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A era dos Direitos Sociais: lineamentos históricos, filosóficos e jurídicos dos Direitos Humanos Fundamentais: relação com o Direito do Trabalho: aplicação, pela jurisprudência; The era of social rights: historical, philosophical and legal lineaments of fundamental human rights: relationship with the labour law: imposition by case law.

Berardo, Carlos Francisco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/01/2013 Português
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35.84%
O objetivo essencial da tese é o exame específico dos Direitos Humanos Fundamentais e dos princípios respectivos, sobretudo aqueles relativos à dignidade da pessoa humana e ao valor social do trabalho, bem como da relação destes com o Direito do Trabalho e com o Direito Processual do Trabalho. A oportunidade (ou necessidade) para este estudo resultou da constante referência, nas petições, nos debates e nas decisões dos Juízes e Tribunais do Trabalho, aos Direitos Humanos Fundamentais, assim como ao princípio da dignidade da pessoa humana o mais importante na menção aos Direitos Humanos e, também, consagrado pela (e na) Constituição Federal. Trata-se de projeção de tais preocupações da vivência diária, como juiz, sobretudo depois da ampliação da competência da Justiça do Trabalho, decorrente da Emenda Constitucional n. 45, de 2004. Daí resultou a verificação da efetividade e eficácia da inclusão dos Direitos Humanos no Direito positivo. Há estudo da terminologia. Passou-se ao estudo das diversas concepções, segundo as variadas correntes doutrinárias. Entendeu-se indispensável a leitura da sua evolução, na história, na filosofia, na teologia, e da sua inclusão no Direito positivo. Adotou-se como marco...

Bento de Jesus Caraça - uma visão sobre o valor humano e o valor social da matemática e suas implicações no ensino; A vision about human value and social value of mathematics and its implications for teachings

Amaral, João Tomás do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
A Matemática tem despertado forte interesse quanto ao seu ensino nos diversos níveis, com farta quantidade de estudos que visam diagnosticar as causas que produzem os desvios na aquisição do conhecimento matemático. Esses diagnósticos e as propostas de solução abrangem, entre outros, conteúdos, métodos, relação professor-aluno e livros didáticos. Esses percursos de investigação têm a intenção de amenizar ou resolver os problemas do processo de ensino e de aprendizagem em Matemática. Essas pesquisas têm se concentrado no trabalho empírico das aplicações de atividades para grupos de professores e alunos ou na análise de aspectos pedagógico, metodológico e didático de conteúdos com discussões abordadas num determinado período de tempo. Em geral, a Matemática é apresentada fundamentada nos conteúdos e nos métodos de forma essencialmente fragmentada, reprodutiva e tecnicista, desprovida de uma abordagem das ideias fundamentais, de um tratamento como cultura geral, do valor humano e do valor social da matemática. Essa abordagem consolida a concepção de que a matemática, cada vez mais, se distancia do interesse coletivo como um domínio de especialistas. Contrariamente, a matemática tem se constituído numa das áreas do conhecimento mais valorizadas em todos os sistemas de ensino em todo o mundo...

Diagnostico molecular da infecção ativa por citomegalovirus humano (HCMV) em pacientes submetidos a transplante pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (tipo "Nested PCR") : comparação entre leucocitos do sangue periferico e soro; Molecular diagnostic of active human cytomegalovirus infection in patient urdergoing transplanation by nested polymerase chain reaction : comparison between peripheral blood leucocytes and serum

Paula Durante Andrade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/02/2009 Português
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O Citomegalovírus Humano (HCMV) é o principal causador de complicações pós-transplante. Métodos específicos que permitam identificar, precocemente, os pacientes com risco de desenvolvimento de doença, para os quais tratamento é indicado, têm sido requeridos, a fim de que poucos pacientes sejam desnecessariamente tratados e para a efetiva instituição terapêutica. A "Nested-PCR", dupla Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase, é um teste comumente utilizado no diagnóstico da infecção ativa por HCMV, contudo, quando realizada em leucócitos do sangue periférico, devido à sua alta sensibilidade, não apresenta boa correlação com o desenvolvimento de doença por HCMV. A detecção do DNA do HCMV no soro, pela PCR, tem sido associada com o desenvolvimento de doença por HCMV. Neste estudo, nós aplicamos a "Nested-PCR" em leucócitos do sangue periférico (denominada "L-PCR"), o método Convencional do Laboratório, e em soro ("sPCR"), para o diagnóstico da infecção ativa por HCMV, a fim de estabelecermos a correlação dos resultados obtidos, de ambos os métodos, com o desenvolvimento de infecção sintomática. Com este propósito, nós avaliamos, prospectivamente, amostras de 37 pacientes, 20 submetidos a transplante renal...

