Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, encodes two small RNAs (EBERs) that are expressed at high levels during latent transformation of human B lymphocytes. Here we report that a 15-kDa cellular protein called EAP (for EBER associated protein), previously shown to bind EBER1, is in fact the ribosomal protein L22. Approximately half of the L22 in EBV-positive cells is contained within the EBER1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particle, whereas the other half residues in monoribosomes and polysomes. Immunofluorescence with anti-L22 antibodies demonstrates that L22 is localized in the cytoplasm and the nucleoli of uninfected human cells, as expected, whereas EBV-positive lymphocytes also show strong nucleoplasmic staining. In situ hybridization indicates that the EBER RNPs are predominantly nucleoplasmic, suggesting that L22 relocalization correlates with binding to EBER1 in vivo. Since incubation of uninfected cell extracts with excess EBER1 RNA does not remove L22 from preexisting ribosomes, in vivo binding of L22 by EBER1 may precede ribosome assembly. The gene encoding L22 has recently been identified as the target of a chromosomal translocation in certain patients with leukemia, suggesting that L22 levels may be a determinant in cell transformation.
To identify proteins that can bind the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) we screened human cDNA libraries using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae three-hybrid system. Screening with an RNA sequence derived from the 3′-terminal 98 nucleotides (3′X region) of an infectious clone of HCV (H77c) yielded clones of human ribosomal proteins L22, L3, S3, and mL3, a mitochondrial homologue of L3. We performed preliminary characterization of the binding between the 3′X region and these proteins by a three-hybrid mating assay using mutant 3′X sequences. We have further characterized the interaction between 3′X and L22, since this protein is known to be associated with two small Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA species (EBERs) which are abundantly produced in cells latently infected with EBV. The EBERs, which have similar predicted secondary structure to the HCV 3′X, assemble into ribonucleoprotein particles that include L22 and La protein. To confirm that L22 binds HCV 3′X we performed in vitro binding assays using recombinant L22 (expressed as a glutathione S-transferase [GST] fusion protein) together with a 3′X riboprobe. The 3′X region binds to the GST-L22 fusion protein (but not to GST alone), and this interaction is subject to competition with unlabeled 3′X RNA. To establish the functional role played by L22 in internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of HCV sequences we performed translational analysis in HuH-7 cells using monocistronic and bicistronic reporter constructs. The relative amount of core-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter protein translated under the control of the HCV IRES was stimulated in the presence of L22 and La when these proteins were supplied in trans.
The mechanism of resistance to the streptogramin antibiotics quinupristin and dalfopristin was studied in a Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolate selected under quinupristin-dalfopristin therapy, in four derivatives of S. aureus RN4220 selected in vitro, and in a mutant selected in a model of rabbit aortic endocarditis. For all strains the MICs of erythromycin, quinupristin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were higher than those for the parental strains but the MICs of dalfopristin and lincomycin were similar. Portions of genes for domains II and V of 23S rRNA and the genes for ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 were amplified and sequenced. All mutants contained insertions or deletions in a protruding β hairpin that is part of the conserved C terminus of the L22 protein and that interacts with 23S rRNA. Susceptible S. aureus RN4220 was transformed with plasmid DNA encoding the L22 alteration, resulting in transformants that were erythromycin and quinupristin resistant. Synergistic ribosomal binding of streptogramins A and B, studied by analyzing the fluorescence kinetics of pristinamycin IA-ribosome complexes, was abolished in the mutant strain, providing an explanation for quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance.
Resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q/D) among gram-positive cocci has been very uncommon. Two clinical isolates among 8,837 (0.02%) Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were discovered in 2001 to 2002 with Q/D MICs of 4 μg/ml. Each had a 5-amino-acid tandem duplication (RTAHI) in the L22 ribosomal protein gene (rplV) preventing synergistic ribosomal binding of the streptogramin combination. Similar gene duplication has been reported in Q/D-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-expressed RNA 1 (EBER1) associates tightly with the ribosomal protein L22. We determined the general requirements for an RNA to bind L22 in a SELEX experiment, selecting RNA ligands for L22 from a randomized pool of RNA sequences by using an L22-glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. The selected sequences all contained a stem-loop motif similar to that of the region of EBER1 previously shown to interact with L22. The nucleotides were highly conserved at three positions within the stem-loop and identical to the corresponding nucleotides in EBER1. Two independent binding sites for L22 could be identified in EBER1, and mobility shift assays indicated that two L22 molecules can interact with EBER1 simultaneously. To search for a cellular L22 ligand, we constructed a SELEX library from cDNA fragments derived from RNA that was coimmunoprecipitated with L22 from an EBV-negative whole-cell lysate. After four rounds of selection and amplification, most of the clones that were obtained overlapped a sequence corresponding to the stem-loop between nucleotides 302 and 317 in human 28S ribosomal RNA. This stem-loop fulfills the criteria for optimal binding to L22 that were defined by SELEX, suggesting that human 28S ribosomal RNA is likely to be a cellular L22 ligand. Additional L22 binding sites were found in 28S ribosomal RNA...
