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Transmissão e volatilidade de preços das commodities agrícolas; Price transmission and volatility for agricultural commodities: soybean and corn

Moratoya, Elsie Estela
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronegocio (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronegocio (EAEA); Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos - EAEA (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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This study presents an empirical analysis of price and volatility transmission for soybean and corn prices, between an international market, represented by the Chicago Board of Trade, and four domestic markets in Brazil: State of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. Daily soybean and corn prices were collected for the period January, 2008 to June 2013 from the Centre for Advanced Studies in Applied Economics and the Institute of Agricultural Economics in Brazil. Henceforth, returns for the nominal price series were calculated and logaritmized for a preliminary to assess the behavior of the series, in which all were found to be integrated of order (1). Furthermore, the international market and domestic markets were found to be highly correlated. Co-movement and price transmission speed for both crops in all domestic markets and international market were measured using the Johansen cointegration test and the error correction model. Empirical results for the soybean prices presented the state of Rio Grande do Sul as the market that more rapidly adjusts to international market prices, at a rate of speed of 55%. Soybean prices in the state of Goiás corrected at a rate of 40%, Mato Grosso at a rate of 46%, and Paraná at a rate of speed of 55%. In terms of corn prices...

A Theoretical Comparison Between Integrated and Realized Volatilies

MEDDAHI, Nour
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1631096 bytes; application/pdf
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In this paper, we provide both qualitative and quantitative measures of the cost of measuring the integrated volatility by the realized volatility when the frequency of observation is fixed. We start by characterizing for a general diffusion the difference between the realized and the integrated volatilities for a given frequency of observations. Then, we compute the mean and variance of this noise and the correlation between the noise and the integrated volatility in the Eigenfunction Stochastic Volatility model of Meddahi (2001a). This model has, as special examples, log-normal, affine, and GARCH diffusion models. Using some previous empirical works, we show that the standard deviation of the noise is not negligible with respect to the mean and the standard deviation of the integrated volatility, even if one considers returns at five minutes. We also propose a simple approach to capture the information about the integrated volatility contained in the returns through the leverage effect.; Dans cet article, nous quantifions qualitativement et quantitativement la précision de la mesure de la volatilité intégrée par la volatilité réalisée quand la fréquence d’observations est fixée. Nous commençons par caractériser pour une diffusion générale la différence entre les volatilités réalisée et intégrée pour une fréquence d’observations donnée. Ensuite...

Correcting the Errors : A Note on Volatility Forecast Evaluation Based on High-Frequency Data and Realized Volatilities

ANDERSEN, Torben G.; BOLLERSLEV, Tim; MEDDAHI, Nour
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 158041 bytes; application/pdf
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This note develops general model-free adjustment procedures for the calculation of unbiased volatility loss functions based on practically feasible realized volatility benchmarks. The procedures, which exploit the recent asymptotic distributional results in Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (2002a), are both easy to implement and highly accurate in empirically realistic situations. On properly accounting for the measurement errors in the volatility forecast evaluations reported in Andersen, Bollerslev, Diebold and Labys (2003), the adjustments result in markedly higher estimates for the true degree of return-volatility predictability.; Cette note développe des méthodes d’ajustement, sans spécifier le modèle, qui corrigent le biais induit par les erreurs de mesures de la volatilité dans la mesure de performance des méthodes de prévision de la volatilité. Les procédures, qui utilisent la récente théorie asymptotique de Barndorff-Nielsen et Shephard (2002a), sont faciles à mettre en oeuvre et très performantes dans les situations empiriques usuelles. En particulier, la prise en compte des erreurs de mesures dans les procédures de prévision de Andersen, Bollerslev, Diebold et Labys (2003), amène à des performances de prévision de la volatilité très élevées.

