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Proceedings of the 9th MIT/ONR workshop on C3 Systems, held at Naval Postgraduate School and Hilton Inn Resort Hotel, Monterey, California June 2 through June 5, 1986

Fonte: Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Masschusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Masschusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: ix, 259 p.; 30124321 bytes; application/pdf
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edited by Michael Athans, Alexander H. Levis.; GRSN 627729; "December 1986."; Includes bibliographical references and index.; Sponsored by Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, Cambridge, Mass., with support from the Office of Naval Research. ONR/N00014-77-C-0532(NR041-519) Sponsored in cooperation with IEEE Control Systems Society, Technical Committee on C.

Bodies of information : reinventing bodies and practice in medical education; Reinventing bodies and practice in medical education

Prentice, Rachel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 253 p.
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This dissertation recounts the development of graphic models of human bodies and virtual reality simulators for teaching anatomy and surgery to medical students, residents, and physicians. It considers how researchers from disciplinary cultures in medicine, engineering, and computer programming come together to build these technologies, bringing with them values and assumptions about bodies from each of their disciplines, values and assumptions that must be negotiated and that often are made material and embedded in these new technologies. It discusses how the technological objects being created privilege the body as a dynamic and interactive system, in contrast to the description and taxonomic body of traditional anatomy and medicine. It describes the ways that these technologies create new sensory means of knowing bodies. And it discusses the larger cultural values that these technologies reify or challenge. The methodology of this dissertation is ethnography. I consider in-depth one laboratory at a major medical school, as well as other laboratories and researchers in the field of virtual medicine. I study actors in the emerging field of virtual medicine as they work in laboratories, at conferences, and in collaborations with one another. I consider the social formations that are developing with this new discipline. Methods include participant observation of laboratory activities...

The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2012

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Since the late 1990s access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) has seen tremendous growth driven primarily by the wireless technologies and liberalization of telecommunications markets. Mobile communications have evolved from simple voice and text services to diversified innovative applications and mobile broadband Internet. By the end of 2011, the number of mobile-cellular subscriptions reached approximately 6 billion globally. The number of individuals using the Internet has risen constantly and reached an estimated 2.4 billion while the number of fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions reached almost 600 million at the end of 2011. The impacts of ICTs cross all sectors. Research has shown that investment in information and communication technologies is associated with such economic benefits as higher productivity, lower costs, new economic opportunities, job creation, innovation, and increased trade. ICTs also help provide better services in health and education, and strengthen social cohesion. The little data book on information and communication technology 2012 illustrates the progress of this revolution for 216 economies around the world. It provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2005 and 2010 across a range of indicators...

The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This Little Data Book presents tables for over 213 economies showing the most recent national data on key indicators of information and communications technology (ICT), including access, quality, affordability, efficiency, sustainability, and applications.

The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Since the late 1990s access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) has seen tremendous growth driven primarily by the wireless technologies and liberalization of telecommunications markets. Mobile communications have evolved from simple voice and text services to diversified innovative applications and mobile broadband Internet. By the end of 2013, there were an estimated 6.8 billion mobile-cellular subscriptions globally. The number of individuals using the Internet has risen constantly and reached an estimated 2.7 billion while the number of fixed (wired)- broadband subscriptions reached almost 700 million at the end of 2013. The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2014 illustrates the progress of this revolution for 214 economies around the world. It provides comparable statistics on the sector for 2005 and 2012 across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare economies. This book includes indicators covering the economic and social context, the structure of the information and communication technology sector...

Steuerungsregimes als Konzept der politischen Steuerung : Forschungsförderung zum Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien im Bildungssystem; Control regimes as a concept of political control : research promotion for the application of information and communication technology in the education system

