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Modelagem e simulação da operação de sistema antigelo eletrotérmico de um aerofólio.; Modeling and simlulation of an electro-thermal airfoil anti-ice system operation.

Silva, Guilherme Araújo Lima da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/03/2002 Português
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No presente trabalho foi implementado um modelo matemático para simular o sistema antigelo eletrotérmico de um aerofólio. Por meio do programa ONERA2D simulou-se o escoamento potencial completo com velocidade 44,7 m/s (100 mph) e 89,4 m/s (200 mph) em torno de um aerofólio perfil NACA0012 de corda 0,914 m (3 pés) com ângulo de ataque de 0°, e calculou-se a eficiência de coleta local de gotículas de água com diâmetro mediano volumétrico de 20 μm. Foram simuladas quatro condições de teste com diferentes distribuições de fluxo de calor nos aquecedores elétricos do sistema antigelo. O modelo previu a distribuição de temperaturas na superfície sólida do aerofólio e no filme de água líquida, e as distribuições de fluxo de água líquida sobre a superfície do aerofólio ("runback water") e de coeficiente de transferência de calor por convecção de calor entre a superfície do aerofólio e o escoamento gasoso. Os resultados da simulação obtidos com o modelo foram comparados com resultados experimentais da NASA e os resultados numéricos dos programas LEWICE/ANTICE (EUA) e CANICE (Canada). Para as regiões molhadas pelo filme de água líquida, obteve-se um desvio máximo de temperatura de 2,6°C entre os resultados do presente modelo e o resultados experimentais. Para as regiões secas...

Influência do gelo marinho antártico no setor austral sudoeste do Atlântico Sul; The influence of antactic sea ice in the austral and southwest sector on the south atlantic

Pereira, Janini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/11/2007 Português
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Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação da interação entre o gelo marinho Antártico e o setor austral e sudoeste do Atlântico Sul. Para realizar este estudo foram utilizados dados de satélite da concentração do gelo marinho e o modelo numérico acoplado do NCAR (Nacional Center for Atmospheric Research) o CCSM3 (Community Climate System Model) versão 3. O CCSM3 foi integrado por 150 anos em 3 diferentes simulações. Estas foram forçadas com as climatologias prescritas da concentração de gelo máximo (MAX), mínimo (MIN) e médio (controle) com o objetivo de avaliar o impacto das mudanças do gelo marinho Antártico no Mar de Weddell e na região da Confluência Brasil-Malvinas (CBM). Este estudo enfatiza a interação das escalas de tempo anual, interanual a decadal. A metodologia empregada nesta pesquisa inclue as análises de correlação e espectral, bem como as técnicas estatísticas de funções ortogonais empíricas (EOF) e decomposição de valores singulares (SVD). O comportamento climático das variáveis oceânicas apresentou sensibilidade às diferentes concentrações de gelo marinho Antártico. A variabilidade das anomalias de TSM e SSM mostraram para o experimento MIN padrões espaciais que caracterizam um regime frio do Giro de Weddell...

Estrutura termohalina e massas d'água na vizinhança da Península Antártica a partir de dados in situ coletados por Elefantes-Marinhos do Sul (Mirounga leonina); Termohaline structure and water masses in the vicinity of Antartic Peninsula from in situ data collected by southern Elephant Seals (Mirounga leonina)

Santini, Marcelo Freitas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2011 Português
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Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo sobre a estrutura vertical e massas d'água presentes na região oeste e norte da Península Antártica. Foram utilizados dados de temperatura, salinidade e pressão (profundidade) coletados por plataformas de coleta de dados (PCDs) fixadas em elefantes-marinhos do sul (EMS) pelo Projeto MEOP-BR, coordenado pela Profª Dra Mônica M. C. Muelbert, no período de fevereiro a novembro de 2008. Estes dados são transmitidos via sistema de satélites ARGOS a uma taxa de 2.91+/-0.25 vezes ao dia, distância média entre cada perfil coletado é de 14.43 +/- 12.28 km resultando em uma resolução espacial de 41.61 km/dia. Estes dados permitiram uma descrição detalhada da estrutura vertical e identificação de massas d'água durante diferentes meses do ano de 2008. São comparados perfis verticais em diferentes estações do ano em regiões de plataformas de gelo marinho, do Estreito de Bransfield (EB) e norte da Península Antártica (PA), comparados transectos da porção oeste da PA coletados durante o verão e inverno de 2008 e são apresentados transectos através do Mar da Escócia (ME) nos meses de Setembro a Outubro de 2008. Os valores de temperatura potencial coletados estiveram na faixa entre -1.89ºC e 2.32ºC...