Human rights based approach to ecosystem services in rural Timor-Leste

Henriques, Pedro Damião de Sousa; Narciso, Vanda; Branco, Manuel Couret
Fonte: Universidade de Évora / Comissão Organizadora do ESADR 2013 Publicador: Universidade de Évora / Comissão Organizadora do ESADR 2013
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Land and water are the main supporters of almost every ecosystem on earth, either natural or semi-natural, including the traditional land use systems developed by human beings. The multidimensional services supplied by the different land uses are essential resources for the great majority of the population in developing countries. Besides the economic value associated with those services, land services have also historical, cultural and sacred values that should not be ignored as they have shaped over time the social organization of communities. Recognizing the multidimensional character of the services provided by nature in general, and land in particular is precisely the essence of a human rights approach to development. According to the United Nations Organization (UN), a human-rights based approach to development is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting them. In its essence, a human rights-based approach integrates the norms, standards and principles of the international human rights system into the plans, policies and processes of development. In this article, specific emphasis will be placed on the relationship between well-being and land use...

Freedom from Value Judgments: Value-Free Social Science and Objectivity in Germany, 1880-1914

Spadafora, Andrew Jeffrey
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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This dissertation addresses a central issue in the methodological debates that raged in the German academy around the turn of the twentieth century. The idea of "value-free" social science, or "value-freedom," was passed down to subsequent decades as a way of thinking about the objectivity of knowledge, but because of its name it has been widely misunderstood. Moreover, it has been seen either as a clever invention of the polymath scholar Max Weber, or as some form of ideology masquerading as neutrality (or both). Instead, a contextually sensitive historical analysis of the work of five German and Austrian scholars—Carl Menger, Ferdinand Tönnies, Georg Jellinek, Hermann Kantorowicz, and Gustav Radbruch—demonstrates that value-freedom was a complex doctrine with widely ramified sources in the intellectual history of economics, sociology, and law. It was accepted on a variety of grounds and by individuals of differing personalities, politics, philosophical training, and academic disciplines. "Value-free" social science in the work of these men meant anything but the removal of values from scholarly consideration. Instead, its advocates promoted a focus on the subjectivity and the will of the individual, goal-directed agent. Value-freedom took the form of several interrelated distinctions...

The Offshore Services Value Chain : Developing Countries and the Crisis

Gereffi, Gary; Fernandez-Stark, Karina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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35.83%
This paper analyzes the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the offshore services industry. Using a global value chains framework, the authors classify the offshore services sector in a comprehensive set of general and industry-specific activities that correspond to different segments and stages in the value-adding process for services. Through an analysis of the impact of the economic crisis on the industry, a small decline in demand was found; however this did not cause any structural changes in the market. The crisis has created two opposing effects: general contraction of demand by existing customers due to the recession; and, at the same time, a substitution effect by which new services are being moved from developed countries to emerging economies in search of cost reduction. The paper concludes that the offshore services industry will continue to offer growth opportunities for developing countries not only among existing market players, but also a range of new countries. The industry has the potential to become an important source for employment and economic growth around the globe.

Human Capital, Tangible Wealth, and the Intangible Capital Residual

Hamilton, Kirk; Liu, Gang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Since income is the return on wealth, the total wealth of any given country should be on the order of 20 times its gross domestic product. Instead the average observed ratio from the balance sheet accounts of the System of National Accounts is a factor of 2.6 to 6.6, depending on whether natural resource stocks are included in the balance sheet. The clear implication is that the System of National Accounts wealth accounts are incomplete, with the most obvious omission being human capital. Estimating the value of human capital using the lifetime income approach for a sample of 13 (mostly high-income) countries yields a mean share of human capital in total wealth of 62 percent -- four times the value of produced capital and 15 times the value of natural capital. But for selected high-income countries in the sample there is still an average of 25 percent of total wealth that is unaccounted -- it is neither produced, nor natural, nor human capital. This residual intangible wealth is arguably the "stock equivalent" of total factor productivity -- the value of assets such as institutional quality and social capital that augment the capacity of produced...

Redefining Value : The Future of Corporate Sustainability Ratings

White, Allen L
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Corporate sustainability ratings are a potentially powerful but still underused tool for building a competitive, socially purposeful, and financially sound enterprise. In a globalizing world replete with business opportunities and risk, corporate boards continually need to reappraise what constitutes good governance. Traditional board duties pertaining to strategic oversight, executive compensation, and financial auditing will remain integral for the foreseeable future. But these alone will not suffice in a time when the prosperity of companies is inextricably linked to issues such as reputation, brands, supply chain management, quality and quantity of human and intellectual capital, protection of human and labor rights, and climate change. Such emergent issues are part of a historical moment in which the role of companies in fostering societal and ecological well-being at the global, national, and local levels is under increasing scrutiny. These are conditions that fuel intensifying public discourse concerning corporate social responsibility...

