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INSECTICIDAL AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM MELIACEAE ON BEMISIA TABACI (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)

Silva, Gerane Celly Dias Bezerra; Silva, Márcio Alves; Vendramim, José Djair; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos
Fonte: FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOC; LUTZ Publicador: FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOC; LUTZ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We studied the effects of crude extracts and fractions of Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata and Trichilia pallida on both egg and nymph mortality and embryonic development of Bemisia tabaci B biotype, using tomato plants grown in a greenhouse. Next, we studied the host selection behavioral effects on the adult whitefly under laboratory conditions. The dichloromethane extracts from all plant species and fractions of the extract from branches of T. pallida (EBTPD) and of the extract from leaves of T. ciliata (ELTCD) in dichloromethane caused mortality of nymphs, but neither affected egg viability. However, the branches of the ethanolic extract of A. indica increased the period of embryonic development of the B. tabaci. In addition, the tomato leaflets treated with the fraction of ELTCD dichloromethane (0.28%) were the least preferred by adults, reducing the number of insects resting on the tomato leaflets. The ELTCD methanol and EBTPD dichloromethane fractions inhibited B. tabaci oviposition. Thus, Meliaceae derivatives can contribute to the reduction of the B. tabaci population. The susceptibility of the B. tabaci to Meliaceae derivatives and the relevant behavioral changes of this pest are discussed.; Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); CAPES (Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico)

Molecular cloning and insecticidal effect of Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor on Diatraea saccharalis and Heliothis virescens

Ramos, Vanessa da S.; Cabrera, Odalys G.; Camargo, Eduardo L. O.; Ambrosio, Alinne B.; Vidal, Ramon O.; da Silva, Desiree S.; Guimaraes, Lays C.; Marangoni, Sergio; Parra, Jose R. P.; Pereira, Goncalo A. G.; Macedo, Maria L. R.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Native Inga laurina (Fabaceae) trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) was tested for anti-insect activity against Diatraea saccharalis and Heliothis virescens larvae. The addition of 0.1% ILTI to the diet of D. saccharalis did not alter larval survival but decreased larval weight by 51%. The H. virescens larvae that were fed a diet containing 0.5% ILTI showed an 84% decrease in weight. ILTI was not digested by the midgut proteinases of either species of larvae. The trypsin levels were reduced by 55.3% in the feces of D. saccharalis and increased by 24.1% in the feces of H. virescens. The trypsin activity in both species fed with ILTI was sensitive to the inhibitor, suggesting that no novel proteinase resistant to ILTI was induced. Additionally, ILTI exhibited inhibitory activity against the proteinases present in the larval midgut of different species of Lepidoptera. The organization of the ilti gene was elucidated by analyzing its corresponding genomic sequence. The recombinant ILTI protein (reILTI) was expressed and purified, and its efficacy was evaluated. Both native ILTI and reILTI exhibited a similar strong inhibitory effect on bovine trypsin activity. These results suggest that ILTI presents insecticidal properties against both insects and may thus be a useful tool in the genetic engineering of plants. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); FUNDECT (Fundacao de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino...

Busca de substâncias de Trichilia pallida e Trichilia pallens (Meliaceae) com atividade sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep.: Gelechiidae).; Searching Trichilia pallida and Trichilia pallens (meliaceae)for substances with insecticidal activity against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep.: Gelechiidae).

Cunha, Uemerson Silva da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2005 Português
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A partir de extratos aquosos e não aquosos das meliáceas Trichilia pallida e Trichilia pallens, objetivou-se fazer o isolamento e identificação de substâncias com atividade inseticida sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta. Para tanto, extratos aquosos liofilizados (EAL) a 3 % de folhas e ramos de ambas as espécies de Trichilia foram ressuspendidos em água e aplicados, por meio de mini-atomizador, sobre folíolos de tomateiro, os quais foram infestados com lagartas recém-eclodidas. Com base nos resultados de mortalidades aos 5 e 10 dias após a infestação (DAI), consideraram-se os EAL de folhas de ambas Trichilia mais eficientes que os respectivos extratos de ramos. Numa segunda etapa, foram obtidos por maceração, extratos de folhas de T. pallida e T. pallens em hexano (HEX), diclorometano (DIC) e metanol (MET), os quais foram avaliados, a 1%, como descrito anteriormente, incluindo-se acetona e água como controles. Dentre os referidos extratos, o em DIC de ambas Trichilia foi o mais promissor como fonte de substância(s) com atividade inseticida sobre lagartas de T. absoluta. Na seqüência, através de partição líquido líquido do extrato DIC de folhas, obtiveram-se as frações em HEX, MET, acetato de etila (AET)...

