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Fatores humanos no processo de desenvolvimento de software: um estudo visando qualidade. ; Human factors in software development process.

Sandhof, Karen
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2004 Português
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Os modelos para melhoria da qualidade de software são fundamentados na tríade processo-pessoas-tecnologia. Este trabalho busca a relação entre dois destes pilares da qualidade de software: o processo de desenvolvimento e o ser humano. Este trabalho avalia como os modelos de qualidade de software consideram o ser humano e caracteriza a inserção de defeitos no software por seus desenvolvedores como erros humanos cometidos no processo de desenvolvimento. Fatores humanos condicionantes do desempenho são identificados e, através de pesquisa de campo cujo objetivo é explorar a realidade do processo de desenvolvimento de software, analisam-se os fatores humanos que podem afetar a qualidade de software, principalmente no que diz respeito às características de funcionalidade e confiabilidade. ; Software quality improvement models are based on the triplet process-people-technology. This research works on the relationship between two of these fundamental structures of software quality: human beings and the development process. This work evaluates how software quality models consider human beings and characterizes defect insertion in software products by developers as human errors throughout the development process. Some human factors are identified as performance-shaping and...

Applying Problem Based Learning for improving Human-tech competencies in Computer Engineering students: a research proposal

Ribeiro, Nuno Valero; Filipe, Joaquim; Caldeira, Carlos Pampulim
Fonte: Repositório Comum de Portugal Publicador: Repositório Comum de Portugal
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 Português
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This paper summarizes the background theory of the likewise entitled research project. The project aims to give a contribution to software programming quality improving Human-tech” competencies in Computer Engineering students as a means to prevent, or at least avoid in a great extend, the rate of unsuccessful software implementation projects. We are specially interested in researching what Human Factors competencies must be profiled in Computing Curricula outcomes that may contribute to better prepare students as “Human-tech” experts. We will apply Problem Based Learning educational method for delivering those competencies to students.We believe it is possible to do better than what has been done, to have a better degree of adequacy between the Human user and the software used for his/her activity. All background theory that support the axiomatic principles of this research project are explained in the first section. Then the project is briefly outlined as well as its plan, expected outcomes and contribution, in the following sections.

Human Factors Research in Anesthesia Patient Safety: Techniques to Elucidate Factors Affecting Clinical Task Performance and Decision Making

Weinger, Matthew B.; Slagle, Jason
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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Patient safety has become a major public concern. Human factors research in other high-risk fields has demonstrated how rigorous study of factors that affect job performance can lead to improved outcome and reduced errors after evidence-based redesign of tasks or systems. These techniques have increasingly been applied to the anesthesia work environment. This paper describes data obtained recently using task analysis and workload assessment during actual patient care and the use of cognitive task analysis to study clinical decision making. A novel concept of “non-routine events” is introduced and pilot data are presented. The results support the assertion that human factors research can make important contributions to patient safety. Information technologies play a key role in these efforts.

Human factors engineering and patient safety

Gosbee, J
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
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 The case study and analyses presented here illustrate the crucial role of human factors engineering (HFE) in patient safety. HFE is a framework for efficient and constructive thinking which includes methods and tools to help healthcare teams perform patient safety analyses, such as root cause analyses. The literature on HFE over several decades contains theories and applied studies to help to solve difficult patient safety problems and design issues. A case study is presented which illustrates the vulnerabilities of human factors design in a transport monitor. The subsequent analysis highlights how to move beyond the more obvious contributing factors like training to design problems and the establishment of informal norms. General advice is offered to address these issues and design issues specific to this case are discussed.

Key Human-Centered Transition Issues for Future Oceanic Air Traffic Control Systems

Major, Laura; Johannsson, Hlynur; Davison, Hayley; Hvannberg, Ebba Thora; Hansman, R. John
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 370754 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Communication, navigation, surveillance, and decision support capabilities in Oceanic air traffic control are evolving significantly. It is important to consider the effect of the changes on the controller’s task. In this paper the results from multi-disciplinary studies performed at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and the University of Iceland are presented. At MIT, a human-centered systems analysis was used to identify key human factors issues for the future Oceanic air traffic control environment to be experimentally investigated. At the University of Iceland, a prototype for a future air traffic control display was designed and evaluated. Both studies identified three key human factors issues that require consideration. The first is a mismatch between time and space separation restrictions imposed and information support provided, requiring the controller to cognitively resolve temporal/spatial mismatches to meet restrictions. The second issue is the effects of mixed communication and surveillance equipage, which complicates the control task and requires the controller to cognitively integrate asynchronous information. The final is the importance of cultivating controller trust and understanding issues of complacency and automation disuse when implementing highly automated conflict probes that are being considered in the future Oceanic environments.

