeneity has been little explored. In this work, we propose to capture it through a random parameter which may affect the location, scale, or both parameters of a truncated normal inefficiency distribution using a Bayesian approach. Our findings using two real data sets, suggest that the inclusion of a random parameter in the inefficiency distribution is able to capture latent heterogeneity and can be used to validate the suitability of observed covariates to distinguish heterogeneity from inefficiency. Relevant effects are also found on separating and shrinking individual posterior efficiency distributions when heterogeneity affects the location and scale parameters of the one-sided error distribution, and consequently affecting the estimated mean efficiency scores and rankings. In particular, including heterogeneity simultaneously in both parameters of the inefficiency distribution in models that satisfy the scaling property leads to a decrease in the uncertainty around the mean scores and less overlapping of the posterior efficiency distributions...

Candidate gene linkage analysis indicates genetic heterogeneity in Marfan syndrome

Teixeira,L.V.S.; Mandelbaum,K.L.; Pereira,L.V.; Perez,A.B.A.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
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Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disease of the connective tissue that affects the ocular, skeletal and cardiovascular systems, with a wide clinical variability. Although mutations in the FBN1 gene have been recognized as the cause of the disease, more recently other loci have been associated with MFS, indicating the genetic heterogeneity of this disease. We addressed the issue of genetic heterogeneity in MFS by performing linkage analysis of the FBN1 and TGFBR2 genes in 34 families (345 subjects) who met the clinical diagnostic criteria for the disease according to Ghent. Using a total of six microsatellite markers, we found that linkage with the FBN1 gene was observed or not excluded in 70.6% (24/34) of the families, and in 1 family the MFS phenotype segregated with the TGFBR2 gene. Moreover, in 4 families linkage with the FBN1 and TGFBR2 genes was excluded, and no mutations were identified in the coding region of TGFBR1, indicating the existence of other genes involved in MFS. Our results suggest that the genetic heterogeneity of MFS may be greater that previously reported.

Numerical Characterization of Concrete Heterogeneity

Pitangueira,Roque Luiz; Silva,Raul Rosas e
Fonte: ABM, ABC, ABPol Publicador: ABM, ABC, ABPol
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2002 Português
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In this paper, a finite element model including both material heterogeneity and size effects is presented. The concrete is considered as a statistical combination of constituent phase with different properties (aggregate, mortar and interface material). The material point response is based on a combination of the random occurrence of the solid phases in the structural volume as well as on the differences of structural response due to the size effect. Such combination allows for higher or lower heterogeneity corresponding to smaller or larger structural size. Simulations of the material heterogeneity and associated size effect in a computationally efficient and simple manner show good qualitative agreement with available experimental results for the three-point bending and Brazilian split tests.

The role of worker tenure and employment heterogeneity on software development work activities

Crawford,Jeff; Leonard,Lori N. K.; Jones,Kiku
Fonte: TECSI Laboratório de Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informação - FEA/USP Publicador: TECSI Laboratório de Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informação - FEA/USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Software development group effectiveness depends on many factors, and understanding those factors is vital to project success, especially when considering the time and money that is dedicated to said projects.  Therefore, this study examines the role of worker tenure and employment heterogeneity on exploration and exploitation work completed within an organization’s software development group.  Analysis of time tracking data within one financial services organization over a three years period demonstrates that worker tenure and employment heterogeneity do play an important role in shaping work activities.  Worker tenure exhibited a negative relationship with exploration and exploitation activities, suggesting a critical mechanism through which an organization can elicit innovative and incremental development efforts.  Further, the positive effect of employment heterogeneity on exploration and exploitation suggests that employment diversity can also provide a means to encourage innovative and incremental development activities.  Findings highlight the notion that group composition plays a meaningful role in shaping the focus of software development work within an organization.