By use of a time-kill methodology, the antipneumococcal activity of telithromycin was determined against macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates having mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and changes in the ribosomal proteins L4 and L22. Telithromycin had MICs ranging between 0.03 and 0.25 μg/ml and was bactericidal against four of seven strains after 24 h at two times the MIC.
Ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 both have a globular domain that sits on the surface of the large ribosomal subunit and an extended loop that penetrates its core. The tips of both loops contribute to the lining of the peptide exit tunnel and have been implicated in a gating mechanism that might regulate the exit of nascent peptides. Also, the extensions of L4 and L22 contact multiple domains of 23S rRNA, suggesting they might facilitate rRNA folding during ribosome assembly. To learn more about the roles of these extensions, we constructed derivatives of both proteins that lack most of their extended loops. Our analysis of ribosomes carrying L4 or L22 deletion proteins did not detect any significant difference in their sedimentation property or polysome distribution. Also, the role of L4 in autogenous control was not affected. We conclude that these extensions are not required for ribosome assembly or for L4-mediated autogenous control of the S10 operon.
EBER 1, a small noncoding viral RNA abundantly expressed in all cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), has been shown to associate with the human ribosomal protein L22. Here we present in vitro binding studies using purified RNAs and recombinant proteins. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSAs) show that recombinant L22 (rL22) and maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged L22 protein bind EBER 1 in vitro, both forming three specific protein-dependent mobility shifts. Use of a mixture of rL22 and MBP-L22 indicates that these three shifts contain one, two, or three L22 proteins per EBER 1 molecule. EMSAs performed with EBER 1 deletion constructs and EBER 1 stem–loops inserted into a nonbinding RNA, HSUR 3, identify stem–loops I, III, and IV as L22 binding sites. The existence of multiple L22 binding sites on EBER 1 inside cells is demonstrated by in vivo UV cross-linking. Our results are discussed with respect to the function of EBER 1 in EBV-infected human B cells.
By using a sensitive technique of immunofluorescence on polyethylene glycol-embedded tissue sections, we could better determine the distribution of L22+ cells in embryonic and adult chickens. L22 mAb was originally described as reacting with bursa and bursa-derived lymphocytes. We now present evidence to suggest that this mAb also reacts with a subset of macrophages found in bursa, thymus, spleen, liver, intestine and peritoneum. The L22+ cells appear early during embryonic life, simultaneously in yolk sac, bursa, thymus, spleen and bone marrow. At all steps of their ontogeny, thymocytes were L22-, while most, if not all, bursal lymphoid cells were L22+. Moreover, L22 antigen can be detected on haemopoietic cells probably precursors, before and during their entry into the bursal rudiment on Day 9 or 10 of embryonic life. We conclude from these data that L22 is not restricted to the B-cell lineage as it is shared with a subset of macrophages. Furthermore, our observations of L22+ cells during embryonic life favour the hypothesis of separate lineages for B-cell and T-cell precursors in chick embryo, which was previously put forward on the basis of different sets of experiments.
Resistance to macrolides and ketolides occurs mainly via alterations in RNA moieties of the drug-binding site. Using an A2058G mutant of Mycobacterium smegmatis, additional telithromycin resistance was acquired via deletion of 15 residues from protein L22. Molecular modeling, based on the crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Deinococcus radiodurans complexed with telithromycin, shows that the telithromycin carbamate group is located in the proximity of the tip of the L22 hairpin-loop, allowing for weak interactions between them. These weak interactions may become more important once the loss of A2058 interactions destabilizes drug binding, presumably resulting in a shift of the drug toward the other side of the tunnel, namely, to the vicinity of L22. Hence, the deletion of 15 residues from L22 may further destabilize telithromycin binding and confer telithromycin resistance. Such deletions may also lead to notable differences in the tunnel outline, as well as to an increase of its diameter to a size, allowing the progression of the nascent chain.
Macrolide-resistant mutants of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were selected in vitro using erythromycin and tylosin. These mutants exhibited modifications in the ribosomal proteins L4 (G74D) and L22 (insertions at position 86 or 98). A synergy between the CmeABC efflux pump and these modifications in conferring macrolide resistance was observed.