Busca de compostos em Chenopodium spp. (Chenopodiaceae) com bioatividade em relação a pragas de grãos armazenados; Searching for Chenopodium spp. (Chenopodiaceae) compounds with bioactivity against stored grain pests

Tavares, Márcio Aurélio Garcia Correia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2006 Português
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Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a bioatividade de pós, extratos aquosos e não aquosos (hexano, clorofórmio e metanol) de folhas e frutos de Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodium quinoa Willd. e Chenopodium album L. sobre as pragas de grãos armazenados, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabr.), bem como avaliar o potencial inseticida do óleo essencial de C. ambrosioides, e o efeito repelente e inseticida de algumas substâncias (limoneno, α-pineno e p-cimeno) constituintes deste. As plantas de Chenopodium spp. foram cultivadas na área experimental do Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola da ESALQ/USP, de maneira a possibilitar a coleta das respectivas estruturas vegetais e posterior obtenção dos pós (através de secagem e moagem) e extratos aquosos (imersão dos pós em água por 24 horas) e não aquosos (maceração com solventes). O óleo essencial de C. ambrosioides foi obtido pelo processo de hidrodestilação. Análises dos constituintes dos óleos essenciais foram feitas por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectroscopia de massas (CG/EM). Os insetos utilizados nos ensaios foram obtidos de criação mantida em grãos de trigo. Avaliou-se o efeito dos pós...

Bioatividade de extratos orgânicos de meliáceas e óleos essenciais de piperáceas sobre Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Bioactivity of organic extracts from Meliaceae and essential oils from Piperaceae on Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

Pitta, Rafael Major
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/11/2010 Português
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Os afídeos são importantes pragas na agricultura, principalmente por serem vetores de fitovírus, os quais são transmitidos geralmente no momento da picada de prova. Além disso, os afídeos também removem os aminoácidos nitrogenados das plantas ao se alimentarem no floema e injetam substâncias presentes na saliva, que interferem na fisiologia da planta. Entre as táticas de controle para o manejo integrado desses insetos, pode-se citar o emprego de inseticidas químicos ou botânicos e o uso de produtos repelentes que tornam as plantas pulverizadas não atrativas, evitando que pulgões pousem e se alimentem normalmente da planta. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a bioatividade de extratos orgânicos das Meliaceae Trichilia pallida, Trichillia claussenii,Trichilia catigua, Toona ciliata e Guarea guidonia e dos óleos essenciais das Piperaceae Piper amalago, Piper umbellatum, Piper claussenianum e Piper sp. em relação a pulgões, utilizando como espécie-modelo R. maidis. Os extratos orgânicos das Meliaceae foram obtidos, por maceração, com o uso dos solventes hexano, diclorometano e etanol, nessa sequência de extração. O extrato hexânico de T. pallida foi o que apresentou a maior atividade aficida, sendo então selecionado para fracionamento por cromatografia de coluna rápida utilizando...

Biosprospecção de extratos vegetais e sua interação com protetores de grãos no controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); Bioprospecting of plant extracts and their interaction with grain protectans in the control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2011 Português
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Objetivou-se, no presente estudo, avaliar a ação de extratos orgânicos e frações de plantas com atividade inseticida, bem como, a associação de extratos orgânicos brutos com terra de diatomácea no controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidade), em milho armazenado. Os extratos foram obtidos por meio de maceração em solventes orgânicos (hexano, diclorometano e etanol), em ordem crescente de polaridade, das seguintes estruturas e espécies vegetais: ramos, folhas e sementes de Annona montana e de A. mucosa; ramos de Aristolochia cf. paulistana e folhas e ramos de Casearia sylvestris. No screening visando à identificação dos extratos mais promissores, verificou-se que os extratos de sementes de A. mucosa e de A. montana, em hexano e diclorometano, seguido pelos extratos de folhas das mesmas espécies, em hexano, foram os tratamentos mais promissores, os quais foram, então, selecionados para os ensaios seguintes. Entre os extratos promissores, os obtidos de sementes de A. mucosa em hexano e em diclorometano foram os que apresentaram os menores valores de concentração letal média (CL50) (110,28 e 149,79 ppm, respectivamente). Observou-se, ainda, pequena variação no tempo letal médio (TL50) (4,14 a 6...

