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Estudo comparativo do comportamento pressórico em gestantes normotensas antes e após exercício aeróbico realizado no solo e em imersão; Comparative study of blood pressure behavior in normotensive pregnant women before and after aerobic exercise on land and during immersion

Vicente, Patricia Cordeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/05/2010 Português
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INTRODUÇÃO: O exercício em imersão durante a gravidez é pouco estudado na literatura. Os poucos trabalhos sobre o tema têm metodologia variada e utilizam dados não atuais sobre o comportamento pressórico em imersão. Outrossim, os estudos não contemplam a resposta pressórica nos vários momentos que implicam mudanças na homeostase, tais como no instante de entrada na piscina e da interrupção do exercício, condição que sabidamente induz modificações fisiológicas importantes, as quais, uma vez mapeadas, fornecem subsídios clínicos importantes para o manejo da atividade física em imersão na gravidez. OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo teve como objetivos avaliar e comparar a pressão arterial (PA), a frequência cardíaca (FC) e a percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE) de gestantes normotensas, em momentos específicos: antes e após exercício aeróbico em solo e imersão. MÉTODO: Foi realizado ensaio clínico randomizado com 29 gestantes normotensas, acompanhadas no pré-natal de baixo risco da Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, no período entre novembro de 2007 a março de 2009. As pacientes foram submetidas a sessões de 15 minutos de caminhada, em esteira tradicional em solo e esteira em imersão...

Efeitos da imersão no meio líquido na recuperação de exercício físico anaeróbico sobre o desempenho e o comportamento de parâmetros fisiológicos de atletas; Effects of immersion during recovery from anaerobic exercise about physical performance and physiological variables

Coertjens, Marcelo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Introdução: Existem dúvidas quanto à validade da utilização da imersão no meio líquido como recurso para acelerar o período de recuperação passiva após a realização de exercícios anaeróbicos. Objetivo: Verificar se a imersão no meio líquido em diferentes temperaturas acelera a recuperação de variáveis fisiológicas após exercício anaeróbico e melhora o desempenho físico subseqüente. Métodos: 16 ciclistas e 5 triatletas treinados do sexo masculino (idade: 26,9 ± 5,8 anos, massa corporal: 72,3 ± 7,9 kg e estatura: 175,7 ± 7,7 cm) foram convidados para três visitas ao laboratório. Em cada visita foram realizados dois Testes de Wingate (TW) em cicloergômetro seguidos por recuperação passiva que poderia ser fora da água, imerso a 20ºC ou a 40ºC com duração de 10 minutos. Para cada visita foi realizado um tipo de recuperação previamente randomizado. Valores de constante de tempo (CT), média do último minuto de recuperação (Média_10min) e área foram calculados para variáveis ventilatórias consumo de oxigênio (VO2), produção de dióxido de carbono (VCO2), volume expirado (VE), taxa de troca respiratória (TTR) e freqüência cardíaca (FC). Amostras de sangue foram coletas para análise do lactato [LAC] sangüíneo em intervalos de 2 min. Valores de pico de potência (PP)...

Comportamento da freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial e peso hidrostático de gestantes em diferentes profundidades de imersão; Behavior of heart rate, blood pressure, and hydrostatic weight of pregnant women at different immersion depths

Finkelstein, Ilana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Figueiredo, Paulo André Poli de; Garcia, Débora Rios; Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre Peyré; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Objetivo: identificar as respostas de freqüência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial (PA) e peso hidrostático (PH)em grávidas imersas em diversos pontos anatômicos até o processo xifóide. Métodos: onze gestantes foram submetidas ao seguinte procedimento experimental: 10 minutos em decúbito dorsal, para avaliação da FC e PA no repouso; 2 minutos em pé, para avaliação das medidos iniciais de FC, PA e massa; e um minuto para cada profundidade de imersão. Foram medidos a FC, PA e PH após imersão no nível do tornozelo, joelho, quadril, cicatriz umbilical e processo xifóide. Utilizaram-se estatística descritiva, testes de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilks e homogeneidade de Levene, ANOVA one-way e teste de Bonferroni, com p<0,05 (SPSS versão 8.0). Resultados: encontramos diferenças significativas (p<0,05) para FC, PA diastólica e PA média a partir do processo xifóide (79,1±5,1 bpm; 53,3±6,7 mmHg e 63,9±6,2 mmHg, respectivamente) e para PA sistólica a partir da cicatriz umbilical (92,7±11,1 mmHg). Diferenças significativas (p<0,05) foram observadas em todas as medidas de percentual de redução do PH, dados esses semelhantes a estudos prévios com não-gestantes. Conclusões: os resultados obtidos mostram diminuição da FC e da PA em imersão aquática comparado ao ambiente terrestre...