L4 and L22, proteins of the large ribosomal subunit, contain globular surface domains and elongated ‘tentacles’ that reach into the core of the large subunit to form part of the lining of the peptide exit tunnel. Mutations in the tentacles of L4 and L22 confer macrolide resistance in a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. In Escherichia coli, a Lys-to-Glu mutation in L4 and a three-amino-acid deletion in the L22 had been reported. To learn more about the roles of the tentacles in ribosome assembly and function, we isolated additional erythromycin-resistant E. coli mutants. Eight new mutations mapped in L4, all within the tentacle. Two new mutations were identified in L22; one mapped outside the tentacle. Insertion mutations were found in both genes. All of the mutants grew slower than the parent, and they all showed reduced in vivo rates of peptide-chain elongation and increased levels of precursor 23S rRNA. Large insertions in L4 and L22 resulted in very slow growth and accumulation of abnormal ribosomal subunits. Our results highlight the important role of L4 and L22 in ribosome function and assembly, and indicate that a variety of changes in these proteins can mediate macrolide resistance.
Bacterial antibiotic resistance can occur by many mechanisms. An intriguing class of mutants is resistant to macrolide antibiotics even though these drugs still bind to their targets. For example, a 3-residue deletion (ΔMKR) in ribosomal protein L22 distorts a loop that forms a constriction in the ribosome exit tunnel, apparently allowing nascent-chain egress and translation in the presence of bound macrolides. Here, however, we demonstrate that ΔMKR and wild-type ribosomes show comparable macrolide sensitivity in vitro. In Escherichia coli, we find that this mutation reduces antibiotic occupancy of the target site on ribosomes in a manner largely dependent on the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. We propose a model for antibiotic resistance in which ΔMKR ribosomes alter the translation of specific proteins, possibly via changes in programmed stalling, and modify the cell envelope in a manner that lowers steady-state macrolide levels.
Mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 confer resistance to erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics in a variety of bacteria. L4 and L22 have elongated loops whose tips converge in the peptide exit tunnel near the macrolide binding site, and resistance mutations typically affect residues within these loops. Here, we use bacteriophage λ Red-mediated recombination, or “recombineering”, to uncover new L4 and L22 alleles that confer macrolide resistance in Escherichia coli. We randomized residues at the tips of the L4 and L22 loops using recombineered oligonucleotide libraries, and selected the mutagenized cells for erythromycin-resistant mutants. These experiments led to the identification of 341 different resistance mutations encoding 278 unique L4 and L22 proteins – the overwhelming majority of which are novel. Many resistance mutations were complex, involving multiple missense mutations, in-frame deletions, and insertions. Transfer of L4 and L22 mutations into wild-type cells by phage P1-mediated transduction demonstrated that each allele was sufficient to confer macrolide resistance. Although L4 and L22 mutants are typically resistant to most macrolides, selections carried out on different antibiotics revealed macrolide-specific resistance mutations. L22 Lys90Trp is one such allele...
The ribosomal protein L22 is a component of the 60S eukaryotic ribosomal subunit. As an RNA-binding protein, it has been shown to interact with both cellular and viral RNAs including 28S rRNA and the Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA, EBER-1. L22 is localized to the cell nucleus where it accumulates in nucleoli. Although previous studies demonstrated that a specific amino acid sequence is required for nucleolar localization, the RNA-binding domain has not been identified. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the nucleolar accumulation of L22 is linked to its ability to bind RNA. To address this hypothesis, mutated L22 proteins were generated to assess the contribution of specific amino acids to RNA binding and protein localization. Using RNA-protein binding assays, we demonstrate that basic amino acids 80–93 are required for high affinity binding of 28S rRNA and EBER-1 by L22. Fluorescence localization studies using GFP-tagged mutated L22 proteins further reveal that basic amino acids 80–93 are critical for nucleolar accumulation and for incorporation into ribosomes. Our data support the growing consensus that the nucleolar accumulation of ribosomal proteins may not be mediated by a defined localization signal, but rather by specific interaction with established nucleolar components such as rRNA.
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs, EBER-1 and EBER-2, are highly abundant noncoding nuclear RNAs expressed during all forms of EBV latency. The EBERs have been shown to impart significant tumorigenic potential upon EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells and to contribute to the growth potential of other B-cell lymphoma-, gastric carcinoma-, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived cell lines. However, the mechanisms underlying this EBER-dependent enhancement of cell growth potential remain to be elucidated. Here we focused on the known interaction between EBER-1 and the cellular ribosomal protein L22 and the consequences of this interaction with respect to the growth-promoting properties of the EBERs. L22, a component of 60S ribosomal subunits, binds three sites on EBER-1, and a substantial fraction of available L22 is relocalized from nucleoli to the nucleoplasm in EBV-infected cells. To investigate the hypothesis that EBER-1-mediated relocalization of L22 in EBV-infected cells is critical for EBER-dependent functions, we investigated whether EBER-1 expression is necessary and sufficient for nucleoplasmic retention of L22. Following demonstration of this, we utilized RNA-protein binding assays and fluorescence localization studies to demonstrate that mutation of the L22 binding sites on EBER-1 prevents L22 binding and inhibits EBER-1-dependent L22 relocalization. Finally...
