Página 1 dos resultados de 284 itens digitais encontrados em 0.054 segundos

Child Labor, School Attendance, and Indigenous Households: Evidence from Mexico

Bando, Rosangela G.; Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
The authors use panel data for Mexico for 1997 to 1999 to test several assumptions regarding the impact of a conditional cash transfer program on child labor, emphasizing the differential impact on indigenous households. Using data from the conditional cash transfer program in Mexico PROGRESA (OPORTUNIDADES) they investigate the interaction between child labor and indigenous households. While indigenous children had a greater probability of working in 1997, this probability is reversed after treatment in the program. Indigenous children also had lower school attainment compared with Spanish-speaking or bilingual children. After the program, school attainment among indigenous children increased, reducing the gap.

Child growth and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Queensland Aboriginal Community

Bambrick, Hilary Jane
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Globally, the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is rising. The most affected populations are those that have undergone recent and rapid transition towards a Western lifestyle, characterised by energy-dense diets and physical inactivity.¶ Two major hypotheses have attempted to explain the variation in diabetes prevalence, both between and within populations, beyond the contributions made by adult lifestyle. The thrifty genotype hypothesis proposes that some populations are genetically well adapted to surviving in a subsistence environment, and are predisposed to develop diabetes when the dietary environment changes to one that is fat and carbohydrate rich. The programming hypothesis focuses on the developmental environment, particularly on prenatal and early postnatal conditions: nutritional deprivation in utero and early postnatal life, measured by low birthweight and disrupted child growth, is proposed to alter metabolism permanently so that risk of diabetes is increased with subsequent exposure to an energy-dense diet. Both hypotheses emphasise discord between adaptation (genetic or developmental) and current environment, and both now put forward insulin resistance as a likely mechanism for predisposition.¶ Diabetes contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among Australia’s Indigenous population. Indigenous babies are more likely to be low birthweight...

Transformations of the Indigenous population: recent and future trends

Taylor, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 316289 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
By the 1970s, the Indigenous population had undergone a series of systematic fluctuations in fertility and mortality levels, uneven over space and time, but ultimately comprehensive and uniform in effect. Current interest is on progress in the prevailing demographic regime of declining natural growth rates based on reductions in both fertility and mortality, with recent trends suggesting that this process may be stalled. Also of interest is the emergence of additional contributors to Indigenous population growth. These include Indigenous births to non-Indigenous women as well as an increased propensity for individuals to declare Indigenous status on census forms. In the more distant past, sociological and political processes have effectively excluded or devalued Indigenous representation in official statistics. In the more recent politics of data collection, efforts are made to encourage identification.; no

The future of Indigenous work: forecasts of labour force status to 2011

Hunter, Boyd; Kinfu, Yohannes; Taylor, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 375758 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
The recent release of the final results for the 2001 Census presents an opportunity to assess the net change in employment outcomes for Indigenous Australians for the period covering the first two Howard administrations. This paper uses demographic techniques to make valid comparisons over time, and hence facilitate estimates of future employment levels against projected population growth. The 2001 Census data reveal no improvement in the overall position of Indigenous people in the labour market since 1996. Because of a growing Indigenous working-age population, new estimates of future job growth point to a lowering of employment rates and rising unemployment over the remainder of this decade. Overall, the current fiscal cost of this failure to eradicate Indigenous employment disparity is massive—in 2001 it was estimated to be around 0.5 per cent of Australian Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Findings from this new analysis indicate that the cost will be even higher in the future.; no

The Indigenous population of Cape York Peninsula, 2001-2016

Taylor, John; Bell, Martin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 321500 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
Recent projections made by the Australian Bureau Statistics (ABS) of Indigenous populations resident in various regions of north Australia included a set of estimates for Cape York Peninsula. These were found to be substantially at odds with the results for adjacent regions such as the West Arnhem and Gulf regions of the Northern Territory. The Cape York projections produced population growth rates that were substantially lower than those recorded for other regions, with projected numbers in certain age groups actually declining over the forecast period to 2016. Two factors were regarded as responsible for this outcome:

· a deficient 1996 estimated resident population (ERP), and · a lack of regionally-derived age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs).

This paper seeks to redress these shortcomings by presenting an alternative and improved set of 1996 population estimates, and by applying regionally-derived ASFRs to projections from this base year. The basic strategy employed in constructing alternative population estimates was to identify other regional population counts that had some claim to credibility in terms of their coverage of the Indigenous population within the region at specified points in time. A number of such sources were identified...

Population futures in the Australian desert, 2001-2016

Taylor, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 404252 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
A proposal to establish a Desert Knowledge Cooperative Research Centre (CRC), focused on Alice Springs, has recently been submitted. Fundamental to any such proposal is an understanding of population dynamics in the desert region, because demographic information provides for assessment of the quantum of need in social and economic policy, and for assessment of the impact of that quantum in environmental policy. Ultimately, what is sought is a predictive capacity for planning and evaluation.