Immersion enthalpy variation of surface-modified mineral activated carbon in lead (II) aqueous solution adsorption: the relation between immersion enthalpy and adsorption capacity

Giraldo,L.; Moreno-Piraján,J.C.
Fonte: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP Publicador: Fundação Editora da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 Português
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An activated carbon was obtained by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, CM, from a mineral carbon. Afterwards, the carbon was modified with 2 and 5 molL-1, CMox2 and CMox5 nitric acid solutions to increase the surface acid group contents. Immersion enthalpy at pH 4 values and Pb2+ adsorption isotherms were determined by immersing activated carbons in aqueous solution. The surface area values of the adsorbents and total pore volume were approximately 560 m².g-1 and 0.36 cm³g-1, respectively. As regards chemical characteristics, activated carbons had higher acid sites content, 0.92-2.42 meq g-1, than basic sites, 0.63-0.12 meq g-1. pH values were between 7.4 and 4.5 at the point of zero charge, pH PZC. The adsorbed quantity of Pb2+ and the immersion enthalpy in solution of different pH values for CM activated carbon showed that the values are the highest for pH 4, 15.7 mgg-1 and 27.6 Jg-1 respectively. Pb2+ adsorption isotherms and immersion enthalpy were determined for modified activated carbons and the highest values were obtained for the activated carbon that showed the highest content of total acid sites on the surface.

French Immersion for All: A Resource to Inspire, Support and Engage Parents of Students with Learning Difficulties in the French Immersion Program in Ontario

Betts, Kimberly S.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Project
Português
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The purpose of this project was to design an accessible, research-based resource for parents1 of children with learning difficulties in the French Immersion (FI) program in Ontario. The resource aimed to provide parents with current, empirical information relevant to the topic of students with learning difficulties in the FI program; to identify the most effective, pedagogically sound remediation strategies for parents to use at home to support their children’s learning; and, to provide a compilation of resources to enhance parents’ involvement and confidence in their ability to support their children’s special learning needs in the FI program. The Overlapping Spheres of Influence model was used as the framework for this project; the model indicates that a child’s development at home and at school overlap and a strong, positive relationship between parents and a school can have a positive impact on student achievement (Epstein, 2001). Information for this resource was collected through a careful selection and analysis of documents, including a variety of handbooks for parents of children in the French Immersion program in Ontario and relevant Ontario Ministry of Education documents. The Backwards Design model was used to inform the structure and design of the resource. Components for the resource were modelled after parent engagement kits developed by the Council of Ontario Directors in Education (C.O.D.E)...

Vitreous humor sodium levels in immersion deaths

Byard, R.; Summersides, G.
Fonte: Amer Soc Testing Materials Publicador: Amer Soc Testing Materials
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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To determine whether vitreous humor sodium levels might be of use in evaluating deaths associated with immersion, samples of vitreous humor were prospectively evaluated at autopsy over a 4-year period from 2006 to 2009. There were 19 cases of saltwater immersion (age range 9–76 years; mean age 44 years; M:F, 2.8:1) and 16 freshwater immersions (age range 2–81 years; mean age 27 years; M:F, 2.2:1). In the group of saltwater drownings, vitreous humor sodium levels were elevated, ranging from 145 to 184 mM (mean = 160.2 ± 9.9 mM), and in the cases of freshwater drowning, the levels were reduced, ranging from 73 to 148 mM (mean = 129.8 ± 17 mM; p < 0.0001). Alterations in electrolyte levels may have been because of hemoconcentration or dilution from electrolyte fluxes in the lungs, or from passive diffusion during immersion. This study has demonstrated that vitreous sodium level is an easily performed test that may be a useful adjunct to the investigation of possible immersion deaths.; Roger W. Byard and Glenda Summersides

Comparison of refractive outcomes using immersion ultrasound biometry and IOLMaster biometry

