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Towards Coherent Regulation of Law Enforcement Surveillance in the Network Society

Camp, L. Jean; Chan, Serena
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 40533 bytes; application/pdf
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In this paper, we study the evolution of telecommunications technology and its impact on law enforcement surveillance. Privacy and the need for law enforcement to conduct investigations have not been at the center of the recent public policy debate. Yet, policy environments have approved law enforcement surveillance that can be and is intrusive. Law enforcement surveillance therefore deserves particular attention when discussing the basic human right to privacy. We illustrate that despite the gradual acceptance of the basic human right to privacy, in the digital age the United States (US) government continues its historical pattern of using technology to enhance its power of search . The most recent example is the installation of the Digital Collection System 1000 (DCS1000), formerly known as Carnivore, a classified packet sniffer, on American networks by the American federal law enforcement agency.; NSF grant 9985433; HP equipment grant

The use of infringement notices in OHS law enforcement

Bluff, Liz
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 475790 bytes; 359 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Infringement notices are now part of OHS law enforcement in several Australian states and territories, as well as in New Zealand. In principle these notices have the potential to favourably influence OHS performance. However, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about effectiveness in view of limited empirical evidence as well as the considerable diversity in existing schemes. This paper raises some important legal and practical concerns which may qualify the effectiveness of infringement notices, and have implications for policy makers designing and implementing infringement notice schemes, to be applied in OHS law enforcement. The indications are that infringement notices are more suited to non-complex offences where the breach is clearly defined in law and the facts are easily verified. There is a challenge to define expiable OHS offences which are clear-cut and ambiguous but which also clearly have preventive value by virtue of a direct link to OHS risk control. There are reasons for regulators to be more cautious about applying infringement notices to offences involving decisions about .(reasonable) practicability. or the adequacy of risk management processes. There is also reason to keep the level of penalty for infringement notices under review. Current fines in Australia are low by international standards and as the principal role of infringement notices is to deter non-compliance...

Qiiis custodiet ipsos custodes: can lessons from domestic and overseas experience assist in the implementation of the Law Enforcement Integrity Commissioner Act?

Marwood, Damian
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Law Enforcement corruption is existent throughout the world. Whilst the extent of corruption within any one society is difficult to study, Transparency International annually provide a Corruption Perception Index; a study that surveys the extent of corruption, as perceived by the individuals of the home country. Results from the survey suggest that lower levels of corruption can often be associated lower populated, democratic nations. Regardless of the extent of corruption within these countries, the types of corruption and the factors that contribute to corruption are remarkably similar. Corruption of authority, kickbacks, opportunistic theft, shakedowns, protection of illegal activities, fixing, direct criminal activities, internal payoffs and flaking are types of corruption experienced in all countries studied in this report. While countries such as Australia rank significantly lower on the Corruption Perception Index than countries such as South Africa, the existence of such corruption is still apparent. Factors contributing to corruption such as low wages, promotion prospects, police culture, weak legislation, high community contact, political pressure, poor recruitment standards and inadequate training have all been cited as contributors to corruption from each of the studied countries. Whilst some countries such as Singapore...

Towards a global data protection framework in the field of law enforcement : an EU perspective

BLASI CASAGRAN, Cristina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This thesis seeks to examine the existing EU frameworks for data-sharing for law enforcement purposes, both within the EU and between the EU and third countries, the data protection challenges to which these give rise, and the possible responses to those challenges at both EU and global levels. The analysis follows a bottom-up approach, starting with an examination of the EU internal data-sharing instruments. After that, it studies the data transfers conducted under the scope of an international agreement; and finally, it concludes by discussing the current international initiatives for creating universal data protection standards. As for the EU data-sharing instruments, this thesis demonstrates that these systems present shortcomings with regard to their implementation and usage. Moreover, each instrument has its own provisions on data protection and, despite the adoption of a Framework Decision in 2008, this has not brought about a convergence of data protection rules in the JHA field. A similar multiplicity of instruments is also found when the EU transfers data to third countries for the purpose of preventing and combating crimes. This is evident from examining the existing data-sharing agreements between the EU and the US. Each agreement has a section on data protection and data security rules...