Avaliação do efeito sistêmico de nanoformulações à base de derivados de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em tomateiro; Evaluation of the systemic effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) nanoformulations against Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in tomato plants

Carvalho, Sheila Salles de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/10/2012 Português
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A nanotecnologia é cada vez mais empregada em métodos alternativos de controle de pragas. Em virtude disso, nanoformulações foram preparadas com nanocápsulas (NC) utilizando os polímeros poli-metacrilato de metila (PMMA), poli-?-caprolactona (PCL) e poli- ?-hidroxibutirato (PHB) como agentes encapsulantes de duas moléculas inseticidas (azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol), e tendo como matriz oleosa o óleo de nim ou o óleo comercial Azamax®, ambos com teor de azadiractina enriquecido. O objetivo foi avaliar a eficácia de 19 nanoformulações no controle de ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, importante praga nas condições tropicais, por meio da ação sistêmica do ingrediente ativo liberado. Primeiramente foi estimada a CL50 para ação sistêmica de soluções contendo óleo de nim em tomateiro sobre ninfas da mosca-branca. As plantas de tomateiro utilizadas nesse experimento foram congeladas e analisadas quanto ao teor de azadiractina. Posteriormente, cinco lotes de nanoformulações, os quais variaram no tipo e na quantidade dos polímeros e da matriz oleosa, foram testados quanto à ação sistêmica. Duas nanoformulações em suspensão aquosa foram selecionadas (NC L5-2 e NC L6-1) por causarem mortalidade comparável à do óleo comercial...

Insecticidal potential of the annonaceae family plants

Krinski, Diones; Massaroli, Angelica; Machado, Marilza
Fonte: Soc Brasileira Fruticultura Publicador: Soc Brasileira Fruticultura
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 225-242
Português
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The use of plants compounds for the control of insects has increased worldwide. This occurs because the vegetal insecticides contains biodegradable compounds, nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use in pest control. Plants of the family Annonaceae are standing out as biopesticides because they are bioactive naturally in addition to presenting cytotoxic activity, antitumor, vermifuge, antimicrobial, immunosuppressive, anti-emetic, inhibiting appetite, antimalarial and also insecticide. The insecticidal activity of Annonaceae is due to the presence of acetogenins, substances that act on mitochondria inhibiting the NADH -ubiquinone oxidoreductase, causing the death of insects. In this review we report the use of Annonaceae in insect control, showing that so far, only 42 species of Annonaceae have information insecticidal activity against just over 60 species of insect pests. This information shows that much research is still needed, especially to get to know the insecticidal activity of other Annonaceae species, in addition to its effects on insect pests not yet studied. So we will have as an alternative to sustainable development, new vegetal insecticides such as those obtained from different Annonaceae species, which can act as an additional tool to balance the excesses of agriculture chemical or conventional.

Insecticidal Effect of Extracts from Native Plants of Mato Grosso do Sul State on Sitophilus zeamais Mots (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Souza, Antonio Pancrácio de; Marques, Maria Rita; Mahmoud, Talal Suleiman; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Caputo, Bruno Alonso; Canhete, Gabriel Marcari; Leite, Carla Braga; Lima, Dênis Pires de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1-5
Português
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Research on insecticidal plants has increased in recent years, as has their utilization. Their compatibility with other methods of insect control and their lower toxicity to mammals are some of the advantages that have fostered their use. In the present study, selected plant species native to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were investigated for their insecticidal potential against Sitophilus zeamais Mots. The extracts assayed were obtained from stems of Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Anacardiaceae), Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell.) Toledo (Bignoniaceae), and Gomphrena elegans Mart. (Amaranthaceae). Wheat grains were treated with the extracts and distributed into acrylic containers, each holding 20 unsexed 10- to 20-day-old S. zeamais adults. For the control the wheat grains were treated solely with solvents. The number of dead insects was counted daily until the tenth day. T. heptaphylla and G. elegans extracts exhibited insecticidal effect since the fifth day of treatment, whereas the effect of the other extracts was not observed before the tenth day. Insect death was caused by the following extracts: T. guianensis in n-butanol...