Goggin, M.; Landers, J.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Background: The IOLMaster determines axial length using partial coherence interferometry. This study was designed to compare the refractive outcomes of patients who had been measured preoperatively by both immersion ultrasound and IOLMaster biometry. Methods: Patients were recruited from those who had undergone cataract surgery during the preceding 12 months by one surgeon at The Queen Elizabeth Hospital (55 eyes from 55 patients). Each patient underwent measurement of axial length by immersion ultrasound and the IOLMaster. Target refraction was determined using an SRK-T formula and the amount that this differed postoperative refraction was calculated for immersion ultrasound and the IOLMaster. These results were then compared. Results: Eyes measured longer by the IOLMaster method compared with immersion ultrasound (23.37 ± 0.87 vs. 23.25 ± 0.90 mm, t = 4.83; P < 0.0001). However anterior chamber depth was the similar. Postoperatively, final refractive outcome was 0.01 ± 0.63 dioptres (D) more hypermetropic than the target refraction when using the IOLMaster compared with 0.25 ± 0.73 D more myopic when using immersion ultrasound (t = 3.83; P < 0.0001). Seventy-five per cent of patients were within 0.5 D of target refraction and 93% were within 1.0 D when the IOLMaster was used...

Cognitive Predictors of Reading Achievement in Chinese English Immersion Students

Li, Miao
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 466366 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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The cognitive processes underlying reading achievement in Chinese English immersion students are not yet clear. This study investigated the effects of phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed (NS) on reading achievement and explored the evidence for cross-linguistic transfer in Chinese English immersion students. In addition, the differences between immersion and non-immersion students on Chinese measures were examined. The participants were 135 English immersion students and 103 non-immersion students from Grades 2, 4, and 6 in mainland China. For English immersion students, English predictors proved to be strong predictors of English reading achievement at the three grade levels. However, the unique predictors of English reading achievement were English PA in Grades 2 and 4, but English NS in Grade 6. Chinese PA was a significant predictor of Chinese achievement, but only in Grade 2. There was little evidence of cross-linguistic transfer. With regards to the Chinese performance of the two groups of students, English immersion students demonstrated an advantage over non-immersion students in Grade 6, but no significant differences were found in Grades 2 and 4; these results suggest either the long-term effect of a bilingual program or a selection effect. Results are discussed in terms of theories of reading development...

Understanding Reading Comprehension in English Immersion Students in China

Li, Miao
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Compared to research on English as a First Language (EL1) reading comprehension, there is a dearth of studies investigating English as a Second Language (ESL) reading comprehension. This dissertation reports findings from two studies which examined the cognitive processes underlying English reading comprehension in Chinese ESL students. Two-hundred and forty six Grade 8 students in an English immersion program in a junior middle school in China were administered a battery of reading-related and reading comprehension tests. The first study investigated the cognitive predictors of English reading comprehension in these students. It tested whether the Simple View of Reading model (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) applied to Chinese ESL students and whether the effects of breadth and depth of vocabulary contributed to different levels of reading comprehension. The results showed that the Simple View of Reading model did not predict Chinese English-immersion students’ reading comprehension well. Vocabulary as well as inference and strategy added further variance to the general understanding of text. Vocabulary breadth and depth explained unique variance in reading comprehension, with vocabulary breadth contributing more to general understanding of text and vocabulary depth to deep processing of text. The second study explored characteristics of reading comprehension difficulties among Chinese English-immersion students. Three groups of comprehenders matched on age...

Examining the Teaching and Learning of English in an Immersion Program in Honduras

Bettney, ESTHER
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Research in bilingual education, including immersion education, has received increasing attention; yet such research does not have an empirical grounding in Central America, a geographic area of the world with an increasing number of schools employing a Spanish-English immersion model. In Honduras, students in bilingual schools typically outperform their monolingual peers on national university admission examinations, yet there are identified issues within these programs pertaining to English achievement. This study was conducted at The Pines Bilingual School (TPBS) and explored the relationships between mediating variables, including TPBS’ program, teacher and learner characteristics, and the process of teaching and learning English within the TPBS immersion program from both teachers’ and students’ perspectives. This study was guided by Lapkin, Swain and Shapson’s (1990) and Genesee’s (2004) frameworks drawing from research on French immersion programs in Canada, as well as studies from the developing field of elite bilingual education in South America. Four types of data were gathered for this study: 1) student reflections, 2) student focus group interviews, 3) teacher focus group and individual interviews, and 4) classroom observations. The data were then analyzed inductively by assigning codes and establishing themes. Four themes emerged from the data: 1) teacher and student characteristics...