Street-level drug law enforcement: A meta-analytic review

Mazerolle, Lorraine; Soole, David W.; Rombouts, Sacha
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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Background: An atmosphere of ineffectiveness regarding the ability of police to address crime problems in general and street-level drug problems in particular prevailed in the 1980s. Law enforcement tactics in the 1980s were typically reactive, unfocused and generally failed to disrupt street-level drug market activity. Development of focused proactive policing strategies during the 1990s, such as problem-oriented policing and partnerships with third parties, led to a renewed faith in the capacity of the police to efficaciously deal with street-level drug problems. Objectives: To utilize meta-analytic procedures to assess the relative effectiveness of police-led drug law enforcement interventions. Specifically, we examined the relative effectiveness of a number of policing approaches, including problem-oriented policing, community-wide policing, and hotspots policing compared to the standard, reactive mode of drug law enforcement that dominated police practice until the 1990s. Search Strategy: We identified relevant studies using a guided, iterative search process utilizing appropriate keyword searches of major databases from various disciplines. In addition, we hand searched key journals in the law enforcement literature, trawled discipline relevant websites...

Deployment of state traffic law enforcement officers for Homeland Security

Thomas, Mark D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xxi, 59 p. : ill., col. ;
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CHDS State/Local; consider their role in Homeland Security. Significant federal studies provided federal agencies with direction on needed changes; for state law enforcement there remains much to study. Deployment of traffic law enforcement officers in many agencies has not changed since 9/11, and remains a substantial resource that could be used for prevention of terrorist attacks. Changing deployment priorities of traffic law enforcement officers is complicated by the impact it could have on traffic safety and the over 40,000 people that are killed on America's highways every year. It becomes more complex with issues such as civil liberties concerns, political acceptability, citizen expectations and regulatory compliance. This thesis evaluates options for the deployment of traffic law enforcement officers to enhance Homeland Security efforts. It examines the value of traffic officers to overall deterrence plans and calls for the increased use of targeted and concentrated traffic patrols rather than random patrols. It recommends a strategy of intelligence based deployments as part of a layered security system that can maximize the total impact to the traffic safety and Homeland Security missions of state law enforcement agencies.; Captain...

Building consensus for strategic planning and implementation for Coast Guard law enforcement

Holmgren, Jeffrey D.; Dolan, James R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 p.
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Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited.; This thesis examines the strategic planning and implementation process within the law enforcement missions of the United States Coast Guard. The Coast Guard is a unique federal agency for several reasons. Unlike many federal agencies, it has numerous missions that are not closely related. Coast Guard units are located throughout the United States and the world. There are various other political and organizational pressures that confront the Coast Guard leadership. This thesis looks at the Coast Guard law enforcement organization with an eye towards the changing dynamics that must be dealt with in strategic planning, including the various pressures that specifically affect the Coast Guard's law enforcement mission. Field interviews were conducted to identify themes and problems that relate to law enforcement strategic planning for law enforcement missions. Additionally, a survey was developed based on theme constructs, which was used for quantitative analysis and model development. Based on a literature review, qualitative analysis, model review, qualitative analysis, we then detail conclusions and recommendations that may improve strategic planning for the law enforcement mission within the Coast Guard and can be applied to many organizations that face multiple missions in a complex environment...

21st century policing : the institutionalization of Homeland Security in local law enforcement organizations

Collie, Fred D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 55 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
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CHDS State/Local; Twenty-first-century law enforcement organizations face a new and significant challenge- homeland security. On September 11, 2001, local law enforcement agencies throughout the United States were thrust into the "war on terrorism." The current law enforcement business-as-usual attitude and incremental programmatic responses do not ensure a long-term success. Any act of terrorism will initially be a local issue that requires immediate response by various local agencies, such as medical, fire, and police-the communities "first responders." Thus local law enforcement organizations must recognize and embrace the critical and essential role they play in homeland security and the war on terrorism. In today's security environment, community policing is one of the most successful strategies employed by law enforcement organizations. Community policing focuses on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that include aspects of traditional law enforcement, preventive measures, problem solving, community engagement, and partnerships. At some point in the future, the line between homeland security and everyday policing will become indistinguishable. At that point, homeland security institutionalization at the local level will have been fully achieved. This thesis attempts to identify the need for homeland security institutionalization in local law enforcement organizations. The thesis argues that community-based policing principles combined with other progressive law enforcement practices such as Intelligence-led policing are crucial aids in that effort.; Deputy Police Chief (Retired)...