Study on transient ice formation of laminar flow inside externally supercooled rectangular duct

Ismail, Kamal A.R.; Padilha, Alcides
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1709-1730
Português
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The transient process of solidification of laminar liquid flow (water) submitted to super-cooling was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In this study an alternative analytical formulation and numerical approach were adopted resulting in the unsteady model with temperature dependent thermophysical properties in the solid region. The proposed model is based upon the fundamental equations of energy balance in the solid and liquid regions as well as across the solidification front. The basic equations and the associated boundary and initial conditions were made dimensionless by using the Landau transformation to immobilize the moving front and render the problem to a fixed plane type problem. A laminar velocity profile is admitted in the liquid domain and the resulting equations were discretized using the finite difference approach. The numerical predictions obtained were compared with the available results based on other models and concepts such as Neumann analytical model, the apparent thermal capacity model due to Bonacina and the conventional fixed grid energy model due to Goodrich. To obtain further comparisons and more validation of the model and the numerical solution, an experimental rig was constructed and instrumented permitting very well controlled experimental measurements. The numerical predictions were compared with the experimental results and the agreement was found satisfactory.

Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins.

Cheng, A; Merz, K M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1997 Português
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We have studied the winter flounder antifreeze protein (AFP) and two of its mutants using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. The simulations were performed under four conditions: in the gas phase, solvated by water, adsorbed on the ice (2021) crystal plane in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. This study provided details of the ice-binding pattern of the winter flounder AFP. Simulation results indicated that the Asp, Asn, and Thr residues in the AFP are important in ice binding and that Asn and Thr as a group bind cooperatively to the ice surface. These ice-binding residues can be collected into four distinct ice-binding regions: Asp-1/Thr-2/Asp-5, Thr-13/Asn-16, Thr-24/Asn-27, and Thr-35/Arg-37. These four regions are 11 residues apart and the repeat distance between them matches the ice lattice constant along the (1102) direction. This match is crucial to ensure that all four groups can interact with the ice surface simultaneously, thereby, enhancing ice binding. These Asx (x = p or n)/Thr regions each form 5-6 hydrogen bonds with the ice surface: Asn forms about three hydrogen bonds with ice molecules located in the step region while Thr forms one to two hydrogen bonds with the ice molecules in the ridge of the (2021) crystal plane. Both the distance between Thr and Asn and the ordering of the two residues are crucial for effective ice binding. The proper sequence is necessary to generate a binding surface that is compatible with the ice surface topology...

Interaction and Variability of Ice Streams under a Triple-Valued Sliding Law and Non-Newtonian Rheology

Sayag, Roiy; Tziperman, Eli
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Ice streams are regions of fast flowing glacier ice that transport a significant portion of the total ice flux from present ice sheets. The flow pattern of ice streams can vary both temporally and spatially. In particular, ice streams can become stagnant and change their path. We study the dynamics of ice streams using an idealized model of an isothermal and power law viscous ice flow that includes horizontal (lateral) shear stresses. The basal sliding law is assumed to be triple-valued. We investigate the spatiotemporal patterns formed because of the flow over a flat bed, fed from an upstream mass source. The ice flows from the mass source region through one or two gaps in a prescribed upstream topographic ridge which restricts the flow, leading to the formation of one or two ice streams. We find a relation between the parameters of the ice rheology and the width of the ice stream shear margins and show how these parameters can affect the minimum width of an ice stream. We also find that complex asymmetric spatiotemporal patterns can result from the interaction of two ice streams sharing a common mass source. The rich spatiotemporal variability is found to mostly be a result of the triple-valued sliding law, but non-Newtonian effects are found to play a significant role in setting a more realistic shear margin width and allowing for relevant time scales of the variability.; Earth and Planetary Sciences