Respostas fisiológicas e comportamentais de recém-nascidos pré-termos submetidos a duas técnicas de banho de imersão: ensaio clínico cruzado; Physiological and behavioral responses of preterm newborn underwent to two immersion baths techniques: cross-over clinical trial

Freitas, Patricia de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2015 Português
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Introdução: a revisão de literatura aponta que os recém-nascidos submetidos ao banho de imersão produzem menor variação térmica pós-banho comparado aos submetidos ao banho com esponja. No Brasil, o Ministério da Saúde vem capacitando profissionais que atuam em unidades de internação neonatal para implementar o Método Mãe Canguru e, entre outras práticas, recomenda que o recém-nascido pré-termo (RNPT) e com baixo peso seja submetido ao banho de imersão envolto em cueiro ou lençol, sugerindo mudança da prática hegemônica do banho com esponja ou banho de imersão convencional. No entanto, a técnica de banho de imersão recomendada carece de evidências científicas quanto a sua segurança em relação às repercussões na estabilidade da temperatura corporal (T), frequência cardíaca (FC), cortisol salivar (CS) e comportamental em RNPT. Hipótese: os RNPT submetidos ao banho de imersão envoltos em lençol (BIE) apresentam respostas fisiológicas e comportamentais similares aos submetidos à técnica de banho de imersão convencional (BIC), nos primeiros 20 minutos pós-banho. Objetivo: avaliar os parâmetros fisiológicos e comportamentais de RNPT submetidos ao banho de imersão envolto em lençol (BIE) e banho de imersão convencional (BIC). Método: ensaio clínico randomizado cruzado com amostra composta por 43 RNPT...

Desenvolvimento de filmes de carbono tipo diamante (DCL) obtidos pelo processo de imersão em plasma para implantes osteoarticulares; Development of diamond-like carbon (DCL) coatings produced by plasma immersion process for orthopaedic implants

Emilia Tieko Uzumaki
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2006 Português
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O carbono tipo diamante ("diamond-like carbon" - DLC) tem demonstrado características, como alta dureza, baixo atrito, resistência ao desgaste e à corrosão, e biocompatibilidade, que podem melhorar as propriedades de implantes sólidos e articulados. O processo de imersão em plasma vem sendo usado para depositar DLC em substratos tridimensionais, pois, com esta técnica, se consegue melhor adesão do que com as técnicas convencionais. Neste trabalho, filmes de DLC foram depositados, pelo processo de imersão em plasma, em lamínulas de vidro, silício e liga de titânio Ti-13Nb-13Zr. A caracterização da microestrutura, morfologia, dureza e adesão dos filmes de DLC foi feita por espectroscopia Raman, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), microscopia de força atômica (MFA), nanoindentação e ensaio de puxamento. Como exemplos de peças tridimensionais, filmes de DLC foram depositados em implantes osteoarticulares de quadril e joelho, titânio poroso (esponja de célula-aberta, semelhante à estrutura do osso esponjoso, expandida a vácuo), facas industriais, bisturi cirúrgico, engrenagem de motor, tubos de quartzo e de alumínio, e outros objetos. O filme obtido apresentou boas propriedades mecânicas, aumentando em 2 vezes a dureza da liga de Ti...

Study of air bubble induced light scattering effect on the image quality in 193 nm immersion lithography

Fan, Yongfa; Lafferty, Neal; Bourov, Anatoly; Zavyalova, Lena; Smith, Bruce
Fonte: SPIE Publicador: SPIE
Tipo: Proceedings
Português
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As an emerging technique, immersion lithography offers the capability of reducing critical dimensions by increasing numerical aperture (NA) due to the higher refractive indices of immersion liquids than that of air. Among the candidates for immersion liquids, water appears to be an excellent choice due to its high transparency at a wavelength of 193 nm, as well as its immediate availability and low processing cost. However, in the process of forming a water fluid layer between the resist and lens surfaces, air bubbles are often created due to the high surface tension of water. The presence of air bubbles in the immersion layer will degrade the image quality because of the inhomogeneity induced light scattering in the optical path. Therefore, it is essential to understand the air bubble induced light scattering effect on image quality. Analysis by geometrical optics indicates that the total reflection of light causes the enhancement of scattering in the region where the scattering angle is less than the critical scattering angle, which is 92 degrees at 193 nm. Based on Mie theory, numerical evaluation of scattering due to air bubbles, polystyrene spheres and PMMA spheres was conducted for TE, TM or unpolarized incident light. Comparison of the scattering patterns shows that the polystyrene spheres and air bubbles resemble each other with respect to scattering properties. Hence polystyrene spheres are used to mimic air bubbles in studies of lithographic imaging of “bubbles” in immersion water. In direct interference lithography...