Strategy for local law enforcement agencies to improve collection, analysis and dissemination of terrorist information

Cleary, Christopher J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 59 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
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CHDS State/Local; Local law enforcement agencies play a significant role in domestic counter-terrorism and homeland security. The intelligence function of law enforcement agencies enhances their ability to detect criminal activity related to terror groups, as well as the ability to prevent, or respond to a terrorist attack. This research project identifies policies and procedures that could be implemented by local law enforcement agencies to enhance cooperation and collaboration with other public sector agencies, private sector security providers, and the general public. The policies and procedures are based on intelligence-led policing and public-private partnerships, and will generate the ability to increase the flow of information disseminated from, and collected by, law enforcement intelligence entities. The resulting intelligence developed by law enforcement intelligence can be pushed up to the state and national level to improve the nation's ability to detect potential terrorist activity, protect citizens, and safeguard critical infrastructure.; Captain, Nassau County Police Department

Coast Guard strategic management: law enforcement in the 1990s

Kelley, Brian D.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 91 p. ill.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The purpose fo this study is to examine how the United States Coast Guard develops and manages its law enforcement mission. The author analyzes the Coast Guard's strategy development in its maritime law enforcement mission. Specifically, the thesis starts with a review of the strategy concept and attempts to answer what strategy is, what a strategist is, and what is strategic planning. Secondly, this study cites four factors (the original culture, public opinion, the law enforcement mission role, and expectations) that will significantly influence Coast Guard law enforcement strategy in the 1990s. Finally, the author addresses the current Coast Guard law enforcement strategy from its formulation to its execution.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Increasing capacity & changing the culture : volunteer management in law enforcement

Cayson, Donna M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 89 p. : col. ill. ;
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CHDS State/Local; In the post-September 11 world, law enforcement agencies are struggling to protect their communities from the threat of global terrorism, and also preparing for and responding to natural and manmade disasters. The demands on municipal law enforcement agencies have never been greater. Today, more than ever, it is clear that volunteers can play a fundamental role in augmenting a department's homeland security efforts. Are there best practices when incorporating volunteers into a law enforcement agency and how does law enforcement maximize its volunteer effort? This thesis set out to answer the question: How does a designated Volunteer Coordinator impact mission performance in a law enforcement agency's volunteer program? Furthermore, the research will address the role of volunteers in law enforcement, including how volunteers can augment an agency's homeland security strategic plan. Research included a survey, literature review, and case study. Although the research and survey data do not provide incontrovertible proof that a Volunteer Coordinator is a necessity to a volunteer program, there is sufficient evidence to show that a volunteer program is more effective when properly managed and led.; Sergeant, Sierra Madre Police Department (CA) author (civilian).

Chemically enhanced trust potential law enforcement and military applications for oxytocin

Dethlefs, David R.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 113 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ;
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This research effort explores the potential uses for oxytocin in both law enforcement and military scenarios. These situations are time-sensitive and require rapid trust-building in order to achieve successful and positive outcomes. The trustinducing properties of oxytocin could prove crucial in providing enhanced trust-building capability; thus, increasing the likelihood of non-violent conclusion of several common law enforcement and military scenarios. This thesis first explores the complexity of both neuroanatomy and neurochemistry, vital foundation material necessary to understanding how oxytocin can be used in the law enforcement and military environments. Oxytocin's potential law enforcement and military applicability is then explored through six scenarios: child witness/victim interviews, suicide attempt response, hostage crisis negotiation, covert infiltration, riot control, inmate rehabilitation and insurgency resolution. The reviewed data supports the potential applicability in all situations except insurgency resolution, where international treaties may forbid its use against foreign populations.; US Air Force (USAF) author.