Boy, Jörg Alexander
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
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Die vorliegende Studie untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen dem informationstechnologischen Fortschritt und gesellschaftlichen Veränderungsprozessen in Richtung einer Informations- und Wissensgesellschaft als ein Handlungsfeld steuerungspolitischer Maßnahmen. Sie bewegt sich im Feld politischer Steuerung in Forschung und Entwicklung und analysiert die Absichten verschiedener Projektförderer zur Errichtung von Steuerungsregimes beim IKT-Einsatz in der Bildung. Steuerungsregimes sind darauf gerichtet, Beziehungsnetzwerke zwischen staatlichen Akteuren, der Wissenschaft und der Wirtschaft zu etablieren, um die Transferleistung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und deren Umsetzung in Wirtschaftsgüter zu verbessern. Methodisch greift die Untersuchung auf den Ansatz der Kontextsteuerung Helmut Willkes zurück, der ein Konzept zur Konstituierung von Steuerungsregimes entworfen hat, das der Ableitung der Untersuchungsleitfragen zu Grunde gelegt wird. Die Entwicklung des Untersuchungsdesigns und der Untersuchungsmethoden, an denen sich die Studie ausrichtet, basiert auf den folgenden Untersuchungsleitfragen: 1. Handelt es sich bei der Vision von der Informations- und Wissensgesellschaft um ein Konzept, das die gesellschaftliche Entwicklung - basierend auf dem technologischen Fortschritt der IKT - adäquat beschreibt? 2. Inwiefern sind die Strukturen der Forschungsförderung von IKT im Bildungsbereich dazu geeignet...

Las TIC en el aula. Una propuesta interactiva para el segundo ciclo de educación infantil; The information and communication technology (ICT) in the classroom. An interactive proposal for the second stage of childhood education

Nieto Hernández, Idoia
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
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RESUMEN El uso de aplicaciones interactivas educativas se ha convertido en uno de los temas de actualidad con mayor relevancia en estos últimos años por la importancia que las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación están cobrando en nuestra sociedad. Este trabajo se ha diseñado con el fin de realizar un análisis teórico y práctico del uso de la tecnología en las aulas, concretamente mediante el empleo de la Pizarra Digital Interactiva y de las aplicaciones educativas interactivas. Para ello, se ha realizado una breve retrospectiva sobre el origen y situación de las Tic en la era digital. También, se ha abordado el tema a partir de algunos estudios realizados acerca de las nuevas tecnologías en el aula, como el realizado por el profesor Pere Marquès, y se ha llevado a cabo un acercamiento al funcionamiento y beneficios de aplicaciones ya existentes. Por último, se ha tratado de reflexionar sobre la importancia de estas nuevas tecnologías en las aulas. En cuanto al aspecto práctico del trabajo, y a partir de lo descubierto gracias a la investigación previa, se ha desarrollado una aplicación interactiva propia y original, que cubra objetivos y necesidades de un alumnado de Educación Infantil compuesto por niños de 4 años. Los resultados han sido positivos en ambos ámbitos. Por una parte...

An opportunity for the improvement of higher education through the information and communication technologies

Gallego-Arrufat, Mar??a Jes??s; Burgos-Garc??a, Antonio; G??miz-S??nchez, Vanesa; P??rez-Garc??a, Purificaci??n; Romero-L??pez, Asunci??n; Rodr??guez-Entrena, Mar??a Jes??s
Fonte: International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) Publicador: International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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Nowadays, e-learning, teleformation, or training based on ICT (Information and Communication Technologies), play a fundamental role in the improvement of the learning processes that is taking place at the Universities. On the one hand, the incorporation of the ICT in a face-to-face, distance or blended modality and, on the other hand, the European convergence process, have influenced on the change and improvement of the institution, in general, and the teaching leaming process developed in Higher Education, in particular. Nevertheless, it could be necessary to remark that the basic objective is to improve the attention of the users (in our case, students of Education Sciences). Another important aim is to optimize the resources based on Internet. But, mainly, in order to promote innovating processes which simplify and make agile not only the work of the teaching staff and students but also the communication among them. The purpose of this paper is to find out if pre-service teachers prefer a virtual modality during the Practicum period, when they finish their studies on Education.

Stone Chips to Silicon Chips: A Grounded Theory of Information and Communication Technology adoption in Australian Indigenous households rural, urban and remote.