Bootstrapping high frequency data

Hounyo, Koomla Ulrich
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Nous développons dans cette thèse, des méthodes de bootstrap pour les données financières de hautes fréquences. Les deux premiers essais focalisent sur les méthodes de bootstrap appliquées à l’approche de "pré-moyennement" et robustes à la présence d’erreurs de microstructure. Le "pré-moyennement" permet de réduire l’influence de l’effet de microstructure avant d’appliquer la volatilité réalisée. En se basant sur cette ap- proche d’estimation de la volatilité intégrée en présence d’erreurs de microstructure, nous développons plusieurs méthodes de bootstrap qui préservent la structure de dépendance et l’hétérogénéité dans la moyenne des données originelles. Le troisième essai développe une méthode de bootstrap sous l’hypothèse de Gaussianité locale des données financières de hautes fréquences. Le premier chapitre est intitulé: "Bootstrap inference for pre-averaged realized volatility based on non-overlapping returns". Nous proposons dans ce chapitre, des méthodes de bootstrap robustes à la présence d’erreurs de microstructure. Particulièrement nous nous sommes focalisés sur la volatilité réalisée utilisant des rendements "pré-moyennés" proposés par Podolskij et Vetter (2009)...

Financial Distortions and the Distribution of Global Volatility

Eden, Maya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Why are emerging economies excessively vulnerable to shocks to external funding? What was the role of financial flows from emerging to developed economies in setting the stage for the subprime crisis? This paper addresses these questions in a simple general equilibrium framework that emphasizes the aggregate implications of the misallocation of funds on the micro level. The analysis shows that the misallocation of funds amplifies volatility even in a closed economy. Financial integration between relatively distorted emerging economies and relatively undistorted developed economies leads to a further divergence in volatility, thereby providing a new and simple explanation for the divergent trends in output volatility up to the recent crisis. In the integrated environment, cheap funding leads to an endogenous deterioration of the financial system in developed economies. These predictions are consistent with a wide variety of microfoundations, in which distortions cause productive projects to be relatively more sensitive to aggregate shocks. The paper provides some empirical evidence for these microfoundations.

Does Higher Openness Cause More Real Exchange Rate Volatility?

Calderón, César; Kubota, Megumi
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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The "New Open Economy Macroeconomics" argues that: (a) non-monetary factors have gained importance in explaining exchange rate volatility, and (b) trade and financial openness may have a potential role of mitigating and/or amplifying real and nominal shocks to real exchange rates. The goal of the present paper is to examine the ability of trade and financial openness to exacerbate or mitigate real exchange rate volatility. The authors collected information on the real effective exchange rate, its fundamentals, and (outcome and policy measures of) trade and financial openness for a sample of industrial and developing countries for the period 1975-2005. Using instrumental variables techniques, the analysis finds that: (a) High real exchange rate volatility is the result of highly volatile productivity shocks, and sharp oscillations in monetary and fiscal policy shocks. (b) Countries more integrated with international markets of goods and services tend to display more stable real exchange rate fluctuations. (c) Financial openness seems to amplify the fluctuations in real exchange rates. (d) The composition of trade and capital flows plays a role in explaining the smoothing properties of trade and financial openness. Although the former is mainly driven by manufacturing trade...

Public Expenditure and Consumption Volatility

Herrera, Santiago; Vincent, Bruno
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Recent estimates of the welfare cost of consumption volatility find that it is significant in developing nations, where it may reach an equivalent of reducing consumption by 10 percent per year. Hence, examining the determinants of consumption volatility is of utmost relevance. Based on cross-country data for the period 1960-2005, the paper explains consumption volatility using three sets of variables: one refers to the volatility of income and the persistence of income shocks; the second set of variables refers to policy volatility, considering the volatility of public spending and the size of government; while the third set captures the ability of agents to smooth shocks, and includes the depth of the domestic financial markets as well as the degree of integration to international capital markets. To allow for potential endogenous regressors, in particular the volatility of fiscal policy and the size of government, the system is estimated using the instrumental variables method. The results indicate that...