Biological and Clinical Implications of Clonal Heterogeneity and Clonal Evolution in Multiple Myeloma

Bianchi, Giada; Ghobrial, Irene M.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Clonal heterogeneity and clonal evolution have emerged as critical concepts in the field of oncology over the past four decades, largely thanks to the implementation of novel technologies such as comparative genomic hybridization, whole genome/exome sequencing and epigenetic analysis. Along with the identification of cancer stem cells in the majority of neoplasia, the recognition of intertumor and intratumor variability has provided a novel perspective to understand the mechanisms behind tumor evolution and its implication in terms of treatment failure and cancer relapse or recurrence. First hypothesized over two decades ago, clonal heterogeneity and clonal evolution have been confirmed in multiple myeloma (MM), an incurable cancer of plasma cells, almost universally preceded by a pre-malignant conditioned named monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). The genetic events and molecular mechanisms underlying such evolution have been difficult to dissect. Moreover, while a role for the bone marrow microenvironment in supporting MM cell survival, proliferation and drug-resistance has been well established, whether it is directly involved in driving evolution from MGUS to MM is at present unclear. We present in this review a historical excursus on the concepts of clonal heterogeneity and clonal evolution in MM with a special emphasis on their role in the progression from MGUS to MM; the contribution of the microenvironment; and the clinical implications in terms of resistance to treatment and disease relapse/recurrence.

Heterogeneidade discursiva na mídia impressa: o caso do "maníaco de Luziânia"; Discursive heterogeneity in print media: the case of "maniac Luziania"

SIlva, Raquel DIvina
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Estudos da Linguagem (RC); Regional de Catalão (RC) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Estudos da Linguagem (RC); Regional de Catalão (RC)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
This research had as a scope analyze the forms of discursive heterogeneity, a concept coined by Jacqueline Authier-Revuz (2004), present in the media discourse about violence. For this, we will analyze discursive sequences generated on the case of "maniac of Luziânia" in which the builder Admar de Jesus Silva raped, murdered and hid the bodies of six young people in the city of Luziânia-GO. These discursive sequences, materialized in twenty texts - including reports, news and interviews - constitute the corpus of our research. The texts were published between 12 April and 21 May 2010 for four different vehicles: the newspaper Diário de Catalão, of local circulation; the newspaper O Popular, of regional circulation; the newspaper Correio Braziliense, of regional circulation, and the magazine Revista Veja, of nationwide circulation. From the analysis of the presence of discursive heterogeneities we have interpreted the effects of meaning about violence produced by the media discourse. For the development of the theme, adopted as a theoretical and methodological basis the Discourse Analysis (DA) of the French line articulated to the perspective adopted by the linguist Authier-Revuz about the issue of discursive heterogeneity. In our analyzes...

Heterogeneidade estrutural na indústria Goiana, 2000-2010; Structural heterogeneity in the industry of Goiás, 2000-2010

Aguiais, Edilson Gonçalves de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronegócio (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronegócio (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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36.52%
The purpose of this study is to understand to what extent the phenomenon of structural heterogeneity existing in Goiás industrial economy has affected the structure of earnings and employment in the state of Goiás in the interregnum from 2000 to 2010 . The hypothesis put forward is that, in Goiás, the process of growth of industrial production and the number of companies has developed so as to increase productivity gap and labor income among different segments of the manufacturing industry in the period 2000-2010. To perform the proposed work goal, we used the technical resources of literature and documents and adopted the descriptive analytical method. The first analysis is a comparison between the structure of the transformation of Goiás and São Paulo industry and the results indicated a reduction in structural heterogeneity, both indicators of labor productivity as in the structure of earnings and employment. The second test checks the industrial conformation as the level of technology embodied in the production process. At this point, the segments of low technological intensity remained the largest share of the value added by the manufacturing industry, indicating that driving the dynamic axis of Goiás economy facing the external sector...

Unemployment duration among immigrants and natives: unobserved heterogeneity in a multi-spell duration model

Carrasco, Raquel; García Pérez, J. Ignacio
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper studies whether the unemployment dynamics of immigrants differ from those of natives, paying special attention to the impact of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity among individuals. Using a large administrative data set for Spain, we estimate multiple-spell discrete duration models which disentangle unobserved heterogeneity from duration dependence. Specifically, we estimate random effects models assuming that the distribution of the effects is discrete with finite support, and fixed effects models in which the distribution of the unobserved effects is left unrestricted. Our results show the importance of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity and that mistaken policy implications can be derived due to improper treatment of unmeasured variables. We find that lack of control for unobserved heterogeneity leads to the conclusion that immigrant males have a higher probability of leaving unemployment than natives and that the negative effect of unemployment benefits for immigrants lasts longer than for natives. Nonetheless, the estimates which do control for unobserved heterogeneity show the opposite results.