Radoll, Peter John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become an everyday part of life. Communication networks within Australia link financial, educational, government and non-government services to Australian households. Both the 2001 and 2006 Australian Census data demonstrate that Indigenous Australians are 69% less likely to access the Internet at home than the rest of the Australian population. This study examines the factors affecting the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies in Australian Indigenous households and provides a plausible explanation as to why this gap exists. This study uses a multiple case study approach and draws on the Glaserian Grounded Theory Methodology to examine Indigenous household ICT adoption in a rural Indigenous community, an urban Indigenous community and a remote Indigenous community, to identify differences and commonalities of ICT adoption and non-adoption in diverse cultural and geographical locations across Australia. The theoretical lens draws on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of habitus to develop a practice perspective of household ICT adoption established through the habitus concepts of structures and agency or society and individual. The research establishes the existence of the Indigenous substantive field and postulates that new practices are formed with the intersection of the Indigenous field and external fields. Through the development of substantive fields this thesis develops a theoretical framework of Indigenous household ICT adoption. The findings suggest that a single model of ICT adoption can be applied to all Indigenous communities across Australia.The results could have considerable practical and policy significance.; Supervisor - Associate Professor Walter Fernandez; Yes

Characterizing radio channels : the science and technology of propagation and interference, 1900-1935

Yeang, Chen-Pang.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 429 p.
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Guglielmo Marconi's trans-Atlantic wireless experiment in 1900 marked the beginning of a communication revolution that transformed the open space above the earth into channels of information flow. This dissertation grapples with the historical conditions that gave rise to such a transformation: the studies of radio-wave propagation and the treatments of radio interferences in early twentieth-century America and Western Europe. The part on propagation examines the debate between the surface diffraction theory and the atmospheric reflection theory for long waves, the development of the ionic refraction theory for short waves, the evidential quests for the existence of the ionosphere, and the studies of the geomagnetic effects on propagation. The part on interferences focuses on the engineering efforts toward the characterization of atmospheric noise and signal-intensity fluctuations, the policies of radio-channel allocation for fighting man-made interference, and the scientific research into electronic tube noise. By the mid-30s, the results from these endeavors had considerably improved the quality of radio communication. Characterizing Radio Channels builds a bridge between the history of science and the history of technology by inspecting an immaterial engineering entity--radio channels--whose control required significant scientific research. In the history of science...

Techno-Territories : the spatial, technological and social reorganization of office work

Schwarz, Heinrich Joachim, 1959-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (302 leaves); 30574512 bytes; 30574269 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In this thesis, I examine the current reorganization of office or information work in its technological, spatial, social and cultural aspects. Based on ethnographic and historical methods, I explore how information and communication technologies, and spatial designs combined with specific organizational visions shape the social organization and culture of work. Analyzing ideas as well as material configurations, design as well as use, and developments in offices as well as those beyond the office, I am particularly concerned with the new forms of life and cultural formations these developments produce. The 1990s saw a development towards more flexible, mobile and virtual ways of officing, such as non-territorial offices and remote work. Analyzing the alternative officing movement in the context of wider economic and cultural changes, I demonstrate the strategic role technology plays for the movement's vision of a less place-based definition of work. Suggesting an alternative intellectual origin for today's office concepts different from Taylorism, I opt for the concept of office landscaping, an influential German office concept developed after WW2 and inspired by cybernetics. Fieldwork in a present day innovative office design firm reveals a deep tension in its office designs between a more flexible and mobile organizational goal...

Managing a sea of information : shipboard command and control in the United States Navy, 1899-1945

Wolters, Timothy Scott, 1965-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 294 leaves; 19484642 bytes; 19484438 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation traces the history of shipboard command and control systems in the United States Navy from 1899, when the service first conducted experiments with wireless telegraphy, through World War II, the conflict which witnessed the birth of the modern shipboard information processing facility. It argues that early-to-mid twentieth century naval officers' development and employment of increasingly sophisticated shipboard command and control systems fundamentally altered the human experience of warfare at sea. Based predominately on archival research, Managing a Sea of Information follows a narrative format. It begins by examining the United States Navy's adoption of radio and challenges the notion that a conservative officer corps failed to appreciate the potential advantages of this new communications technology. The bulk of the study explores the Navy' s development of shipboard command and control systems from World War I through the beginning of World War II, focusing particularly on the efforts of operational commanders to maximize their capabilities through the adoption of devices, methods, and procedures for the collection, processing, and dissemination of information. These efforts gradually changed the nature of command at sea...