Estimating the Value of Human Capital within the World Bank Wealth Accounting Framework

Sall, Chris
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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35.86%
The purpose of this paper is to come up with an estimate for the value of human capital with the World Bank wealth accounting framework for the Latin American and Caribbean Region. The proposed approach draws connections between wealth accounting and the development accounting literature that explores the effects of education and health on human capital, building on previous work by Arrow and coauthors (2012), UNU-IHDP and UNEP (2012), Farreira and Hamilton (2010), Weil (2007), and others. The approach is extended to value the loss of human capital due to air pollution and lack of access to clean water and sanitation. The wealth accounting framework is underpinned by the notion that total wealth is equal to the present value of current and future consumption in a competitive economy with constant returns to scale. The author uses a series of calculations representing the framework for and methodology of his framework. Later in this paper the author breaks down the variables in determining the value of human capital into the following categories: schooling...

Essays on High-Value Patenting in Germany in an International Perspective 1880-1932; Abhandlungen über wertvolle Patente in Deutschland aus internationaler Perspektive 1880-1932

Labuske, Kirsten
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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The aim of this doctoral thesis is to look at the worldwide relevance of high-value patents granted in Germany between the enactment of the first nationwide German patent law in 1877 and 1932. This patent act enabled both, national and foreign patentees to reap the fruits of their intellectual investment by restraining competitors to adapt the patented invention. Much research is done on patents and their economic effects within national borders at macro and micro levels. But the cross-border importance of patent protection for domestic and foreign inventors and economies is still underrepresented in the literature especially for pre- and post-WWI Germany. Accordingly, this thesis is an attempt to close the gap in the literature by analysing the determinants of foreign high-value patents in Germany for the periods 1880-1914 and 1919-1932. Therefore, we study the potential influence of patent laws, institutional quality, and primary and secondary schooling. Controls for distance and industrial structure are included. We analyse how and why international patenting in Germany changed in the interwar period comparing it the pre-WWI phase. Which factors caused the decline in foreign high-value patents and which countries significantly reduced their patenting activities in Germany? We contrast the patenting behaviour of WWI opponents and analyse the differences in relation to Germany’s confederates and neutral states. In addition...

The influence of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system on two-digit number processing - Representational, developmental, neuropsychological and computational aspects; Der Einfluss der Platz x Wert Struktur des arabischen Zahlsystems auf die Verarbeitung zweistelliger Zahlen - Aspekte der Repräsentation, Entwicklung, Neuropsychologie

Möller, Korbinian
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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In recent years, research on the human representation of number, its development, and its related capabilities (e.g., mental arithmetic) has flourished. A latest model of numerical processing, the Triple Code Model (Dehane & Cohen, 1995; 1997) is even quite explicit on the involved representations (i.e., visual number form, rote verbal knowledge, and an analogue magnitude representation) and their associated neural correlates. However, the dominating organizational principle of our Arabic number system, i.e., its place-value structure, has received much less interest. This is reflected by the lack of a systematic evaluation of the influence of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system on number processing. The current thesis aimed at making a first step towards a more elaborate understanding of place-value influences as regards its representation in adult number processing, its influence on the development of numerical representations as well as arithmetic capabilities, and its neuro-cognitive underpinnings. Consolidated evaluation of the results of the individual studies provided converging evidence that place-value constraints exhibit a task invariant influence on human numerical cognition and its development suggesting that (i) the mental number line is not analogue holistic in nature but incorporates place-value information as well...

Opportunities for education and education for opportunities: integrating human capital and human capabilities in understanding the value of education.

SABADASH GANNA; CHIAPPERO-MARTINETTI Enrica
Fonte: Human Development and Capability Association (HDCA) Publicador: Human Development and Capability Association (HDCA)
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
Português
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Most people spend the biggest faction of their time and efforts on education and work. It is common to think of the former of the two to be the first step in reaching the latter. There are two conventions widely accepted both among academics and general public. First considers education to be an investment decision; second sees it as a mean to achieve an employment success measured by earnings. In this article we question these statements. Firstly, we go beyond the wage-determined views on the employment outcomes. Secondly, we try to shed some light on the outcomes from education other then the ones related to performance on the labor market. Finally, we try to establish to which extent educational choices are determined by the opportunities and resources that are conditioned on the set of personal characteristics, family socio-economic position and institutional environment, and on the individual’s ability to access and employ these resources. We start from looking for the theoretical grounds for our research question by investigating the possibility to combine human capital theory (HCT) and the capabilities approach (CA). Though HCT was widely recognized as an important tool in microanalysis used to study the courses of economic wellbeing and the forces underlying the educational choices as investment decisions...