25nm Immersion lithography at a 193nm wavelength

Smith, Bruce; Fan, Yongfa; Slocum, Michael; Zavyalova, Lena
Fonte: SPIE Publicador: SPIE
Tipo: Proceedings
Português
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The physical limitations of lithographic imaging are ultimately imposed by the refractive indices of the materials involved. At oblique collection angles, the numerical aperture of an optical system is determined by nsin(theta) , where n is the lowest material refractive index (in the absence of any refractive power through curvature). For 193nm water immersion lithography, the fluid is the limiting material, with a refractive index of near 1.44, followed by the lens material (if planar) with a refractive index near 1.56, and the photoresist, with a refractive index near 1.75. A critical goal for immersion imaging improvement is to first increase the refractive indices of the weakest link, namely the fluid or the lens material. This paper will present an approach to immersion lithography that will allow for the exploration into the extreme limits of immersion lithography by eliminating the fluid altogether. By using a solid immersion lithography (SIL) approach, we have developed a method to contact the last element of an imaging system directly to the photoresist. Furthermore, by fabricating this last element as an aluminum oxide (sapphire) prism, we can increase its refractive index to a value near 1.92. The photoresist becomes the material with the lowest refractive index and imaging becomes possible down to 28nm for a resist index of 1.75 (and 25nm for a photoresist with a refractive index of 1.93). Imaging is based on two-beam Talbot interference of a phase grating mask...

Amphibian XIS: An Immersion lithography microstepper platform

Smith, Bruce; Bourov, Anatoly; Fan, Yongfa; Cropanese, Frank; Hammond, Peter
Fonte: SPIE Publicador: SPIE
Tipo: Proceedings
Português
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Recent advances in immersion lithography have created the need for a small field microstepper to carry out the early learning necessary for next generation device application. Combined with fluid immersion, multiple-beam lithography can provide an opportunity to explore lithographic imaging at oblique propagation angles and extreme NA imaging. Using the phase preserving properties of Smith Talbot interferometry, the Amphibian XIS immersion lithography microstepper has been created for research and development applications directed toward sub-90nm patterning. The system has been designed for use at ArF and KrF excimer laser wavelengths, based on a fused silica or sapphire prism lens with numerical aperture values up to 1.60. Combined with a chromeless phase grating mask, two and four beam imaging is made possible for feature resolution to 35nm. The approach is combined with X-Y staging to provide immersion imaging on a microstepper platform for substrates ranging up to 300mm. The Amphibian system consists of single or dual wavelength sources (193nm and 248nm), a 2mm exposure field size, stage accuracy better than 1 um, polarization control over a full range from linear polarization to unpolarized illumination, full control of exposure dose and demodulation (to synthesize defocus)...

Three-dimensional imaging of 30-nm nanospheres using immersion interferometric lithography

Zhou, Jianming; Fan, Yongfa; Smith, Bruce
Fonte: SPIE Publicador: SPIE
Tipo: Proceedings
Português
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Immersion interferometric lithography has been applied successfully to semiconductor device applications, but its potential is not limited to this application only. This paper explores this imaging technology for the production of three-dimensional nano-structures using a 193 nm excimer laser and immersion Talbot interferometric lithographic tool. The fabrication of 3-D photonic crystals for the UV spectrum is still considered to be a challenge. A systematic analysis of immersion lithography for 3-D photonic crystal fabrication will be provided in this paper. Significant progress has been made on optical immersion lithography since it was first proposed. Two-beam immersion interferometric lithography can provide sub-30nm resolution. By changing the exposure parameters, such as the numerical aperture of the exposure system, the polarization states and wavelength of the illumination source, 30 nm polymeric nanospheres with different crystal structures can be fabricated.