Insecticidal effect of labramin, a lectin-like protein isolated from seeds of the beach apricot tree, Labramia bojeri, on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella

Teodoro Martinez, Diego Stefani; Machado Freire, Maria das Gracas; Mazzafera, Paulo; Araujo-Junior, Roberto Theodoro; Bueno, Rafael Delmond; Rodrigues Macedo, Maria Ligia
Fonte: Univ Arizona; Tucson Publicador: Univ Arizona; Tucson
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The objective of this work was to study the insecticidal effect of labramin, a protein that shows lectin-like properties. Labramin was isolated from seeds of the Beach Apricot tree, Labramia bojeri A. DC ex Dubard (Ericales: Sapotaceae), and assessed against the development of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of stored products such as corn, wheat, rice, and flour. Results showed that labramin caused 90% larval mortality when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 1% (w/w). The presence of 0.25% labramin in the diet affected the larval and pupal developmental periods and the percentage of emerging adults. Treatments resulted in elevated levels of trypsin activity in midgut and fecal materials, indicating that labramin may have affected enzyme-regulatory mechanisms by perturbing peritrophic membranes in the midgut of E. kuehniella larvae. The results of dietary experiments with E. kuehniella larvae showed a reduced efficiency for the conversion of ingested and digested food, and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. These findings suggest that labramin may hold promise as a control agent to engineer crop plants for insect resistance.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Control of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by essential oils and extracts obtained from plants: a review.

Barbosa, Pedro; Vieira, Paulo; Dias, LS; Pedro, LG; Barroso, JG; Figueiredo, AC; Mota, Manuel
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
Português
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The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a serious threat to forest ecosystems at a global scale. The nematode has become a major quarantine problem due to its capability to completely destroy Pinus spp. trees, with great damage to the wood industry. Controlling the nematode inside a living tree is quite difficult, the techniques used being often ineffective and quite expensive. In the coming years, most chemicals used to control nematodes will be banned and replaced by safer and environmentally friendly products. As so, chemicals naturally produced by plants will play an important role in controlling diseases such as pine wilt. Plants, particularly aromatic ones, are commonly used due to the chemical properties of their secondary metabolites. Among these, essential oils and/or extracts are highly employed and are being tested as possible control of some organisms, like nematodes. Recent publications have evaluated essential oils derived from different plant species as natural nematicides [1; 2], antibacterial [3], anti-fungal [4] as well as insecticidal [5]. Concerning control of the PWN, a significant amount of information on plants tested, results obtained and employed techniques, is available. Our revision has extensively gathered this information...

Bioprospecting insecticidal compounds from plants native to Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Souza,Antonio P.; Marques,Maria R.; Mahmoud,Talal S.; Caputo,Bruno A.; Canhete,Gabriel M.; Leite,Carla B.; Lima,Dênis P. de
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
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This paper reports on an evaluation of the insecticidal activity of extracts prepared from leaves of Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Anacardiaceae), Attalea phalerata (Mart. ex Spreng.) Burret (Arecaceae), Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), and Gomphrena elegans Mart. (Amaranthaceae) and from stems of Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae). Four extracts and 18 fractions with a range of polarities were tested. Ten-gram batches of wheat grains were each nebulized with 1 mL of a separate extract at 10% w/v. After solvent evaporation at 38 ºC, the grains were placed into flasks along with 20 unsexed 10- to 20-day old adult individuals of Sitophilus zeamais. The assessment was carried out on the fifth and tenth day by counting and discarding the dead insects. Leaf extracts of G. elegans showed an insecticidal effect ranging from 27% to 60% by the fifth day, whereas the effect of the remaining extracts tested (if active at all) did not exceed 20% in the same period. By the tenth day, the most active extracts were those of A. phalerata (hexanic, 36.5%) and all those of G. elegans (5280.5%), whereas the effect of the other extracts did not exceed 30%.

Effect of Anacardium humile St. Hill (Anacardiaceae) Aqueous Extract on Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae)

Pistori,Melissa Gindri Bragato; Roel,Antonia Railda; Valério,José Raul; Oliveira,Marlene Conceição Monteiro; Grisoto,Eliane; Matias,Rosemary
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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The study of plant-derived substances for the control of insect pests is desirable in the attempt to discover less toxic insecticides that are safe for the environment. Indeed, extracts from the cashew of the savannah, Anacardium humile, have shown insecticidal activities against certain insects. The sugarcane root spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata is considered an important pest of sugarcane, causing severe damage and significant yield reductions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of A. humile (0.05, 0.4 and 1.0%) on M. fimbriolata. The application of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile resulted in 53.1% nymphal mortality at a concentration of 1.0%, which was significantly higher than that observed in the negative control. The nymphal period and longevity of M. fimbriolata, however, were not affected by the aqueous A. humile extract.

Reversing insect adaptation to transgenic insecticidal plants.