Adapting to Climate Change in Bangladesh : Stress Tolerant Seeds for Stress-Prone Regions

Ali, Anika; Sircar, Mrinal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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In the event of global climate change, agriculture will be one of the worst-hit sectors in Bangladesh. Increasing global temperatures, rising sea levels, and melting polar ice caps result in land submergence, salinity intrusion, drought, and so on all of which drastically impact agricultural productivity and therefore food security and the livelihoods of millions of people in the affected regions. Bangladesh, a low-lying deltaic country, is predicted by the international community of experts to be one of the first countries to be affected, and it has already been experiencing serious impacts of climate change. Agriculture in particular is one of the worst-hit sectors. This smart lesson describes the experience of the agribusiness advisory team in Bangladesh, based on a project focused on climate change adaptation and building resilience of the resource-poor farmers.

On the calculation of an attenuation coefficient for transects of ice covered ocean

Bennetts, L.; Squire, V.
Fonte: Royal Soc London Publicador: Royal Soc London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Exponential attenuation of ocean surface waves in ice-covered regions of the polar seas is modelled in a two-dimensional, linear setting, assuming that the sea ice behaves as a thin-elastic plate. Attenuation is produced by natural features in the ice cover, with three types considered: floes, cracks and pressure ridges. An inelastic damping parameterization is also incorporated. Efficient methods for obtaining an attenuation coefficient for each class of feature, involving an investigation of wave interaction theory and averaging methods, are sought. It is found that (i) the attenuation produced by long floes can be obtained from the scattering properties of a single ice edge; and (ii) wave interaction theory in ice-covered regions requires evanescent and damped-propagating motions to be included when scattering sources are relatively nearby. Implications for the integration of this model into an oceanic general circulation model are also discussed.; Luke G. Bennetts and Vernon A. Squire

Molecular Probe Dynamics Reveals Suppression of Ice-Like Regions in Strongly Confined Supercooled Water

Banerjee, Debamalya; Bhat, Shrivalli N.; Bhat, Subray V.; Leporini, Dino
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/2012 Português
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The structure of the hydrogen bond network is a key element for understanding water's thermodynamic and kinetic anomalies. While ambient water is strongly believed to be a uniform, continuous hydrogen-bonded liquid, there is growing consensus that supercooled water is better described in terms of distinct domains with either a low-density ice-like structure or a high-density disordered one. We evidenced two distinct rotational mobilities of probe molecules in interstitial supercooled water of polycrystalline ice [Banerjee D, et al. (2009) ESR evidence for 2 coexisting liquid phases in deeply supercooled bulk water. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 11448–11453]. Here we show that, by increasing the confinement of interstitial water, the mobility of probe molecules, surprisingly, increases. We argue that loose confinement allows the presence of ice-like regions in supercooled water, whereas a tighter confinement yields the suppression of this ordered fraction and leads to higher fluidity. Compelling evidence of the presence of ice-like regions is provided by the probe orientational entropy barrier which is set, through hydrogen bonding, by the configuration of the surrounding water molecules and yields a direct measure of the configurational entropy of the same. We find that...