Applying dignity, respect, honor and human rights to a pluralistic, multicultural universe

KAMIR, Orit
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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45.85%
“Human dignity” is the foundation of the human rights discourse that evolved around the United Nations’ 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In recent decades, the concept of human dignity has been vastly over-extended, gradually becoming a vague, nearly meaningless “catch-all” phrase. In the 21st century’s pluralistic and multicultural world, this development has played into two worrisome trends. One is the formulation of any cultural-specific identity-based claim as involving a human dignity-based human right; such over-extension of human dignity and human dignity-based rights breeds growing scepticism regarding the usefulness of the whole human rights discourse. The second trend is the erroneous portrayal of cultural specific honor-based claims as involving dignity-based human rights. Such misleading portrayal blurs the boundaries between the universalistically humanistic dignity-based human rights discourse, and culturally specific, often separatist and conservative honor-based mentalities. Attempting to address these troubling trends, this paper defines a tightly knit human dignity, which marks the absolute value/ worth of the common denominator of humanness in all human beings. This human dignity gives rise to universalistic and absolute – yet minimal – fundamental human rights. It is conceptually distinguished from what I refer to as “respect”...

How does a human rights-based approach demonstrate its effectiveness?

Cooper, Ashley Laine
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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In the human rights-based arena, the issue of effectiveness is contested tenitory. Since United Nations agencies first began to adopt the human rights-based approach (HRBA) in 1997, many international NGOs have come to accept the value added by the approach. Nonetheless, there are a plethora of international and govemment actors who remain unconvinced about its true value. With sceptics pointing to the conceptual cloud hanging over its definition, the development sector must move away from relying on a gut-sense of effectiveness, and be proactive rather than reactive in proving the programmatic impact of a HRBA. Focusing on rights, as opposed to needs that the chatity-based approach endorses, the HRBA challenges the fundamental power structures that lie at the root of global inequality. Integrating the norms, standards and ptinciples of patticipation, empowerment, accountability and nondiscrimination into plans, policies and processes of development, the HRBA reconfigures development relationships and provides development programs with a more legitimate and authoritative voice with which to pursue effective development. Despite this, the cun ent government and civil society literature on the HRBA and its 'on the ground' impact...

Creating Jobs in Africa's Fragile States : Are Value Chains an Answer?

Dudwick, Nora; Srinivasan, Radhika
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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35.8%
What is the relationship between employment and conflict in fragile states? Although this question cannot be definitively answered, a large body of research suggests that in countries emerging from conflict, peace is likelier to endure if growth can be rapidly restored and translated into economic opportunities for large segments of the population. With a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa, this report attempts to address the challenge of employment and conflict in fragile states. First, it reviews employment- creation activities in fragile and conflict-affected environments to see which approaches appear most promising. Second, it presents specific recommendations for an employment-generation strategy over the medium term. The report argues that in Sub-Saharan Africa, where almost three-quarters of the labor force still works in agriculture, agricultural value chains may have the greatest potential to diversify rural economies, raise household incomes, and thereby contribute to stability. The core of value chain development involves strengthening relationships a critical task in fragile and post- conflict environments...

The Value of Statistical Life : A Contingent Investigation in China

Wang, Hua; He, Jie
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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35.89%
Economic analyses of development projects and policies often involve assigning an economic value to changes in the risk of loss of human life. A typical term used in the economic analyses is the value of statistical life, which reflects the aggregation of individuals' willingness to pay for fatal risk reduction and therefore the economic value to society to reduce the statistical incidence of premature death in the population by one. Studies on the value of a statistical life have been extensively conducted in the developed world; however, few such studies can be found for developing countries. This paper presents a study that estimates individuals' willingness to pay for cancer risk prevention in three provinces of China. The results imply that the mean value of willingness to pay for a cancer vaccine that is effective for one year is 759 yuan, with a much lower median value of 171 yuan. The estimated income elasticity of willingness to pay is 0.42. Using data on the incidence of cancer illness and death in the population...