Carrière, Y; Tabashnik, B E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2001 Português
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The refuge-high-dose strategy for delaying insect adaptation to transgenic plants produces non-transgenic plants that enable survival of susceptible individuals. Previous theoretical work has suggested three requirements for success of the refuge-high-dose strategy: a low initial frequency of the resistance allele, extensive mating between resistant and susceptible adults and recessive inheritance of resistance. In order to understand an observed decrease in resistance frequency and improve the potential for managing resistance better, we used analytical and simulation models for exploring the conditions that prevent or reverse the evolution of resistance, even when resistance is not rare initially. Assuming random mating and recessive or nearly recessive inheritance of resistance, the factors favouring reversal of resistance are non-recessive costs of resistance, low initial resistance allele frequency, large refuges, incomplete resistance and density-independent population growth in refuges.

A Critical Assessment of the Effects of Bt Transgenic Plants on Parasitoids

Chen, Mao; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Collins, Hilda L.; Earle, Elizabeth D.; Cao, Jun; Shelton, Anthony M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2008 Português
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The ecological safety of transgenic insecticidal plants expressing crystal proteins (Cry toxins) from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) continues to be debated. Much of the debate has focused on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of pest insects in many crops. Although many studies have been conducted on predators, few reports have examined parasitoids but some of them have reported negative impacts. None of the previous reports were able to clearly characterize the cause of the negative impact. In order to provide a critical assessment, we used a novel paradigm consisting of a strain of the insect pest, Plutella xylostella (herbivore), resistant to Cry1C and allowed it to feed on Bt plants and then become parasitized by Diadegma insulare, an important endoparasitoid of P. xylostella. Our results indicated that the parasitoid was exposed to a biologically active form of the Cy1C protein while in the host but was not harmed by such exposure. Parallel studies conducted with several commonly used insecticides indicated they significantly reduced parasitism rates on strains of P. xylostella resistant to these insecticides. These results provide the first clear evidence of the lack of hazard to a parasitoid by a Bt plant...

Translocation and insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis living inside of plants

Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Capdeville, Guy; Jones, Gareth; Martins, Érica Soares; Praça, Lilian; Cordeiro, Bruno Arrivabene; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Dos Santos, Roseane Cavalcante; Berry, Colin
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The major biological pesticide for the control of insect infestations of crops, Bacillus thuringiensis was found to be present naturally within cotton plants from fields that had never been treated with commercial formulations of this bacterium. The ability of B. thuringiensis to colonize plants as an endophyte was further established by the introduction of a strain marked by production of green fluorescent protein (GFP). After inoculation of this preparation close to the roots of cotton and cabbage seedlings, GFP‐marked bacteria could be re‐isolated from all parts of the plant, having entered the roots and migrated through the xylem. Leaves taken from the treated plants were able to cause toxicity when fed to the Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda (cotton) and Plutella xylostella (cabbage). These results open up new horizons for understanding the natural ecology and evolution of B. thuringiensis and use of B. thuringiensis in insect control.

Insecticidal Activity of Some Traditionally Used Ethiopian Medicinal Plants against Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus

Gemeda, Negero; Mokonnen, Walelegn; Lemma, Hirut; Tadele, Ashenif; Urga, Kelbessa; Addis, Getachew; Debella, Asfaw; Getachew, Mesaye; Teka, Frehiwot; Yirsaw, Kidist; Mudie, Kissi; Gebre, Solomon
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Twelve medicinal plants and a commercially used drug Ivermectin were examined for insecticidal activity against Melophagus ovinus sheep ked at different time intervals using in vitro adult immersion test. The findings show that at 3.13 µL/mL, 6.25 µL/mL and 12.5 µL/mL concentration of Cymbopogon citratus, Foeniculum vulgare and Eucalyptus globulus essential oils respectively, recorded 100% mortalities against M. ovinus within 3 hour of exposure. Significantly higher insecticidal activity of essential oils was recorded (P = 0.00) when compared to 10 μg/mL Ivermectin after 3-hour exposure of M. ovinus at a concentration of ≥1.57 μL/mL, ≥3 μL/mL, and ≥12.7 μL/mL essential oils of C. citratus, F. vulgare, and E. globulus, respectively. Among essential oils, C. citratus has showed superior potency at a three-hour exposure of the parasite (P = 0.00) at a concentration of ≥0.78 μL/mL. Strong antiparasitic activity was recorded by aqueous extract of Calpurnia aurea (80% mortality) at a concentration of 200 mg/mL within 24 h among aqueous extracts of 9 medicinal plants. The results indicated all the four medicinal plants, particularly those tested essential oils, can be considered as potential candidates for biocontrol of M. ovinus sheep ked.