Recommended Practices for Human Factors Evaluation Development Process for Advanced Avionics

Lyne, Lisette
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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Advanced avionic systems are currently being developed for use in general aviation aircraft. The avionics include both primary flight displays and multi-functional displays. In order to support the human factors development of such displays, a research project was undertaken to review current FAA guidelines relating to human factors requirements necessary for certification, and other relevant FAA documentation. FAR Part 23 is commonly used for certifying avionics for general aviation aircraft. Specifically, Part 23 is used for normal, utility, acrobatic, and commuter category aircraft. Part 23 was reviewed and the human factors requirements listed in this document. The human factors requirements are presented in the regulations in very general terms, and focus primarily on presentation of warning information, location of instruments, visibility of instruments, pilot workload, and warning, caution, and advisory light color schemes. Little guidance is given in the regulations on how to measure, test and satisfy the human factors related regulations.; Avidyne

A Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) Examination of Commercial Vessel Accidents

Griggs, Forrest J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Human error has been identified in an estimated 80 per cent of all commercial and military maritime accidents. Crew sizes on commercial merchant ships are characteristically smaller than military vessels. Commercial merchant ships rely on automated technology in order to reduce crew sizes. Since next generation naval ship designs are leveraging automated technology in order to reduce manning, an examination of commercial ship accidents is warranted. Two independent raters coded 518 findings from 48 maritime mishap reports using the Department of Defense Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) taxonomy. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen’s Kappa and a final result of 0.72 was determined for HFACS Level I. HFACS analysis identified relationships among the HFACS levels and collision, allision, and grounding accidents. Logistic regression analysis identified six patterns stemming from latent conditions and active failures. This was used to develop a modified hazard analysis to identify how latent conditions aligned in the accident event chain, and to propose intervention measures. The research concluded that a maritime version of HFACS should be adopted to improve the reliability of classifying causal factors. Additionally...

A Human Factors Evaluation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade

Westenhaver, Michael S.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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During the late 90s, NASA retrofitted the Space Shuttle fleet with a glass cockpit. The new displays replicated legacy formats developed in the 70s, and did not leverage 20 years of display technology and human factors advances. To address this shortcoming the Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) was initiated to reduce mental workload (MW), increase situational awareness (SA), and enhance performance. Despite the CAU demonstrating improvements in MW, SA, and performance, it was cancelled. Consequently, recorded astronaut data from using the baseline and CAU cockpit configurations was never tied back to cockpit design. This study assesses the CAU design employing human factors principles, evaluates baseline and CAU simulation data, and traces MW and SA differences back to CAU design modifications. Significant improvements were found in all measures and across all conditions. These improvements were found to be greater for ascent scenarios than for entry. From the findings, recommendations for the design and evaluation of future spacecraft cockpits are made.

Contextual and Human Factors in Information Fusion

García, Jesús; Patricio Guisado, Miguel Ángel; Molina, José M.; Cardoso, Luiz A.
Fonte: IOS Press Publicador: IOS Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; info:eu-repo/semantics/bookPart
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Context and human factors may be essential to improving measurement processes for each sensor, and the particular context of each sensor could be used to obtain a global definition of context in multisensor environments. Reality may be captured by human sensorial domain based only on machine stimulus and then generate a feedback which can be used by the machine at its different processing levels, adapting its algorithms and methods accordingly. Reciprocally, human perception of the environment could also be modelled by context in the machine. In the proposed model, both machine and man take sensorial information from the environment and process it cooperatively until a decision or semantic synthesis is produced. In this work, we present a model for context representation and reasoning to be exploited by fusion systems. In the first place, the structure and representation of contextual information must be determined before being exploited by a specific application. Under complex circumstances, the use of context information and human interaction can help to improve a tracking system's performance (for instance, video-based tracking systems may fail when dealing with object interaction, occlusions, crosses, etc.).; Proceedings of: NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Human Systems Integration to Enhance Maritime Domain Awareness for Port/Harbour Security Systems...

An introduction to human factors and combat models

Schroth, Timothy F.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis discusses the incorporation of human factors into combat models. First, an historical perspective to determine the significant human factors reveals that human factors fall into two categories based upon when they affect man the most: before/after battle and during battle. Next, combat models are reviewed. Various purposes and model structures are discussed. Finally, incorporating human factors into combat models is discussed. It is argued that the model and the human factors must simultaneously be considered, for the selection of one influences the selection of the other. The structure and purpose of the model may limit which human factors can be considered. Analysis of the model's sensitivity to human factor representations will indicate which human factors are significant in that model. Furthermore, empirical data are lacking and not all human factors are mathematically representable at the current time. Some human factors, such as decision making, may be included using artificial intelligence techniques until data are obtained, if possible. When models and human factors are combined, the model must still be usable and understandable. The conclusion is that human factors should be incorporated into combat models...