This paper arose out of partnership discussions between the Centre for Appropriate Technology (CAT) and Rio Tinto who commissioned the author to prepare Indigenous population projections for the desert region to 2016 and compare these with projections for the total population of the same region. The focus for this analysis is the Australian arid zone which lies approximately within the 250mm rainfall isohyet. It includes 45 per cent of the Australian land mass and a population, as at 1996, of 179,000, or 0.9 per cent of the Australian total.

Overall, the total population of the desert region is projected to increase by 10,402 between 2001 to 2016, from 179,028 to 189,430. This represents an increase of 5.8 per cent, or an average annual growth rate of 0.4 per cent...

Estimating the components of indigenous population change, 1996–2001

Kinfu, Yohannes; Taylor, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 279844 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.3%
Every five years, the national Census of Population and Housing provides a window on the demographic, social and economic characteristics of Australia’s Indigenous population. Of particular interest to demographers is the opportunity that this provides to benchmark intercensal population estimates and to estimate the components of intercensal population change. In line with each census count of Indigenous Australians since 1971, when a question on self-identified Indigenous origins was introduced, the 2001 count produced an intercensal change in numbers that cannot be explained by demographic processes alone. Unpredictability thus remains a hallmark of Indigenous population growth. In accounting for the unexplained component of population growth we refer to changes in census coverage rather than specifically to changes in propensity to identify. The former may include the latter, although to what extent is unknown. In truth, we still cannot determine the factors that contribute to non-demographic population growth, although it is possible to speculate. There is evidence of a highly systematic movement of people into the census-identified Indigenous population in 1996, and out of the population in 2001. This is suggestive of procedural or processing change...

Practical reconciliation and recent trends in Indigenous education

Hunter, Boyd; Schwab, Robert G.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 381816 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
The release of 2001 Census data provides an opportunity to evaluate the Howard government’s performance in Indigenous affairs in broad terms. One major policy shift has been the call for a more ‘practical’ reconciliation that attempts to address the immediate needs of Indigenous people in areas such as employment, health, housing and education. If practical reconciliation were a reality, then one would expect there to be some evidence of a convergence in the last two censuses in the economic and educational status of Indigenous and other Australians. Furthermore, enhancing Indigenous education is important in ensuring that Indigenous engagement with the mainstream economy is sustainable, especially in view of the skill bias evident in recent economic growth. This paper analyses recent trends in the engagement of Indigenous people with the Australian education system between 1986 and 2001. A cohort analysis of changes in educational participation is presented, along with an analysis of the differences between the level and type of educational qualifications of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians over the last four censuses. The main finding is that while there have been some absolute improvements in Indigenous educational outcomes over the period 1986 to 2001...

Regional economic growth: An evaluation of the Northern Territory

Anwar, Sajid; Prideaux, Bruce
Fonte: The Economic Society of Australia Publicador: The Economic Society of Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
The Gross Product of the Northern Territory accounts for approximately 1.2% of Australian GDP. The economic growth record of NT in the past few years has been well below all Australian states and territories but the per capita income of NT remains higher than the national per capita income. Due to continued interstate migration, higher birth rate among the indigenous population and the inability of NT to attract international migrants, the Territory's population mix is slowly changing. This paper shows that the NT's economic growth rate is closely linked to the growth rate of labour force and private investment. Although the overall labour force participation-rate is almost unchanged, the male and female participation rates are moving in the opposite direction. Finally, the paper presents short-term forecasts for NT's Gross State Product per person employed, private investment and employment. The forecasting exercise shows that the cyclical pattern is likely to continue in the near future; Sajid Anwar and Bruce Prideaux; Article first published online: 13 APR 2010

Creating a sense of 'closure': Providing confidence intervals on some recent estimates of Indigenous populations

Hunter, Boyd; Dungey, Mardi
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 359598 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.09%
The ‘error of closure’ is the population growth that cannot be accounted for either by natural increase or by quantifiable non-demographic factors. The term is somewhat misleading: since it incorporates all unquantifiable components of the increase in a population count, it is unlikely ever to be ‘closed’. This study highlights the significance of variability of Indigenous population estimates by calculating standard errors, one of the conventional measures of reliability of statistics. That is, with tongue firmly in cheek, a sense of ‘closure’ is created in the debate by documenting the variability of estimates. We introduce the Dual System Estimator method for estimating the Indigenous population, and review the international literature on its strengths and weaknesses. Once Australia’s Indigenous population has been estimated using this method, confidence intervals are compared to those produced using the traditional undercount method. The main conclusion is that Dual System Estimates of the Indigenous population are reasonably accurate at the national level. Unfortunately, this conclusion may need to be revised when regionally disaggregated data are examined. The central theme of this paper is that policy makers need to take into account the fact that Indigenous population statistics from the census are merely estimates. Given the importance of this data in the horizontal fiscal equalization funding formula...