Children's rights in an age of information and communication technologies

Buxarrais, María Rosa; Martinez, Miquel
Fonte: Faculty of Education, Queen's University Publicador: Faculty of Education, Queen's University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 101333 bytes; application/pdf
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We live in a socio-cultural, informational and technological context that poses new educational challenges for society in general but above all for children. In this paper, we present a proposal that should help to maximise the capacity of children to face the challenges presented by today's society. We draw attention to the fact that in an age of information technology such as ours, children as a group risk marginalization. The children's bill of rights in the XXI century needs to build on those drawn up in the XX century and should be extended to include those rights that safeguard life styles and living conditions and a child's right to play and learn, in keeping with the specific conditions of the XXI century. To this end, we frame a proposal concerning the rights of children in a society increasingly dominated by information and communication technologies. Throughout Europe, there is much current debate about children's rights linked with mass media and information and communication technologies. We describe several projects that offer hope for the promotion of greater responsibility on the part of the mass media given their pervasive ability to shape thinking, projects that may help to mitigate the influence of the media, including information and communication technologies on children.

Facts and Figuring: An Experimental Investigation of Network Structure and Performance in Information and Solution Spaces

Shore, Jesse; Bernstein, Ethan; Lazer, David
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/06/2014 Português
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Using data from a large laboratory experiment on problem solving in which we varied the structure of 16-person networks we investigate how an organization's network structure may be constructed to optimize performance in complex problem-solving tasks. Problem solving involves both search for information and search for theories to make sense of that information. We show that the effect of network structure is opposite for these two equally important forms of search. Dense clustering encourages members of a network to generate more diverse information, but it also has the power to discourage the generation of diverse theories: clustering promotes exploration in information space, but decreases exploration in solution space. Previous research, tending to focus on only one of those two spaces, had produced inconsistent conclusions about the value of network clustering. By adopting an experimental platform on which information was measured separately from solutions, we were able to reconcile past contradictions and clarify the effects of network clustering on performance. The finding both provides a sharper tool for structuring organizations for knowledge work and reveals the challenges inherent in manipulating network structure to enhance performance...

Redundancy in Systems which Entertain a Model of Themselves: Interaction Information and the Self-organization of Anticipation

Leydesdorff, Loet
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2010 Português
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Mutual information among three or more dimensions (mu-star = - Q) has been considered as interaction information. However, Krippendorff (2009a, 2009b) has shown that this measure cannot be interpreted as a unique property of the interactions and has proposed an alternative measure of interaction information based on iterative approximation of maximum entropies. Q can then be considered as a measure of the difference between interaction information and redundancy generated in a model entertained by an observer. I argue that this provides us with a measure of the imprint of a second-order observing system -- a model entertained by the system itself -- on the underlying information processing. The second-order system communicates meaning hyper-incursively; an observation instantiates this meaning-processing within the information processing. The net results may add to or reduce the prevailing uncertainty. The model is tested empirically for the case where textual organization can be expected to contain intellectual organization in terms of distributions of title words, author names, and cited references.

Globalization and Governance in Cyberspace: Mapping the Processes of Emergent Regime Formation in Global Information and Communications Policy

Cogburn, Derrick L.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/09/2001 Português
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This paper develops a theoretical perspective on globalization and the Information Society and combines it with a critical usage of international regime theory as a heuristic for understanding the current historical period of transition from an international telecommunicaitons regime (Cowhey, 1990; 1994) to a new and complex regime aimed at providing governance for the Global Information Infrastructure and Global Information Society (GII/GIS). In analyzing the principles, values, norms, rules, collective decision-making prdocedures, and enforcement mechanisms of the emergent GII/GIS regime, this paper differentiates between three regime levels: (1) Macro-Regime--global; (2) Mezzo-Regime--regional and sub-regional; and (3) Micro-Regime--national. The paper employs a case-study approach to explore some of the specific national responses (i.e. South Africa) to this regime transition, with an analysis of potential best practices and lessons learned for other emerging economies. Key findings in this paper are: (1) that a range of social, political, economic, and technological factors are eroding the existing international telecommunications regime (e.g., VOIP;, call-back, VSATs, accounting rate restructuring, pressure for applicaitons development...