The impact of human factors on decision making in combat

Couey, James S.; Dragon, Randal Alan
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiii, 217 p. ill.
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis identifies those human factors which impact on a commander's decision in a tactical combat environment. Various models for categorization are discussed. The study argues that in order to establish clear causaleffect relationships between human factors and battle outcome, concentration of analytical research must focus on first order effects. Two categorical judgment surveys in the form of questionnaires are developed. Results from the surveys are transformed to interval scales. The first survey is exploratory in nature and allows respondents to apply 27 endogenous factors within a generic tactical context. The second survey presents four specific tactical scenarios in which the top seven factors identified in the first survey can be applied. Respondent selection for the first survey represented the four military services while respondent selection for the second survey was limited to Army officers. The study concludes that the top seven factors are: Leadership, TrainingExperience, Initiative, Discipline, Cohesion, Morale, and WillMotivation. The rank order and scaled magnitudes of these factors are found to be scenario dependent.; Captain, United States Army; Captain...

Introduction to human factors and wide area networking.

Clarke, John Gordon
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 112 p.;28 cm.
Português
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The Human-Systems Interaction Course taught at the Naval Postgraduate School is an introduction to the human-systems interface, that part of the system which the human uses to provide input to and receive feedback from the system. This thesis will provide a basic introduction to those factors which must be considered when designing today's complex military systems. Additionally, the thesis will provide an introduction to the Internet - - a worldwide network of computers and smaller networks. Students will use the Internet to gather information, access remote programs, and communicate with other personnel around the world. This thesis in only an introduction to both of these complex topics; further research is possible into any of the topics discussed. Appendix A provides a number of basic exercises intended to introduce the concepts discussed in the body of the thesis.; Captain, United States Air Force

A discourse in human systems integration

Tvaryanas, Anthony P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xxxii, 608 : ill. (chiefly col.), 1 col. map 28 cm.
Português
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This dissertation tackles, head on, two fundamental questions: What is human systems integration (HSI) and how should one think about HSI problems? The objective was to develop a coherent systems method to improve the integration of HSI domains to create sustainable systems while preserving system stakeholder preferences. This dissertation addresses these questions by accomplishing two things: 1) extracting the lessons learned from a historical analysis of the emergence of HSI both as a philosophy and as a Defense Department program, and 2) using those lessons to characterize and illustrate a technical approach to addressing HSI considerations early in an acquisition process. It is shown that the discourse on general systems that occurred over the latter half of the twentieth century, coupled with pressing organizational factors within the U.S. Army, were the principal forces that shaped and drove the emergence and formal recognition of HSI. As determined from this historical analysis, HSI involves the integration of the behavioral sciences, human factors engineering, and operations research to more broadly represent human considerations in early weapon system analyses and the products that evolve from these analyses. Inclusion of HSI in system analyses necessitates a holistic perspective of the performance and economic trade space formed by the synthesis of the HSI domains. As a result...

Human factors in Coast Guard Computer Security - an analysis of current awareness and potential techniques to improve security program viability

Whalen, Timothy J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xxi, 106 p. ; 28 cm.
Português
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The Coast Guard is becoming increasingly reliant upon our nation's information infrastructure. As such, our ability to ensure the security of those systems is also increasing in import. Traditional information security measures tend to be system-oriented and often fail to address the human element that is critical to system success. In order to ensure information system security, both system and human factors requirements must be addressed. This thesis attempts to identify both the susceptibility of Coast Guard information systems to human factors-based security risks and possible means for increasing user awareness of those risks. This research is meant to aid the Coast Guard in continuing to capitalize on emerging technologies while simultaneously providing a secure information systems environment.; US Coast Guard (USCG) author

Human factors engineering design demonstrations can enlighten your RCA team

Gosbee, J; Anderson, T
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39948%


 A case study is presented, based on the experience of the US Veterans Affairs health system, which shows the benefits of healthcare personnel understanding human factors engineering (HFE) and how it relates to patient safety. After HFE training, personnel are better able to use a systems-oriented approach during adverse event analysis. Without some appreciation of HFE, the focus of adverse event analyses (e.g. root cause analysis (RCA)) is often misguided towards policies or an individual's shortcomings, leading to ineffective solutions. The case study followed the investigation by an RCA team of a retained sponge following cardiac surgery. The team began with a focus on the specific failings of the surgical nurse and outdated policies. HFE design demonstrations were used to redirect the team's focus to more systems-oriented issues, which could be uncovered even when events appeared to be related to policy or training, and to point them towards examining the design of systems that contributed to the event. The team was thus able to identify design flaws and make improvements to the design of the forms and computer systems that were key to preventing such events from recurring.