Video game HUDs: Information presentation and spatial immersion

Babu, James
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Researchers have analyzed various aspects of the video game experience; however, analysis of how the presentation of game status information affects the player's sense of immersion into the virtual environment has not been explored. This study aims to discover how feelings of immersion are affected by diegetic, or environmentally based, methods of presenting the player's status versus non-diegetic methods. Avid gamers were told to play two games, one diegetic based interface and the other a non-diegetic interface, to see how their spatial immersion experiences differed between the two designs. In addition to the use of questionnaires to evaluate the level of spatial immersion, eye tracking data was collected in order to explore how fixations differed between designs. Although the questionnaire results presented that the experiences did not significantly differ between game designs, the eye tracking data led us to believe that the player's information processing may be affected. Fixation duration significantly increased during non-immersive experiences, which may suggest that players spend more time attempting to understand the environment. This may cause game designers to explore alternate methods to display status information that are easier for the player to comprehend...

Approaching the numerical aperture of water - Immersion lithography at 193nm

Smith, Bruce; Bourov, Anatoly; Fan, Yongfa; Zavyalova, Lena; Lafferty, Neal; Cropanese, Frank
Fonte: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Publicador: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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As immersion nanolithography gains acceptance for next generation device applications, experimental data becomes increasingly important. The behavior of resist materials, fluids, coatings, sources, and optical components in the presence of a water immersion media presents conditions unique compared to convention “dry” lithography. Several groups have initiated fundamental studies into the imaging, fluids, contamination, and integration issues involved with water immersion lithography at 193nm. This paper will present the status and results of the next stage of the development efforts carried out at RIT. The status of two systems are presented; a small field projection microstepper utilizing a 1.05 catadioptric immersion objective lens and a 0.50 to 1.26NA interferometric immersion exposure system based on a compact Talbot prism lens design. Results of the fundamental resolution limits of resist materials and of imaging optics are presented. Additionally, an exploration into the benefits of increasing the refractive index of water is addressed through the use of sulfate and phosphate additives. The potential of KrF, 248nm immersion lithography is also presented with experimental resist imaging results.

Water immersion optical lithography for the 45nm node

Smith, Bruce; Kang, Hoyoung; Bourov, Anatoly; Cropanese, Frank; Fan, Yongfa
Fonte: SPIE Publicador: SPIE
Tipo: Proceedings
Português
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It is possible to extend optical lithography by using immersion imaging methods. Historically, the application of immersion optics to microlithography has not been seriously pursued because of the alternative solutions available. As the challenges of shorter wavelength become increasingly difficult, immersion imaging becomes more feasible. We present results from research into 193nm excimer laser immersion lithography at extreme propagation angles (such as those produces with strong OAI and PSM). This is being carried out in a fluid that is most compatible in a manufacturable process, namely water. By designing a system around the optical properties of water, we are able to image with wavelengths down to 193nm. Measured absorption is below 0.50 cm at 185nm and below 0.05 cm' at 193nm. Furthermore, through the development of oblique angle imaging, numerical apertures approaching 1.0 in air and 1.44 in water are feasible. The refractive index of water at 193nm (1.44) allows for exploration of the following: 1. k1 values approaching 0. 17 and optical lithography approaching 35nm. 2. Polarization effects at oblique angles (extreme NA). 3. Immersion and photoresist interactions with polarization. 4. Immersion fluid composition, temperature...

Water immersion optical lithography at 193 nm

Smith, Bruce; Bourov, Anatoly; Kang, Hoyoung; Cropanese, Frank; Fan, Yongfa; Lafferty, Neal; Zavyalova, Lena
Fonte: The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) Publicador: The International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Historically, the application of immersion optics to microlithography has not been seriously pursued because of the alternative technologies available. As the challenges of shorter wavelength become increasingly difficult, immersion imaging becomes more feasible. We present results from research into 193-nm excimer laser immersion lithography at extreme propagation angles. This is being carried out in a fluid that is most compatible in a manufacturable process, namely water. By designing a system around the optical properties of water, we are able to image with wavelengths down to 193 nm. Measured absorption is below 0.50 cm^-1 at 185 nm and below 0.05 cm^-1 at 193 nm. Furthermore, through the development of oblique angle imaging, numerical apertures approaching 1.0 in air and 1.44 in water are feasible. The refractive index of water at 193 nm allows for exploration of the following: k1 values near 0.25 leading to half-pitch resolution approaching 35 nm at a 193-nm wavelength; polarization effects at oblique angles (extreme NA); immersion and photoresist interactions with polarization; immersion fluid composition, temperature, flow, and micro-bubble influence on optical properties (index, absorption, aberration, birefringence); mechanical requirements for imaging...