Quarticity estimation on ohlc data

BALTER, Janine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Integrated quarticity, a measure of the volatility of volatility, plays a key role in analyzing the volatility of financial time series. As it is an important ingredient for the construction of accurate confidence intervals for integrated volatility, its accurate estimation is of high interest. Given that it includes fourth order returns, it is relatively hard to estimate. This article proposes a new, very efficient and jump-robust estimator of integrated quarticity -based on intraday open, high, low and close prices (ohlc data) - and compares its performance to that of the realized quarticity.

Volatility modelling and accurate minimun capital risk requirements : a comparison among several approaches

Grané, Aurea; Veiga, Helena
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 Português
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In this paper we estimate, for several investment horizons, minimum capital risk requirements for short and long positions, using the unconditional distribution of three daily indexes futures returns and a set of GARCH-type and stochastic volatility models. We consider the possibility that errors follow a t-Student distribution in order to capture the kurtosis of the returns distributions. The results suggest that an accurate modeling of extreme returns obtained for long and short trading investment positions is possible with a simple autoregressive stochastic volatility model. Moreover, modeling volatility as a fractional integrated process produces, in general, excessive volatility persistence and consequently leads to large minimum capital risk requirement estimates. The performance of models is assessed with the help of out-of-sample tests and p-values of them are reported.

Three Essays on Volatility Measurement and Modeling with Price Limits: A Bayesian Approach

Gao, RUI
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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This dissertation studies volatility measurement and modeling issues when asset prices are subject to price limits based on Bayesian approaches. Two types of estimators are developed to consistently estimate integrated volatility in the presence of price limits. One is a realized volatility type estimator, but using both realized asset prices and simulated asset prices. The other is a discrete sample analogue of integrated volatility using posterior samples of the latent volatility states. These two types of estimators are first constructed based on the simple log-stochastic volatility model in Chapter 2. The simple log-stochastic volatility framework is extended in Chapter 3 to incorporate correlated innovations and further extended in Chapter 4 to accommodate jumps and fat-tailed innovations. For each framework, a MCMC algorithm is designed to simulate the unobserved asset prices, model parameters and latent states. Performances of both type estimators are also examined using simulations under each framework. Applications to Chinese stock markets are also provided.; Thesis (Ph.D, Economics) -- Queen's University, 2014-01-22 10:29:12.507

Efficient estimation using the characteristic function : theory and applications with high frequency data

Kotchoni, Rachidi
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Nous abordons deux sujets distincts dans cette thèse: l'estimation de la volatilité des prix d'actifs financiers à partir des données à haute fréquence, et l'estimation des paramétres d'un processus aléatoire à partir de sa fonction caractéristique. Le chapitre 1 s'intéresse à l'estimation de la volatilité des prix d'actifs. Nous supposons que les données à haute fréquence disponibles sont entachées de bruit de microstructure. Les propriétés que l'on prête au bruit sont déterminantes dans le choix de l'estimateur de la volatilité. Dans ce chapitre, nous spécifions un nouveau modèle dynamique pour le bruit de microstructure qui intègre trois propriétés importantes: (i) le bruit peut être autocorrélé, (ii) le retard maximal au delà duquel l'autocorrélation est nulle peut être une fonction croissante de la fréquence journalière d'observations; (iii) le bruit peut avoir une composante correlée avec le rendement efficient. Cette dernière composante est alors dite endogène. Ce modèle se différencie de ceux existant en ceci qu'il implique que l'autocorrélation d'ordre 1 du bruit converge vers 1 lorsque la fréquence journalière d'observation tend vers l'infini. Nous utilisons le cadre semi-paramétrique ainsi défini pour dériver un nouvel estimateur de la volatilité intégrée baptisée "estimateur shrinkage". Cet estimateur se présente sous la forme d'une combinaison linéaire optimale de deux estimateurs aux propriétés différentes...