Community policing as the primary prevention strategy for Homeland Security at the local law enforcement level

Docobo, Jose Miguel
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 83 p. : ill. (some col.)
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CHDS State/Local; Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; In the wake of September 11, 2001, local law enforcement agencies throughout the country find themselves struggling to identify their responsibilities and define their future role in the effort against terrorism in our homeland. At a time when law enforcement organizations are competing for limited funds and resources, agencies will have to look at how to adapt existing policing philosophies and strategies, such as community-oriented policing, to address the issue of homeland security. The goal of terrorism is centered in creating an atmosphere of fear in society to achieve a philosophical goal. Terrorism is about the impact of its violence on society. This requires the application of the basic concepts of law enforcement: protection and prevention to terrorism. As a result of the events of September 11, 2001, law enforcement agencies have had to assimilate homeland security strategies into their existing responsibilities for combating crime and maintaining social order. This thesis will identify how homeland security prevention and deterrence responsibilities efforts can be effectively integrated into local law enforcement's existing community policing framework. This thesis will also study attempt to identify the extent to which local law enforcement agencies in the state of Florida have adopted community-policing efforts into their homeland security strategy.; Chief Deputy...

Terrorism 101- knowledge about the "What and Why" of terrorism as a state and local law enforcement competency

Maples, LD M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 81 p. : ill. ;
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CHDS State/Local; In the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, state and local police agencies were thrust into new homeland security related roles. One area specifically identified in national strategies and, then, supported by expert opinions for enhancing law enforcement's abilities to prevent terrorism is through enhanced knowledge and education regarding terrorism. Terrorism has been the subject of academic work even prior to the 9/11 attacks. Some of this work has looked at the underlying causes that compel people to threaten and use violence to achieve their individual or group objectives. This body of work is a resource for law enforcement to bridge gaps between national strategies and current practices. The primary focus of this research is to assess the current state of terrorism training for state and local law enforcement officials. It looks at whether the subject of terrorism is a core professional competency for law enforcement officials in every state and, specifically, if state and local police are being exposed to knowledge about the causes and motivations associated with terrorism in order to better understand, and ultimately, prevent it. Surveys and interviews of state officials are conducted in order to gather data about the current state of terrorism related training throughout the nation. A qualitative analysis is conducted in order to further assess the content of select course content and identify potential training and educational gaps.; Lieutenant...

What are the potential immediate and long-term implications of budget cuts made within Customs and Border Protection and other law enforcement agencies in Australia?

Zeltzer, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Australia's national security priorities are currently being placed at risk due to recent budget reductions in law enforcement, specifically in border protection. There are two main reasons for these reductions. The first is a tight fiscal environment and the second is the implementation of a new plan within Customs and Border Protection that is intended to create a more efficient agency that relies on a 'risk-based intelligence-lead' approach. Unfortunately, this plan has yet to prove its worth. On the contrary, it has not yet been properly reviewed or assessed by the Government for proficiency but several weaknesses have been found in its operational profiling and alerts system that have made Australia's border particularly vulnerable to terrorist organizations and international crime syndicates. No longer are cargo consignments or passengers being mass screened, rather the new plan has reduced air cargo inspections by 76% and sea cargo inspections by 24%. Reductions in inspections are dangerous now and will only become more so in the future as passenger and cargo numbers are predicted to increase dramatically over the next decade. Reduced inspections mean that more illicit substances and people smugglers are likely to cross our borders. Illicit substances include drugs...

Rising to the Challenge: Critiquing the Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity (ACLEI) in preventing misconduct in the Australian Federal Police International Deployment Group (AFP IDG)

Santelises, Aaron
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Due to this globalised world and Australia's commitment to peacekeeping and law enforcement, we have committed ourselves to deploying our police overseas in the program known as the Australian Federal Police International Deployment Group (AFP IDG). With this deployment, come consequences such as corruption and the vulnerability of ruining Australia's intentional prestige. Thus, it's the integrity institutions responsibility to make sure that this doesn't occur. One of those institutions is the subject of this report, which is the Australian Commission for Law Enforcement Integrity (ACLEI), an institution run by the Integrity Commissioner, investigates any form of corruption, misconduct or perversion of justice by the Australian Federal Police (AFP), Australian Crime Commission or Customs officials within Australia. However, with the AFP IDG, deployed overseas, ACLEI will have to perform investigations overseas if the need ever arises. This report aims to ascertain whether ACLEI is fully prepared to conduct an investigation overseas, for the AFP IDG. A comparing and contrasting method will be utilised, by reviewing statute, legislative branch committee meetings and speeches from USA and UK case studies. Maintaining integrity is vital for any law enforcement agency to ensure that they are perceived as agents of the state that enforce the rule of law and not a group of individuals that exploit their power. This is paramount...