Proteorhodopsin-Bearing Bacteria in Antarctic Sea Ice ▿

Koh, Eileen Y.; Atamna-Ismaeel, Nof; Martin, Andrew; Cowie, Rebecca O. M.; Beja, Oded; Davy, Simon K.; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Ryan, Ken G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Proteorhodopsins (PRs) are widespread bacterial integral membrane proteins that function as light-driven proton pumps. Antarctic sea ice supports a complex community of autotrophic algae, heterotrophic bacteria, viruses, and protists that are an important food source for higher trophic levels in ice-covered regions of the Southern Ocean. Here, we present the first report of PR-bearing bacteria, both dormant and active, in Antarctic sea ice from a series of sites in the Ross Sea using gene-specific primers. Positive PR sequences were generated from genomic DNA at all depths in sea ice, and these sequences aligned with the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteria. The sequences showed some similarity to previously reported PR sequences, although most of the sequences were generally distinct. Positive PR sequences were also observed from cDNA reverse transcribed from RNA isolated from sea ice samples. This finding indicates that these sequences were generated from metabolically active cells and suggests that the PR gene is functional within sea ice. Both blue-absorbing and green-absorbing forms of PRs were detected, and only a limited number of blue-absorbing forms were found and were in the midsection of the sea ice profile in this study. Questions still remain regarding the protein's ecological functions...

Variabilidad espacial y temporal de la concentración del hielo marino antártico y su relación con la circulación atmosférica; Antartic sea ice concentration spatial and temporal variability and its relationship with atmospheric circulation

Barreira, Sandra C. B.
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Existen numerosos estudios en la literatura que sugieren algún tipo de conexión entre los campos de hielo marino de las regiones polares y el clima global pero, la naturaleza específica y los mecanismos a través de los cuales las variaciones en los campos de hielo marino están relacionadas con el clima global o de latitudes medias están todavía pobremente definidos. La presente tesis pretende completar los estudios realizados previamente por otros autores y mejorar los conocimientos existentes sobre conexiones entre el hielo marino en la Antártida y el clima global, a la vez que evaluar su significado enfocándose en la región antártica donde se producen las mayores variaciones del campo de hielo marino, tanto temporal como espacialmente, que es sobre los mares de Amundsen, Bellingshausen y Weddell. Específicamente, lo que se intentó realizar fue cuantificar la variabilidad tanto espacial como temporal del campo de hielo marino, identificar las relaciones que existen entre la variabilidad del hielo marino y el clima tanto polar, de latitudes medias como global, señalar la significancia de estas relaciones e identificar regiones geográficas que puedan mostrar las conexiones más fuertes, teniendo en cuenta que la identificación de las conexiones entre la región polar y el resto de las regiones terrestres es el primer paso para determinar los mecanismos responsables de las mismas. Para examinar las variaciones espaciales del hielo marino antártico...

Eastern Australia: A possible source of dust in East Antarctica interglacial ice

Revel-Rolland, M; De Deckker, Patrick; Delmonte, B; Hesse, Paul; Magee, John; Basile-Doelsch, I; Grousset, F; Bosch, D
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The Australian continent is characterised by an extremely variable surficial geochemistry, reflecting the varied lithology of Australian basement rocks. Samples representative of Australian aeolian dust have been collected in (1) regions where meteorologi

Sea-level history of the Gulf of Mexico since the Last Glacial Maximum with implications for the melting history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

Simms, Alexander; Lambeck, Kurt; Purcell, Anthony; Anderson, John B.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Sea-level records from the Gulf of Mexico at the Last Glacial Maximum, 20 ka, are up to 35 m higher than time-equivalent sea-level records from equatorial regions. The most popular hypothesis for explaining this disparity has been uplift due to the forebu

Ice Stream Variability and Links to Climate

Robel, Alexander Abram
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This dissertation explores the variability and climatic importance of ice streams, regions of fast flow in ice sheets. Observations indicate that ice stream variability plays an important role in the current mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and may be related to periods of rapid climatic change in the past, such as Heinrich Events and glacial-interglacial transitions. We first explore a thermal-regulation mechanism to explain centennial- to millennial-scale ice stream temporal variability based on a simple model which couples ice stream dynamics to subglacial meltwater production. High geothermal heat flux or warm ice surface temperature lead to steady streaming flow, while low geothermal heat flux or cold ice surface temperature lead to thermally-regulated oscillations in ice stream flow. There is a hysteretic transition between these two regimes associated with a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. This simple model can reproduce the time scale and amplitude of ice stream variability associated with Heinrich Events, as well as modern Siple Coast ice streams which appear to be in an oscillatory parameter regime near the transition to a steady-streaming mode. To understand how this thermally-regulated ice stream variability is manifested at the grounding line...