Bayesian estimation of inefficiency heterogeneity in stochastic frontier models

Galán, Jorge E.; Veiga, Helena; Wiper, Michael P.
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Estimation of the one sided error component in stochastic frontier models may erroneously attribute firm characteristics to inefficiency if heterogeneity is unaccounted for. However, it is not clear in general in which component of the error distribution the covariates should be included. In the classical context, some studies include covariates in the scale parameter of the inefficiency with the property of preserving the shape of its distribution. We extend this idea to Bayesian inference for stochastic frontier models capturing both observed and unobserved heterogeneity under half normal, truncated and exponential distributed inefficiencies. We use the WinBugs package to implement our approach throughout. Our findings using two real data sets, illustrate the relevant effects on shrinking and separating individual posterior efficiencies when heterogeneity affects the scale of the inefficiency. We also see that the inclusion of unobserved heterogeneity is still relevant when no observable covariates are available.; inancial support from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, research projects ECO2009-08100, MTM2010-17323 and SEJ2007-64500 is also gratefully acknowledged.

The effects of habitat connectivity and regional heterogeneity on artificial pond metacommunities

Pedruski, Michael
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 3294139 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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36.62%
While much evidence suggests that ecosystem functioning is closely related to biodiversity, present rates of biodiversity loss are high. With the emergence of the metacommunity concept ecologists have become increasingly aware that both local processes (e.g. competition, predation), and regional processes (e.g. dispersal and regional heterogeneity) affect ecological communities at multiple spatial scales. I experimentally investigated the effects of habitat connectivity and regional heterogeneity on biodiversity, community composition, and ecosystem functioning of artificial pond metacommunities of freshwater invertebrates at the local (α), among-community (β), and regional (γ) spatial levels. There was a significant effect of habitat connectivity on mean local richness, but mean local Simpson diversity, mean local functional diversity (FD), and all the three indices of ecosystem functioning investigated (regional abundance, invertebrate biomass, and chlorophyll a concentration) were unaffected by connectivity levels. Regional heterogeneity had no effect on local diversity, but enhanced both among-community richness and among-community Simpson diversity. Conversely, connectivity reduced among-community Simpson diversity. All indices of regional diversity were unaffected by either connectivity or heterogeneity. Despite expectations that there would be strong interactions between the effects of connectivity and heterogeneity on species richness...

Functional heterogeneity of forest landscapes and the distribution and abundance of the red-cockaded woodpecker

Azevedo, João; Jack, Steven B.; Coulson, Robert N.; Wunneburger, Douglas F.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.48%
Red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis) populations are greatly affected by the fragmentation of forest habitat through its effect on the dispersal of individuals between active clusters and other areas of the suitable habitat. In order to assess the suitability of a given landscape structure for the maintenance and expansion of RCW populations, land managers need an index that correlates with the bird's awareness of that structure. Rather than assuming that common landscape metrics provide the necessary information, we applied an index of functional heterogeneity to a GIS coverage for the western portion of the Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) in east Texas, using two observation scales. In contrast to measured heterogeneity, functional heterogeneity incorporates the RCW response to forest structure. The GIS coverage included information on habitat suitability and RCW cluster distribution and size. The analyses indicated that the presence of cavity trees is the most important factor for RCW population maintenance and that fragmentation of the foraging habitat has much less impact. The analyses also indicated that many areas that are currently of high functional importance for the RCW are effectively isolated from one another. This second result has signi®cant implications for the dispersal of individuals between areas of high functionality and thus also the maintenance of the RCW in this forest. The functional heterogeneity analyses can also be used to examine the trade offs involved in managing the multiple wildlife species simultaneously and for examining the effects of various harvesting regimes through time.