Estimation of integrated volatility of volatility with applications to goodness-of-fit testing

Vetter, Mathias
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this paper, we are concerned with nonparametric inference on the volatility of volatility process in stochastic volatility models. We construct several estimators for its integrated version in a high-frequency setting, all based on increments of spot volatility estimators. Some of those are positive by construction, others are bias corrected in order to attain the optimal rate $n^{-1/4}$. Associated central limit theorems are proven which can be widely used in practice, as they are the key to essentially all tools in model validation for stochastic volatility models. As an illustration we give a brief idea on a goodness-of-fit test in order to check for a certain parametric form of volatility of volatility.; Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.3150/14-BEJ648 in the Bernoulli (http://isi.cbs.nl/bernoulli/) by the International Statistical Institute/Bernoulli Society (http://isi.cbs.nl/BS/bshome.htm)

Efficient estimation of integrated volatility in presence of infinite variation jumps

Jacod, Jean; Todorov, Viktor
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/05/2014 Português
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We propose new nonparametric estimators of the integrated volatility of an It\^{o} semimartingale observed at discrete times on a fixed time interval with mesh of the observation grid shrinking to zero. The proposed estimators achieve the optimal rate and variance of estimating integrated volatility even in the presence of infinite variation jumps when the latter are stochastic integrals with respect to locally "stable" L\'{e}vy processes, that is, processes whose L\'{e}vy measure around zero behaves like that of a stable process. On a first step, we estimate locally volatility from the empirical characteristic function of the increments of the process over blocks of shrinking length and then we sum these estimates to form initial estimators of the integrated volatility. The estimators contain bias when jumps of infinite variation are present, and on a second step we estimate and remove this bias by using integrated volatility estimators formed from the empirical characteristic function of the high-frequency increments for different values of its argument. The second step debiased estimators achieve efficiency and we derive a feasible central limit theorem for them.; Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/14-AOS1213 the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)

Vast volatility matrix estimation for high-frequency financial data

Wang, Yazhen; Zou, Jian
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/02/2010 Português
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High-frequency data observed on the prices of financial assets are commonly modeled by diffusion processes with micro-structure noise, and realized volatility-based methods are often used to estimate integrated volatility. For problems involving a large number of assets, the estimation objects we face are volatility matrices of large size. The existing volatility estimators work well for a small number of assets but perform poorly when the number of assets is very large. In fact, they are inconsistent when both the number, $p$, of the assets and the average sample size, $n$, of the price data on the $p$ assets go to infinity. This paper proposes a new type of estimators for the integrated volatility matrix and establishes asymptotic theory for the proposed estimators in the framework that allows both $n$ and $p$ to approach to infinity. The theory shows that the proposed estimators achieve high convergence rates under a sparsity assumption on the integrated volatility matrix. The numerical studies demonstrate that the proposed estimators perform well for large $p$ and complex price and volatility models. The proposed method is applied to real high-frequency financial data.; Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/09-AOS730 the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)

A remark on the rates of convergence for integrated volatility estimation in the presence of jumps

Jacod, Jean; Reiss, Markus
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The optimal rate of convergence of estimators of the integrated volatility, for a discontinuous It\^{o} semimartingale sampled at regularly spaced times and over a fixed time interval, has been a long-standing problem, at least when the jumps are not summable. In this paper, we study this optimal rate, in the minimax sense and for appropriate "bounded" nonparametric classes of semimartingales. We show that, if the $r$th powers of the jumps are summable for some $r\in[0,2)$, the minimax rate is equal to $\min(\sqrt{n},(n\log n)^{(2-r)/2})$, where $n$ is the number of observations.; Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/13-AOS1179 the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)