Recovery of surface reflectance spectra and evaluation of the optical depth of aerosols in the near-IR using a Monte-Carlo approach: Application to the OMEGA observations of high latitude regions of Mars

Vincendon, Mathieu; Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2011 Português
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We present a model of radiative transfer through atmospheric particles based on Monte Carlo methods. This model can be used to analyze and remove the contribution of aerosols in remote sensing observations. We have developed a method to quantify the contribution of atmospheric dust in near-IR spectra of the Martian surface obtained by the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on board Mars Express. Using observations in the nadir pointing mode with significant differences in solar incidence angles, we can infer the optical depth of atmospheric dust, and we can retrieve the surface reflectance spectra free of aerosol contribution. Martian airborne dust properties are discussed and constrained from previous studies and OMEGA data. We have tested our method on a region at 90{\deg}E and 77{\deg}N extensively covered by OMEGA, where significant variations of the albedo of ice patches in the visible have been reported. The consistency between reflectance spectra of ice-covered and ice-free regions recovered at different incidence angles validates our approach. The optical depth of aerosols varies by a factor 3 in this region during the summer of Martian year 27. The observed brightening of ice patches does not result from frost deposition but from a decrease in the dust contamination of surface ice and (to a lower extent) from a decrease in the optical thickness of atmospheric dust. Our Monte Carlo-based model can be applied to recover the spectral reflectance characteristics of the surface from OMEGA spectral imaging data when the optical thickness of aerosols can be evaluated. It could prove useful for processing image cubes from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).

A study of the ice-water interface using the TIP4P/2005 water model

Benet, Jorge; MacDowell, Luis G.; Sanz, Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
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In this work we study the ice-water interface under coexistence conditions by means of molecular simulations using the TIP4P/2005 water model. Following the methodology proposed by Hoyt and co-workers [J. J. Hoyt, M. Asta and A. Karma, Phys. Rev. Lett., 86, 5530, (2001)] we measure the interfacial free energy of ice with liquid water by analysing the spectrum of capillary fluctuations of the interface. We get an orientationally averaged interfacial free energy of 27(2) mN/m, in good agreement with a recent estimate obtained from simulation data of the size of critical clusters [E. Sanz, C. Vega, J. R. Espinosa, R. Caballero-Bernal, J. L. F. Abascal and C. Valeriani, JACS, 135, 15008, (2013)]. We also estimate the interfacial free energy of different planes and obtain 27(2), 28(2)and 28(2) mN/m for the basal, the primary prismatic and the secondary prismatic planes respectively. Finally, we inspect the structure of the interface and find that its thickness is of approximately 4-5 molecular diameters. Moreover, we find that when the basal plane is exposed to the fluid the interface alternates regions of cubic ice with regions of hexagonal ice.

Dynamics of colloidal particles in ice

Spannuth, Melissa; Mochrie, S. G. J.; Peppin, S. S. L.; Wettlaufer, J. S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/12/2010 Português
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We use X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) to probe the dynamics of colloidal particles in polycrystalline ice. During freezing, the dendritic ice morphology and rejection of particles from the ice created regions of high-particle-density, where some of the colloids were forced into contact and formed disordered aggregates. We find that the particles in these high density regions underwent ballistic motion coupled with both stretched and compressed exponential decays of the intensity autocorrelation function, and that the particles' characteristic velocity increased with temperature. We explain this behavior in terms of ice grain boundary migration.