Exploring Human Factors in Spreadsheet Development

Thorne, Simon; Ball, David
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/03/2008 Português
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In this paper we consider human factors and their impact on spreadsheet development in strategic decision-making. This paper brings forward research from many disciplines both directly related to spreadsheets and a broader spectrum from psychology to industrial processing. We investigate how human factors affect a simplified development cycle and what the potential consequences are.; Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables

An Integrated Simulation System for Human Factors Study

Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Bennis, Fouad; Chablat, Damien
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/09/2007 Português
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It has been reported that virtual reality can be a useful tool for ergonomics study. The proposed integrated simulation system aims at measuring operator's performance in an interactive way for 2D control panel design. By incorporating some sophisticated virtual reality hardware/software, the system allows natural human-system and/or human-human interaction in a simulated virtual environment; enables dynamic objective measurement of human performance; and evaluates the quality of the system design in human factors perspective based on the measurement. It can also be for operation training for some 2D control panels.

Human-caused wildfire risk rating for prevention planning in Spain

Martínez, Jesús; Vega-García, Cristina; Chuvieco, Emilio
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 918459 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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12 pages, 4 figures.-- Online version published Aug 23, 2008.; This paper identifies human factors associated with high forest fire risk in Spain and analyses the spatial distribution of fire occurrence in the country. The spatial units were 6,066 municipalities of the Spanish peninsular territory and Balearic Islands. The study covered a 13-year series of fire occurrence data. One hundred and eight variables were generated and input to a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) to model different factors related to fire ignition. After exploratory analysis, 29 were selected to build a predictive model of human fire ignition using logistic regression analysis. The binary model estimated the probability of high or low occurrence of forest fires, as defined by an ignition danger index that is currently used by the Spanish forest service (number of fires divided by forest area in each municipality). Thirteen explanatory variables were identified by the model. They were related to agricultural landscape fragmentation, agricultural abandonment and development processes. The prediction agreement found between the model binary outputs and the historical fire data was 85.3% for the model building dataset (60% of municipalities). A slightly lower predictive power (76.2%) was found for the validation data (the remaining 40%). The probabilistic output of the logistic was significantly related to the raw ignition index (Spearman correlation of 0.710) used by the Spanish Forest Service. Therefore...

A excelência em gestão de SMS: uma abordagem orientada para os fatores humanos; HSE management excellence: a Human Factors approach; HSE management excellence: a Human Factors approach

Theobald, Roberto; UFF; Lima, Gilson Brito Alves; UFF
Fonte: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC Publicador: Universidade Federal Fluminense - LATEC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2009 Português
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A busca pela excelência na Gestão em Segurança, Meio Ambiente e Saúde (SMS), passoua ser uma meta estratégica para as empresas que pretendem garantir participação em ummercado cada vez mais competitivo e regido por uma sociedade a cada dia mais exigente. Aimplementação de ações que visam a melhoria do rendimento humano tem sidoconsiderada fundamental para o desempenho das organizações que buscam a excelência,como forma de obtenção da sustentabilidade dos negócios. Para aquelas que atuam emáreas que envolvem altos riscos tecnológicos, como o segmento petróleo e gás, isso sedeve a constatação de que a falha humana representa uma parcela significativa das causasbásicas dos acidentes industriais maiores, protagonizados por este segmento industrial aolongo das últimas três décadas. Entender e melhorar a interação do conjunto homem–equipamento–sistema organizacional, denominado “fatores humanos”, e a busca de suaincorporação aos processos, passou então a ser o desafio da industria neste novo milênio.Entende-se que esta incorporação não deve ser realizada de forma isolada, mas sim deforma estruturada e sistêmica via Sistema de Gestão de SMS. Através da revisão deliteratura e a análise crítica do autor...

Appraising the e-readiness of online learning facilitators: Key human factors

Vermeulen,L.
Fonte: Koers Publicador: Koers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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Higher education institutions in South Africa have undergone a number of changes over the past few years. These changes brought about inter alia changed work environments and job demands. One of the new job demands is the need to incorporate technology in teaching and learning, viz. e-learning. Not all job incumbents, however, adapted successfully to these changes, particularly with regard to e-readiness. Such a lack in e-readiness is likely to influence the effectiveness with which an academic employee will fulfil his/her online learning duties. Therefore, it is important to find solutions to overcome the lack of e-readiness. This article will focus on the role of human resource appraisal, in order to assess the e-readiness of online learning facilitators with a view to improving their online skills and capacity. A number of human factors that can play a role in employee performance and motivation, namely learning styles, personal profile patterns, and pace and style of technology adoption will be briefly outlined, in order to determine the role that these factors could play in assessing the e-readiness of online learning facilitators.