Integrated volatility and round-off error

Rosenbaum, Mathieu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/09/2009 Português
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We consider a microstructure model for a financial asset, allowing for price discreteness and for a diffusive behavior at large sampling scale. This model, introduced by Delattre and Jacod, consists in the observation at the high frequency $n$, with round-off error $\alpha_n$, of a diffusion on a finite interval. We give from this sample estimators for different forms of the integrated volatility of the asset. Our method is based on variational properties of the process associated with wavelet techniques. We prove that the accuracy of our estimation procedures is $\alpha_n\vee n^{-1/2}$. Using compensated estimators, limit theorems are obtained.; Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.3150/08-BEJ170 the Bernoulli (http://isi.cbs.nl/bernoulli/) by the International Statistical Institute/Bernoulli Society (http://isi.cbs.nl/BS/bshome.htm)

Efficient Estimation of Stochastic Volatility Using Noisy Observations: A Multi-Scale Approach

Zhang, Lan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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With the availability of high frequency financial data, nonparametric estimation of volatility of an asset return process becomes feasible. A major problem is how to estimate the volatility consistently and efficiently, when the observed asset returns contain error or noise, for example, in the form of microstructure noise. The former (consistency) has been addressed heavily in the recent literature, however, the resulting estimator is not quite efficient. In Zhang, Mykland and Ait-Sahalia (2003), the best estimator converges to the true volatility only at the rate of n^{-1/6}. In this paper, we propose an estimator, the {\it Multi-scale Realized Volatility (MSRV)}, which converges to the true volatility at the rate of n^{-1/4}, which is the best attainable. We have shown a central limit theorem for the MSRV estimator, which permits setting intervals for the true integrated volatility on the basis of MSRV.

Modelling and forecasting stochastic volatility

Lopes Moreira da Veiga, Maria Helena
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Bellaterra, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Bellaterra,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
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Consultable des del TDX; Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada; El objetivo de esta tesis es modelar y predecir la volatilidad de las series financieras con modelos de volatilidad en tiempo discreto y continuo. En mi primer capítulo, intento modelar las principales características de las series financieras, como a persistencia y curtosis. Los modelos de volatilidad estocástica estimados son extensiones directas de los modelos de Gallant y Tauchen (2001), donde incluyo un elemento de retro-alimentación. Este elemento es de extrema importancia porque permite captar el hecho de que períodos de alta volatilidad están, en general, seguidos de periodos de gran volatilidad y viceversa. En este capítulo, como en toda la tesis, uso el método de estimación eficiente de momentos de Gallant y Tauchen (1996). De la estimación surgen dos modelos posibles de describir los datos, el modelo logarítmico con factor de volatilidad y retroalimentación y el modelo logarítmico con dos factores de volatilidad. Como no es posible elegir entre ellos basados en los tests efectuados en la fase de la estimación, tendremos que usar el método de reprogección para obtener mas herramientas de comparación. El modelo con un factor de volatilidad se comporta muy bien y es capaz de captar la «quiebra» de los mercados financieros de 1987. En el segundo capítulo...

Estimating stochastic volatility diffusion using conditional moments of integrated volatility

Bollerslev, T; Zhou, H
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 33 - 65; application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2002 Português
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Essays on estimation and inference for volatility with high frequency data.

Kalnina, Ilze
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Volatility is a measure of risk, and as such it is crucial for finance. But volatility is not observable, which is why estimation and inference for it are important. Large high frequency data sets have the potential to increase the precision of volatility estimates. However, this data is also known to be contaminated by market microstructure frictions, such as bid-ask spread, which pose a challenge to estimation of volatility. The first chapter, joint with Oliver Linton, proposes an econometric model that captures the effects of market microstructure on a latent price process. In particular, this model allows for correlation between the measurement error and the return process and allows the measurement error process to have diurnal heteroskedasticity. A modification of the TSRV estimator of quadratic variation is proposed and asymptotic distribution derived. Financial econometrics continues to make progress in developing more robust and efficient estimators of volatility. But for some estimators, the asymptotic variance is hard to derive or may take a complicated form and be difficult to estimate. To tackle these problems, the second chapter develops an automated method of inference that does not rely on the exact form of the asymptotic variance. The need for a new approach is motivated by the failure of traditional bootstrap and subsampling variance estimators with high frequency data...