The influence of geological, geochemical, and biogenic habitat heterogeneity on seep biodiversity

Cordes, Erik E.; Cunha, Marina R.; Galeron, Joelle; Mora, Camilo; Olu-Le Roy, Karine; Sibuet, Myriam; Van Gaever, Saskia; Vanreusel, Ann; Levin, Lisa A.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Cold seeps are among the most heterogeneous of all continental margin habitats. Abiotic Sources of heterogeneity in these systems include local variability in fluid flow, geochemistry, and substrate type, which give rise to different sets of microbial communities, microbial symbiont-bearing foundation species, and associated heterotrophic species. Biogenic habitats created by microbial mats and the symbiotic species including vesicomyid clams, bathymodiolin mussels, and siboglinid tubeworms add an additional layer of complexity to seep habitats. These forms of habitat heterogeneity result in a variety of macrofaunal and meiofaunal communities that respond to changes in structural complexity, habitat geochemistry, nutrient sources, and interspecific interactions in different ways and at different scales. These responses are predicted by a set of theoretical metacommunity models, the most appropriate of which for seep systems appears to be the 'species sorting' concept, an extension of niche theory. This concept is demonstrated through predictable patterns of community assembly, succession, and beta-level diversity. These processes are described using a newly developed analytical technique examining the change in the slope of the species accumulation curve with the number of habitats examined. The diversity response to heterogeneity has a consistent form...

Can census data alone signal heterogeneity in the estimation of poverty maps?

Tarozzi, Alessandro
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Methodologies now commonly used for the construction of poverty maps assume a substantial degree of homogeneity within geographical areas in the relationship between income and its predictors. However, local labor and rental markets and other local environmental differences are likely to generate heterogeneity in such relationships, at least to some extent. The purpose of this paper is to argue that useful if only indirect and suggestive evidence on the extent of area heterogeneity is readily available in virtually any census. Such indirect evidence is provided by non-monetary indicators–such as literacy, asset ownership or access to sanitation–which are routinely included in censuses. These indicators can be used to perform validation exercises to gauge the extent of heterogeneity in their distribution conditional on predictors analogous to those commonly used in poverty mapping. We argue that the same factors which are likely to generate area heterogeneity in poverty mapping are also likely to generate heterogeneity in such kind of validation exercises. We construct a very simple model to illustrate this point formally. Finally, we evaluate empirically the argument using data from Mexico. In our empirical illustrations, the performance of imputation methodologies to construct maps of indicators typically feasible with census data alone is indeed informative about how effectively such methodologies can produce correct inference in poverty mapping.

Conformational Heterogeneity of a Multifunctional Protein

Deis, Lindsay N.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%

The structural plasticity conferred by conformational flexibility has increasingly been recognized as a likely determinant of function. For example, multiscale heterogeneity in the calmodulin central helix most likely helps it in binding over 100 protein targets, and a concerted motion seen in both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and crystal structures of ubiquitin is proposed to underlie its functional plasticity of promiscuous binding to many different proteins with high affinity. However, flexibility is manifested in a variety of ways, depending both on the protein itself and on how it is observed. Conformational heterogeneity (the term we use for flexibility when studied by X-ray crystallography) is evident in electron density, either as fully separated peaks or as anisotropic density shapes showing fluctuation of atom groupings. Many phenomena contribute to conformational heterogeneity in crystal structures, from diverse crystal contacts to functionally relevant conformational fluctuations on a wide range of time and size scales.

In addition to ubiquitin and calmodulin, the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is an example of a highly heterogeneous protein. SpA is a major contributor to bacterial evasion of the host immune system...

Structural Heterogeneity in Santa Catarina's Industry; Heteorogeneidade estrutural na indústria catarinense

Cândido, Carolina Silvestre; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Perin, Fernanda Steiner; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Cário, Silvio Antônio Ferraz; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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This paper has as main goal to study the Santa Catarina’s industrial structural heterogeneity in a comparison with the Brazilian industry in order to contribute with the studies about the economics reality of Santa Catarina, identifying its relation with innovation and verifying the existence of a productive convergence. The Cepal’s economics theory presents, through the ideas of Aníbal Pinto, the structural heterogeneity as a result of the unequal generation and diffusion of the technical progress within a productive structure. The structural heterogeneity takes place in the internal productive gap that means the existence, in one productive structure, of developed and undeveloped productive sectors with different levels of productivity. The unequal generation and diffusion of the technical progress generates different levels of labor productivity that reflects in unequal wages and opportunities of access to information, knowledge aggravating the social inequality. Through the analyzes, from 1996 to 2011, of Industrial Transformation Value and Employed Persons data it is possible to calculate the labor productivity as a proxy for productive and structural heterogeneity – as proposed by IPEA (2011) – and observing it through the Industrial Newsletter of Industry and Trade – BIC – proposed by APEX – it is possible to prove the existence of structural heterogeneity in the Santa Catarina’s and Brazilian Industry...