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Integrating Urban Planning and Water Management in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

Bloch, Robin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
This paper is one of a series of analytical studies commissioned by the World Bank's Africa Region and Water Anchor which are intended to identify and address the future challenges of urban water supply, sanitation and flood management in Sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) cities and towns. Following the terms of reference for the assignment, and as indicated by its title, the paper is directed at understanding and describing the linkages and interdependencies between water management and water security on the one hand, and urbanization, urban planning and development on the other. The paper is structured in six sections. Section one presents an overview of urbanization trends in SSA. This is followed by a discussion in Section two of what can be seen as the corollary of the unprecedented urban population growth now occurring and projected for SSA, large-scale urban expansion, involving potentially massive increases in urban land cover. This expansion has implications, also discussed in section two, for the internal structuring of African cities and towns...

Bolivia Financial Sector Notes : Assessing the Sector's Potential Role in Fostering Rural Development and Growth of the Productive Sectors

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Bolivia benefited from an overall favorable economic evolution in the last few years, supported by sound macro-economic indicators. Yet, economic growth was unevenly distributed between the sectors, with particularly extractive industries, construction and financial services showing higher real growth rates, while agriculture and manufacturing fell behind. This is an area of concern for the government which-as manifested in the new constitution-aims to foster a more balanced and equitable growth. In its reform measures, it places a particular focus on developing the rural areas, in which a large share of the indigenous population lives, and on the productive sector (agriculture, forestry, manufacturing and extractive), which provides the livelihood for a substantial number of poor people. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion and on-going reform efforts by providing an evaluation of the role the financial system could play for enhancing growth in rural areas and the productive sector without threatening the sector's stability. It also endeavors to update the Bank's knowledge on the financial sector...

Population Aging : Is Latin America Ready?; Envejecimiento de la poblacion : esta preparada America Latina ?

Cotlear, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and few opportunities for work outside the household. Investments in health and education reached only a small fraction of the children, many of whom died before reaching age five. Since then, the size of the LAC population has tripled and the mostly rural population has been transformed into a largely urban population. There have been steep reductions in child mortality, and investments in health and education have increased, today reaching a majority of children. Fertility has been more than halved and the opportunities for women in education and for work outside the household have improved significantly. Life expectancy has grown by 22 years. Less obvious to the casual observer...

Integrating the Indigenous Knowledge of Borana Pastoralists into Rangeland Management Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
Pastoralists' indigenous knowledge (IK) about ecology and social organization led to rangeland-management strategies appropriate to deal with the erratic rainfall in African drylands. Herd mobility was traditionally practiced as the key strategy to make use of the scattered rangeland resources on a large scale.

Population Pressures, Migration, and the Returns to Human Capital and Land : Insights from Indonesia

Liu, Yanyan; Yamauchi, Futoshi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.96%
Rapid population growth in many developing countries has raised concerns regarding food security and household welfare. To understand the consequences of population growth in a general equilibrium setting, this paper examines the dynamics of population density and its impacts on household outcomes. The analysis uses panel data from Indonesia combined with district-level demographic data. Historically, Indonesia has adapted to land constraints through a mix of agricultural intensification, expansion of the land frontier, and nonfarm diversification, with public policies playing a role in catalyzing all of these responses. In contemporary Indonesia, the paper finds that human capital determines the effect of increased population density on per capita household consumption expenditure. On the one hand, the effect of population density is positive if the average educational attainment is high (above junior high school), while it is negative otherwise. On the other hand, farmers with larger holdings maintain their advantage in farming regardless of population density. The paper concludes with some potential lessons for African countries from Indonesia's more successful rural development experiences.

Niger - Accelerating Growth and Achieving the Millennium Development Goals : Diagnosis and the Policy Agenda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
This report has the following objectives: (i) identify the underlying constraints to strong and sustained growth, in particular, the dynamic circles that lock Niger in a low-growth/high poverty equilibrium; (ii) understand the key determinants of growth and poverty traps and the role increased foreign aid could play to promote growth and help achieve the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDGs); and (iii) help the Government of Niger design a strategy to accelerating growth and human development: Strategy Paper for Human Development (SPAHD). This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 describes the main features of Niger's economy from a Social Accounting Matrix perspective. It aims to analyze the potential linkages between sectors and the impact a policy shock of an increased public investment could have on Niger's economy. Chapter 2 reviews Niger's growth performance over the past three decades. It draws some policy lessons critical to the design of a growth strategy for Niger. Chapter 3 provides a snapshot of where Niger stands in achieving the MDGs with less than a decade remaining. It examines the reasons why Niger is falling short of the goals...