Ribosomal protein (RP) mutations in diseases such as 5q− syndrome both disrupt hematopoiesis and increase the risk of developing hematologic malignancy. However, the mechanism by which RP mutations increase cancer risk has remained an important unanswered question. We show here that monoallelic, germline inactivation of the ribosomal protein L22 (Rpl22) predisposes T-lineage progenitors to transformation. Indeed, RPL22 was found to be inactivated in ∼ 10% of human T-acute lymphoblastic leukemias. Moreover, monoallelic loss of Rpl22 accelerates development of thymic lymphoma in both a mouse model of T-cell malignancy and in acute transformation assays in vitro. We show that Rpl22 inactivation enhances transformation potential through induction of the stemness factor, Lin28B. Our finding that Rpl22 inactivation promotes transformation by inducing expression of Lin28B provides the first insight into the mechanistic basis by which mutations in Rpl22, and perhaps some other RP genes, increases cancer risk.
Mutations in the ribosomal protein L22 that impair peptide-mediated translation arrest in Escherichia coli have been shown to reduce the expression of several genes, including secA, which encodes an ATPase that drives protein export via the Sec pathway. Here, we used a comparative proteomic approach to obtain insight into the global effects of the L22(Δ82-84) mutation on gene expression and protein synthesis. While the mutation did not affect or modestly affected the level of most soluble proteins, it dramatically reduced the level of antigen 43 (Ag43), a secreted virulence factor that promotes autoaggregation. The reduced protein concentration correlated with a sharp decrease in the abundance and stability of Ag43 mRNA. We found that the overexpression of secA or the inactivation of genes that encode presecretory and membrane proteins restored Ag43 production in the L22 mutant strain. Furthermore, impairment of the Sec pathway in a wild-type strain reduced Ag43 production but did not significantly affect the synthesis of other presecretory proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that Ag43 gene expression is exquisitely sensitive to the status of the Sec machinery and strongly suggest that the L22 mutation decreases the Ag43 concentration indirectly by reducing secA expression. Our results imply the existence of a novel regulatory mechanism in which the efficiency of protein export is coupled to gene expression and help to explain the modulation of SecA synthesis that has been observed in response to secretion stress.
We characterized the effects of classical erythromycin resistance mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 of the large ribosomal subunit on the kinetics of erythromycin binding. Our data are consistent with a mechanism in which the macrolide erythromycin enters and exits the ribosome through the nascent peptide exit tunnel, and suggest that these mutations both impair passive transport through the tunnel and distort the erythromycin-binding site. The growth-inhibitory action of erythromycin was characterized for bacterial populations with wild-type and L22-mutated ribosomes in drug efflux pump deficient and proficient backgrounds. The L22 mutation conferred reduced erythromycin susceptibility in the drug efflux pump proficient, but not deficient, background. This ‘masking' of drug resistance by pump deficiency was reproduced by modelling with input data from our biochemical experiments. We discuss the general principles behind the phenomenon of drug resistance ‘masking', and highlight its potential importance for slowing down the evolution of drug resistance among pathogens.
Double minute chromosomes (DMs) have important implications for cancer progression because oncogenes frequently amplified on them. We previously detected a functionally undefined gene amplified on DMs, Ribosomal L22-like1 (RPL22L1). The relationship between RPL22L1 and cancer progression is unknown. Here, RPL22L1 was characterized for its role in ovarian cancer (OC) metastasis and its underlying mechanism was examined. DNA copy number and mRNA expression of RPL22L1 in OC cells was analyzed using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus database. An immunohistochemical analysis of clinical OC specimens was performed and the relationships between expression level and clinicopathological factors were evaluated. Additionally, in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to understand the role of RPL22L1 in OC. RPL22L1 expression was higher in OC specimens than in normal tissues, and its expression level was highly positively correlated with invasion and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). RPL22L1 over-expression significantly enhanced intraperitoneal xenograft tumor development in nude mice and promoted invasion and migration in vitro. Additionally, RPL22L1 knockdown remarkably inhibited UACC-1598 cells invasion and migration. Further...