Water in Low-Mass Star-Forming Regions with Herschel: The Link Between Water Gas and Ice in Protostellar Envelopes

Schmalzl, M.; Visser, R.; Walsh, C.; Albertsson, T.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Mottram, J. C.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/09/2014 Português
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Aims: Our aim is to determine the critical parameters in water chemistry and the contribution of water to the oxygen budget by observing and modelling water gas and ice for a sample of eleven low-mass protostars, for which both forms of water have been observed. Methods: A simplified chemistry network, which is benchmarked against more sophisticated chemical networks, is developed that includes the necessary ingredients to determine the water vapour and ice abundance profiles in the cold, outer envelope in which the temperature increases towards the protostar. Comparing the results from this chemical network to observations of water emission lines and previously published water ice column densities, allows us to probe the influence of various agents (e.g., FUV field, initial abundances, timescales, and kinematics). Results: The observed water ice abundances with respect to hydrogen nuclei in our sample are 30-80ppm, and therefore contain only 10-30% of the volatile oxygen budget of 320ppm. The keys to reproduce this result are a low initial water ice abundance after the pre-collapse phase together with the fact that atomic oxygen cannot freeze-out and form water ice in regions with T(dust)>15 K. This requires short prestellar core lifetimes of less than about 0.1Myr. The water vapour profile is shaped through the interplay of FUV photodesorption...

Water ice in the dark dune spots of Richardson crater on Mars

Kereszturi, A.; Vincendon, M.; Schmidt, F.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/12/2010 Português
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In this study we assess the presence, nature and properties of ices - in particular water ice - that occur within these spots using HIRISE and CRISM observations, as well as the LMD Global Climate Model. Our studies focus on Richardson crater (72{\deg}S, 179{\deg}E) and cover southern spring and summer (LS 175{\deg} - 17 341{\deg}). Three units have been identified of these spots: dark core, gray ring and bright halo. Each unit show characteristic changes as the season progress. In winter, the whole area is covered by CO2 ice with H2O ice contamination. Dark spots form during late winter and early spring. During spring, the dark spots are located in a 10 cm thick depression compared to the surrounding bright ice-rich layer. They are spectrally characterized by weak CO2 ice signatures that probably result from spatial mixing of CO2 ice rich and ice free regions within pixels, and from mixing of surface signatures due to aerosols scattering. The bright halo shaped by winds shows stronger CO2 absorptions than the average ice covered terrain, which is consistent with a formation process involving CO2 re-condensation. According to spectral, morphological and modeling considerations, the gray ring is composed of a thin layer of a few tens of {\mu}m of water ice. Two sources/processes could participate to the enrichment of water ice in the gray ring unit: (i) water ice condensation at the surface in early fall (prior to the condensation of a CO2 rich winter layer) or during winter time (due to cold trapping of the CO2 layer); (ii) ejection of dust grains surrounded by water ice by the geyser activity responsible for the dark spot. In any case...

Year-round pack ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: Response and sensitivity to atmospheric and oceanic forcing

Geiger, Cathleen A.; Ackley, Stephen F.; Hibler, M. D.
Fonte: International Glaciology Society Publicador: International Glaciology Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Final published version; Using a dynamic-thermodynamic numerical sea-ice model, external oceanic and atmospheric forcings on sea ice in the Weddell Sea are examined to identify physical processes associated with the seasonal cycle of pack ice, and to identify further the parameters that coupled models need to consider in predicting the response of the pack ice to climate and ocean-circulation changes. In agreement with earlier studies, the primary influence on the winter ice-edge maximum extent is air temperature. Ocean heat flux has more impact on the minimum ice-edge extent and in reducing pack-ice thickness, especially in the eastern Weddell Sea. Low relative humidity enhances ice growth in thin ice and open-water regions, producing a more realistic ice edge along the coastal areas of the western Weddell Sea where dry continental air has an impact. The modeled extent of the Weddell summer pack is equally sensitive to ocean heat flux and atmospheric relative humidity variations with the more dynamic responses being from the atmosphere. Since the atmospheric regime in the eastern Weddell is dominated by marine intrusions from lower latitudes, with high humidity already, it is unlikely that either the moisture transport could be further raised or that it could be significantly lowered because of its distance from the continent (the lower humidity source). Ocean heat-transport variability is shown to lead to overall ice thinning in the model response and is a known feature of the actual system...