Troubling Tradeoffs in the Human Development Index

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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The 20th Human Development Report has introduced a new version of its famous Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI aggregates country-level attainments in life expectancy, schooling and income per capita. Each year's rankings by the HDI are keenly watched in both rich and poor countries. The main change in the 2010 HDI is that it relaxes its past assumption of perfect substitutability between its three components. However, most users will probably not realize that the new HDI has also greatly reduced its implicit weight on longevity in poor countries, relative to rich ones. A poor country experiencing falling life expectancy due to (say) a collapse in its health-care system could still see its HDI improve with even a small rate of economic growth. By contrast, the new HDI's valuations of the gains from extra schooling seem unreasonably high -- many times greater than the economic returns to schooling. These troubling tradeoffs could have been largely avoided using a different aggregation function for the HDI...

MEDIDAS DE DESEMPENHO DA ÁREA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS E SEU RELACIONAMENTO COM INDICADORES DE DESEMPENHO ECONÔMICO; PERFORMANCE MEASURES OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES AREA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE INDICATORS; MEDIDAS DE RENDIMIENTO DEL ÁREA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS Y SU RELACIÓN CON INDICADORES DE RENDIMIENTO ECONÓMICO

Cesar, Ana Maria Roux V. C.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/08/2015 Português
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Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar a relação entre medidas de desempenho econômico-financeiro das empresas e a divulgação de medidas de desempenho da área de Recursos Humanos, consideradas proxies para a mensuração do valor gerado pelas pessoas para a organização. Entende-se como medida de desempenho da área de RH a divulgação de ações da área em relatórios não obrigatórios, disponibilizados pelas empresas em seus sites. O estudo, de natureza quantitativa, analisou o site das 500 maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil, conforme lista divulgada pela Revista Exame (ordenadas por seu Lucro Líquido), em busca da existência de divulgação de indicadores de desempenho da área de RH; esses indicadores foram construídos pelos autores do estudo a partir da bibliografia existente. Os resultados mostram que as empresas fazem pouca divulgação dos indicadores relacionados à gestão de RH; nas empresas que os divulgam, não há fortes associações entre essa divulgação e o Lucro Líquido do exercício. Os resultados encontrados sugerem que, embora o capital humano seja apontado como uma das principais fontes de competitividade, ainda não há medidas que elucidem melhor a relação entre as pessoas e o resultado econômico-financeiro das organizações. Esta é uma lacuna que pode ser melhor explorada.; This study aims to identify the relationship between economical and financial performance measures of companies and the disclosure of performance measures in the area of Human Resources...

Relationship between human development and drug use. Human development index and drug use

Salazar Silva,Fernando; Villatoro Velazquez,Jorge Ameth; Oliva Robles,Natania Froylan; Hynes,Marya; de Marco,Maria
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.65%
Human Development Index is currently considered a reference indicator to account for the social and economic situation experienced by countries. Method This study was conducted using the database from the study "Guiding Elements for Public Policies on Drugs in the Subregion -First Comparative Study on Drug Use and Associated Factors in Population of 15 to 64 years", held in Uruguay, Bolivia, Chile, Perú, Ecuador and Argentina. Target was urban population, from both sexes and of 12 to 65 years. Samples were stratified, three-staged and probabilistic. Sample sizes were theoretical with the inclusion of a non-response rate. Results Prevalence of drug consumption during last year and last month prior to the survey is higher in countries with high HDI compared with medium HDI countries. Lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption is higher in countries with medium HDI compared with those with high HDI. There is less consumption in lifetime prevalence of legal drugs of countries with higher human development index and an equal rate of cigarette consumption. Discussion High development index implies that the inhabitants of a country have a long and healthy life, more access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. Population with a favorable view on these indicators are not only exposed...

Strange bedfellows: Rethinking ubuntu and human rights in South Africa

Oyowe,Anthony O
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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Can an African ubuntu moral theory ground individual freedom and human rights? Although variants of ubuntu moral theory answer in the negative, asserting that the duties individuals owe the collective are prior to individual rights (since African thought places more emphasis on the collective), Metz's recent articulation in this Journal of an African ubuntu moral theory promises to ground the liberal ideal of individual liberty. I pursue three distinct lines of argument in establishing the claim that Metz's project fails to convince - that individual freedom and rights cannot be successfully grounded in a moral theory that already regards some extrinsic value (that is, communal harmony) as the most fundamental moral value. First, I suggest that Metz's attempt to ground human rights in his ubuntu moral theory raises the problem of where the fundamental value lies in his theory. That is, in seeking to integrate two potentially-conflicting and non-instrumental values in his theory, Metz substantially modifies his original ubuntu ethical principle in such a way that the communitarian/ubuntu status of the theory is undermined. Second, I argue that, even if Metz's theory were sufficiently communitarian/ubuntu-like, it could not possibly ground individual freedom as a non-instrumental value. Third...