The Global Family Planning Revolution : Three Decades of Population Policies and Programs; La revolucion mundial de la planificación familiar : tres decadas de politicas y programas de poblacion

Robinson, Warren C.; Ross, John A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
This volume helps fill the gap left from insufficiently archived details of family planning programs carried out in many developing countries from the 1950s through the 1980s of their operations, their commonalities, and their differences, with much useful information and informed analysis. The programs were complex undertakings in difficult settings that had little prior experience to draw upon. Not surprisingly, as the case studies described here demonstrate, no single strategy was available that could be employed across these diverse situations, and procedures that were successful in one country did not necessarily function well in another. The case studies also indicate that developing a successful program was as much an art as a science. The key ingredient was being able to distinguish when a somewhat radical new approach was needed and when only some fine-tuning was necessary. While not a focus of this book, the family planning programs had several important, indirect effects on the field of population studies that merit attention as part of the record. First...

Population futures in the Australian desert, 2001-16

Taylor, John
Fonte: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
Population estimates are rarely constructed for ecological regions. The recent establishment of a Desert Knowledge Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) generates a need for such estimates. This paper obliges by presenting Indigenous and total population projections for the Australian desert to 2016. The desert is found to be a region of relatively low population growth in national terms, contrary to the experience of many other parts of non-metropolitan Australia where population decline is prevalent. Also noted is the markedly different growth observed for the Indigenous and non-Indigenous components of the desert population, with the former projected to increase much more rapidly over time. It is likely that virtually all of the increase in the desert population over the next 15 years will arise from natural increase among Indigenous peoples. As a consequence, the Indigenous share of the regional population is projected to rise from 20 per cent in 2001 to 24 per cent by 2016, with attendant consequences for social and economic policy.

Country Partnership Framework for the Plurinational State of Bolivia for the Period FY16-FY20

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Country Focus :: Country Assistance Strategy Document
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Bolivia’s distinct characteristics and aspirations are a key for understanding its development trajectory. Bolivia is one of the countries with the highest share of indigenous population, representing a tapestry of different groups with different historical, cultural and economic features, with a significant influence in policy decision making. The country is landlocked and one of the most sparsely populated in the world. As a result, long distances to the nearest seaports and markets and a challenging topography pose important natural constraints to economic expansion, and hamper broad-based and inclusive growth. Bolivia is also wealthy in natural resources, not only in hydrocarbon and in mining but in forestry and arable land, with high potential for growth, which make it vulnerable to commodity price shocks. In addition, in the last decade, the country has experienced a profound economic and political paradigm shift, enshrined in the 2009 Constitution, which has been predominantly driven by a state-led development model geared at addressing the social aspirations of Bolivians. The Agenda Patriótica provides the overall policy vision to 2025 and includes 13 strategic pillars. The PDES contains a five-year rolling plan with policy actions and budgets to operationalize the Agenda Patriótica. The overarching development agenda of the Government is still...

Recuperação populacional e fecundidade dos Kamaiurá, povo Tupi do Alto Xingu, Brasil Central, 1970-2003; Population recovery and fertility Among the Kamaiurá, Tupi people of the Alto Xingu, Central Brazil, 1970-2003

Pagliaro, Heloisa; Junqueira, Carmen
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Este trabalho analisa a fecundidade dos Kamaiurá, povo Tupi habitante do Parque Indígena do Xingu (PIX), entre 1970 e 2003. As fontes de dados foram os registros do Programa de Saúde da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp) no Parque Indígena do Xingu e levantamentos de campo realizados em 2003. O estudo mostrou que até 1966 a população Kamaiurá manteve-se estável devido à alta mortalidade por epidemias de doenças infecciosas e disputas com os povos da região, assim como à fecundidade moderada. Entre 1967 e 2002, essa população cresceu 3,5% ao ano. O nível da fecundidade das Kamaiurá passou de 5,7 para 6,2 filhos por mulher, entre 1970 e 2003, tendo atingido seu valor máximo em 1980 (6,6). A partir da década de 1990, houve um envelhecimento do padrão reprodutivo, evidenciado pela redução dos níveis de fecundidade das mulheres com até 24 anos e aumento entre as mulheres dos demais grupos etários. A média de idade ao nascimento do primeiro filho aumentou de 16,2 para 18,8 anos, no período 1970-2003, e a proporção de mulheres solteiras maiores de 15 anos de idade também cresceu: de 6,3%, em 1971, para 26%, em 2003. Nesse período, o intervalo entre os nascimentos variou entre 30,3 e 36 meses. O aumento da fecundidade dos Kamaiurá foi favorecido pela melhoria das condições de saúde decorrente da queda da mortalidade...