Atividade inseticida da folha e da torta da semente de nim Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em milho Zea mays L. (Poaceae).; Insecticidal activity of the leaf and of the neem seed pie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) in the control of the Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in maize Zea mays L. (Poaceae).

Silva, Marcílio de Souza
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Agronomia; Produção vegetal; Proteção de plantas; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Agronomia; Produção vegetal; Proteção de plantas; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.37553%
The Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm is considered the main pest of the maize culture. The alternative control of this pest by means of Azadirachta indica A Juss. (Meliaceae) has been sufficiently promising; however, few works describe the use of neem residues in its control. This work was divided into a literature review and two experimental chapters. The first had as objective to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous leaf extracts and neem seed pie in worm of S. frugiperda fed with laboratory treated maize leaves. As for the second, the objective was to evaluate the leaf and pie of the neem seed effect, in three ways of application in greenhouse. In chapter I, the determination of the CL50 was done with analysis of Probit at two season of evaluation, besides a factorial 2x2+1 scheme to evaluate the biometric insect data and regressions to mortality. In chapter II, the variance analysis was carried out, the measurements being compared by the Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% of significance. The estimated values of the CL50 for the aqueous extracts neem with leaf and pie were of 0.38% (m/v) and 0.31% (m/v), respectively. In relation to the length of the worm, width of the head and weight of the insect, there was significant interaction between the season and the treatments tested. There was significant difference between the tested aqueous extracts...

Bioatividade de espécies vegetais em relação a Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) em feijão (Phaseolus vulharis L. 1753); Evaluation of insecticidal activity of vegetal powders for the control of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., 1753)

Araújo, Alice Maria Nascimento de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Agronomia; Produção vegetal; Proteção de plantas; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Agronomia; Produção vegetal; Proteção de plantas; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Agronomia; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.61775%
The common bean Phaseolus vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1753) (Fabaceae) is a legume of great importance as a source of vegetal protein in Brazil. The insect damages bean grains and reduces its quality, affecting the appearance, palatability and acceptability by the consumers. The weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is one of the main pests of stored beans. The larvae of this insect open galleries in the bean grains, attacking the cotyledons and can completely destroy them. The methods currently used to control storage pest species are the purges and treatment with residual insecticides that are not always effective to exterminate the pests or to prevent reinfestation, and may result in problems such as insect resistance and animals and humans poisoning. This work aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of ten different plant species for the control of Z. subfasciatus. The weevil repellence, mortality, oviposition and adult emergence were evaluated in a non-choice test and the weevil oviposition and adult emergence were evaluated in a free-choice test. The plant species used were: Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) (cebil), Annona muricata L (soursop), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. ( catingueira )...

Botanical insecticides on Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and its parasitoids in string beans cultivated in a plastic greenhouse; Inseticidas botânicos sobre Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) e seus parasitóides em feijão-de-vagem cultivado em estufa

Dequech, Sônia Thereza Bastos; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciências Rurais; Sturza, Vinícius Soares; Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Sausen, Carla Daniele; Egewarth, Rafael; Milani, Marília; Schirmann, Janquieli
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/12/2010 Português
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The string bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most cultivated vegetables in plastic greenhouses in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Liriomyza huidobrensis (Dip.: Agromyzidae) is one of the most important insect pests occurring in this culture. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of plants and the commercial product DalNeem on L. huidobrensis and its parasitoids, as well as to analyse the population fluctuation of L. huidobrensis and parasitoids of this insect pest. The experiment was carried out on string beans cultivated in a greenhouse, where in each of the four central lines of culture, five plots were established with five plants per plot. The experimental design was random blocks with four replications. DalNeem was the treatment that best controlled L. huidobrensis. On the other hand, the treatments did not affect the parasitoids Chrysocharis bedius (Hym.: Eulophidae) or Opius sp. (Hym.: Braconidae). In plants without the use of these treatments, the population of L. huidobrensis exhibited a sharp decline with the increase of the parasitoids C. bedius, Opius sp., Eucoilinae (Hym.: Figitidae) and Diptera.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p37O feijão-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) é uma das olerícolas mais cultivadas em estufas plásticas na região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Liriomyza huidobrensis (Dip.: Agromyzidae) é um dos principais insetos-praga que ocorrem nessa cultura. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas e do produto comercial DalNeem sobre L. huidobrensis e seus parasitóides...