Information and Communication Technology Reputation for XU030 Quote Companies

Seker, Sadi Evren; Cankir, Bilal; Arslan, Mehmet Lutfi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/06/2014 Português
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By the increasing spread of information technology and Internet improvements, most of the large-scale companies are paying special attention to their reputation on many types of the information and communication technology. The increasing developments and penetration of new technologies into daily life, brings out paradigm shift on the perception of reputation and creates new concepts like esocieties, techno-culture and new media. Contemporary companies are trying to control their reputation over the new communities who are mostly interacting with social networks, web pages and electronic communication technologies. In this study, the reputation of top 30 Turkish companies, quoted to the Istanbul Stock Market, is studied, based on the information technology interfaces between company and society, such as social networks, blogs, wikis and web pages. The web reputation is gathered through 17 different parameters, collected from Google, Facebook, Twitter, Bing, Alexa, etc. The reputation index is calculated by z-index and fscoring formulations after the min-max normalization of each web reputation parameter.; Comment: 5 pages 2 figure 1 table 21 refs. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1401.7547

Nanotechnology and Society: A discussion-based undergraduate course

Tahan, Charles; Leung, Ricky; Zenner, G. M.; Ellison, K. D.; Crone, W. C.; Miller, Clark A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nanotechnology has emerged as a broad, exciting, yet ill-defined field of scientific research and technological innovation. There are important questions about the technology's potential economic, social, and environmental implications. We discuss an undergraduate course on nanoscience and nanotechnology for students from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, the humanities, and engineering. The course explores these questions and the broader place of technology in contemporary societies. The course is built around active learning methods and seeks to develop the students' critical thinking skills, written and verbal communication abilities, and general knowledge of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts. Continuous assessment was used to gain information about the effectiveness of class discussions and enhancement of student understanding of the interaction between nanotechnology and society.; Comment: 7 pages, 1 figure. Edited and shortened for readability. Visit http://www.tahan.com/charlie/nanosociety/course201/ for more information

Social representations of information and knowledge on the distance education modality: a case study at UFMG; Representações sociais sobre informação e conhecimento na educação a distância: um estudo de caso na UFMG

Araujo, Sinay Santos Silva de; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; Moura, Maria Aparecida; Professora Associada da Escola de Ciência da Informação da UFMG
Fonte: Departamento de Ciência da Informação – UFSC Publicador: Departamento de Ciência da Informação – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo.; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/04/2012 Português
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This article presents the concepts of information and knowledge adopted by undergraduates, professors and assistant teachers from the distance education in the undergraduate courses in Biological Sciences and Mathematics at Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). The social representations were systematized in the study that investigated the formation of informational culture in the distance education modality. It was used as a theoretical framework the Social Representation Theory and the technique of CSD (Discourse of the Collective Subject) developed by Lefèvre and Lefèvre. According to the social representations of research subjects, information is the basis for the construction of knowledge and is understood as a human phenomenon that relates to the production of meaning. The systematic knowledge is the information that can be socially communicated.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2012v17n33p79Este artigo apresenta os conceitos de informação e conhecimento adotados por alunos, professores e tutores oriundos dos cursos de graduação na modalidade de educação a distância em Ciências Biológicas e Matemática da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). As representações sociais foram sistematizadas no estudo que investigou a formação da cultura informacional na modalidade de educação a distância. Foram utilizadas como referencial teórico a Teoria das Representações Sociais e a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC)...

Sociedade da Informação e do Conhecimento: desafios teóricos e empíricos | Information and Knowledge Society: theoretical and empirical challenges

Albagli, Sarita; IBICT
Fonte: Ibict Publicador: Ibict
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/04/2007 Português
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Resumo Apresentam-se e discutem-se alguns aspectos-chave na compreensão das mudanças relacionadas à emergência da Sociedade da Informação e do Conhecimento, com base em perspectivas e abordagens de diferentes campos do conhecimento – antropologia, economia da inovação, geografia política e direito.Palavras-chave: Sociedade da Informação; Sociedade do Conhecimento; epistemologia; propriedade intelectual; economia da informação e do conhecimento  Abstract This paper presents and discusses some key issues to understand the changes related to the emergence of Information and Knowledge Society, considering perspectives and approaches from different fields of knowledge – such as Anthropology, Innovation Economy, Political Geography and Law. Keywords Information Society; Knowledge Society; epistemology; intellectual property; information and knowledge economy