Enhancing communication within and between law enforcement agencies and other agencies: the CrimTrac expansion

Wilson, Gina
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The September 11 (9/11) terrorist attacks were a pivotal point in world history, not just because they were the worst acts of violence ever on a nation in peace time and not just because they brought terrorism into the homes of 'everyday' people, but because they gave governments all around the world a chance to evaluate their systems. In the post 9/11 analysis of 'why and how did this happen', two alarming issues were brought to the surface: the communication systems between and within law enforcement agencies were either not working or non existent; and the attacks were committed by people in positions of responsibility, people who had gained, through legitimate means, those positions of power. Similarly, the murder of two English schoolgirls by a known, convicted, sex offender who had 'slipped through' the system and was employed as a caretaker at that school demonstrates a missing link. A fundamental flaw in a system which was designed to protect citizens against crimes existed which did not allow communication between law enforcement agencies, and other agencies, in this case, social services. The Cornelia Rau example in Australia also illustrates communications system failure. Law enforcement agencies and other agencies did not communicate...

A Phenomenological Exploration of Black Male Law Enforcement Officers' Perspectives of Racial Profiling and Their Law Enforcement Career Exploration and Commitment

Salters, Gregory A.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This phenomenological study explored Black male law enforcement officers’ perspectives of how racial profiling shaped their decisions to explore and commit to a law enforcement career. Criterion and snow ball sampling was used to obtain the 17 participants for this study. Super’s (1990) archway model was used as the theoretical framework. The archway model “is designed to bring out the segmented but unified and developmental nature of career development, to highlight the segments, and to make their origin clear” (Super, 1990, p. 201). Interview data were analyzed using inductive, deductive, and comparative analyses. Three themes emerged from the inductive analysis of the data: (a) color and/or race does matter, (b) putting on the badge, and (c) too black to be blue and too blue to be black. The deductive analysis used a priori coding that was based on Super’s (1990) archway model. The deductive analysis revealed the participants’ career exploration was influenced by their knowledge of racial profiling and how others view them. The comparative analysis between the inductive themes and deductive findings found the theme “color and/or race does matter” was present in the relationships between and within all segments of Super’s (1990) model. The comparative analysis also revealed an expanded notion of self-concept for Black males – marginalized and/or oppressed individuals. Self-concepts...

Addressing the gender gap in federal law enforcement professions: The motivational attraction of women in computing

Stanek, Maegan
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Nationwide, federal law enforcement agencies seek candidates with specialized skill sets and more advanced educational knowledge for employment. In view of this, it was proven, after much open source research into federal agencies' qualification requirements, that those who possess a background in select areas, specifically computer science, have a better opportunity for employment with federal law enforcement agencies, particularly in the computing sector; although, in many cases, work experience can be substituted for a college degree [7]. For this reason, many women are not involved in, nor apply for, computing professions within federal law enforcement agencies. A significant step in encouraging women to pursue computing careers is to examine the reasons women, currently employed in federal law enforcement, have chosen a computer-related career path. Research that provides an analysis of the motivations that exist for women in becoming interested in computing professions, within federal law enforcement agencies, will help address the issue of equal representation for the underrepresented population of women in computing fields.

Mobile computing & law enforcement: An Examination of its application in the field and its consequences

Lockhart, Lanny Jr
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The following study has been conducted in the pursuit of a Masters Degree of Science in Information Technology. The functional purpose of this study was to examine three basic concepts (officer efficiency, safety, and arrest rates) within law enforcement and to attempt to determine if a specific type of information technology (wireless data computers) has had any positive impact on those concepts. To that end, the author has reviewed the history of technology in law enforcement and surveyed a group of patrol officers in the Wilmington Police Department. Difficulties associated with gathering research data from law enforcement agencies has also been noted and described. The results garnered from statistical analysis are covered in detail.