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Functional selectivity of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in regulating the fate of internalized receptors *

Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Griffith, Adam; Oloff, Scott; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Brown, Justin T.; Goddard, William A.; Mailman, Richard B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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45.99%
Recently, we demonstrated that D1 agonists can cause functionally selective effects when the endpoints of receptor internalization and adenylate cyclase activation are compared. The present study was designed to probe the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor further by testing the hypothesis that structurally dissimilar agonists with efficacies at these endpoints that equal or exceed those of dopamine would differ in ability to influence receptor fate after internalization, a functional endpoint largely unexplored for the D1 receptor. We selected two novel agonists of therapeutic interest that meet these criteria (the isochroman A-77636, and the isoquinoline dinapsoline), and compared the fates of the D1 receptor after internalization in response to these two compounds with that of dopamine. We found that dopamine caused the receptor to be rapidly recycled to the cell surface within 1 h of removal. Conversely, A-77636 caused the receptor to be retained intracellularly up to 48 h after agonist removal. Most surprisingly, the D1 receptor recovered to the cell surface 48 h after removal of dinapsoline. Taken together, these data indicate that these agonists target the D1 receptor to different intracellular trafficking pathways...

PWZ-029, A COMPOUND WITH MODERATE INVERSE AGONIST FUNCTIONAL SELECTIVITY AT GABAA RECEPTORS CONTAINING α5 SUBUNITS, IMPROVES PASSIVE, BUT NOT ACTIVE, AVOIDANCE LEARNING IN RATS

Savić, Miroslav M.; Clayton, Terry; Furtmüller, Roman; Gavrilović, Ivana; Samardžić, Janko; Savić, Snežana; Huck, Sigismund; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Benzodiazepine (BZ) site ligands affect vigilance, anxiety, memory processes, muscle tone and epileptogenic propensity through modulation of neurotransmission at GABAA receptors containing α1, α2, α3 or α5 subunits, and may have numerous experimental and clinical applications. The ability of nonselective BZ site inverse agonists to enhance cognition, documented in animal models and human studies, is clinically not feasible due to potentially unacceptable psychomotor effects. Most investigations to date have proposed the α1 and/or α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors as comprising the memory-modulating population of these receptors. The novel ligand PWZ-029, which we synthesised and characterized electrophysiologically, possesses in vitro binding selectivity and moderate inverse agonist functional selectivity at α5-containing GABAA receptors. This ligand has also been examined in rats in the passive and active avoidance, spontaneous locomotor activity, elevated plus maze and grip strength tests, primarily predictive of the effects on the memory acquisition, basal locomotor activity, anxiety level and muscle tone, respectively. The improvement of task learning was detected at the dose of 5 mg/kg in the passive, but not active avoidance test. The inverse agonist PWZ-029 had no effect on anxiety or muscle tone...

A Novel Mechanism of G Protein-coupled Receptor Functional Selectivity: MUSCARINIC PARTIAL AGONIST McN-A-343 AS A BITOPIC ORTHOSTERIC/ALLOSTERIC LIGAND*S⃞

Valant, Celine; Gregory, Karen J.; Hall, Nathan E.; Scammells, Peter J.; Lew, Michael J.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/10/2008 Português
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Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess allosteric binding sites distinct from the orthosteric site utilized by their cognate ligands, but most GPCR allosteric modulators reported to date lack signaling efficacy in their own right. McN-A-343 (4-(N-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium chloride) is a functionally selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) partial agonist that can also interact allosterically at the M2 mAChR. We hypothesized that this molecule simultaneously utilizes both an allosteric and the orthosteric site on the M2 mAChR to mediate these effects. By synthesizing progressively truncated McN-A-343 derivatives, we identified two, which minimally contain 3-chlorophenylcarbamate, as pure allosteric modulators. These compounds were positive modulators of the orthosteric antagonist N-[3H]methylscopolamine, but in functional assays of M2 mAChR-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and guanosine 5′-3-O-([35S]thio)triphosphate binding, they were negative modulators of agonist efficacy. This negative allosteric effect was diminished upon mutation of Y177A in the second extracellular (E2) loop of the M2 mAChR that is known to reduce prototypical allosteric modulator potency. Our results are consistent with McN-A-343 being a bitopic orthosteric/allosteric ligand with the allosteric moiety engendering partial agonism and functional selectivity. This finding suggests a novel and largely unappreciated mechanism of “directed efficacy” whereby functional selectivity may be engendered in a GPCR by utilizing an allosteric ligand to direct the signaling of an orthosteric ligand encoded within the same molecule.

Functional Selectivity of EGF Family Peptide Growth Factors: Implications for Cancer

Wilson, Kristy J.; Gilmore, Jennifer L.; Foley, John; Lemmon, Mark A.; Riese, David J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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45.97%
Breast, prostate, pancreatic, colorectal, lung, and head and neck cancers exploit deregulated signaling by ErbB family receptors and their ligands, EOF family peptide growth factors. EGF family members that stimulate the same receptor are able to stimulate divergent biological responses both in cell culture and in vivo. This is analogous to the functional selectivity exhibited by ligands for G-protein coupled receptors. Here we review this literature and propose that this functional selectivity of EGF family members is due to distinctions in the conformation of the liganded receptor and subsequent differences in the sites of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and receptor coupling to signaling effectors. We also discuss the roles of divergent ligand activity in establishing and maintaining malignant phenotypes. Finally, we discuss the potential of mutant EGF family ligands as cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to ErbB receptors.

The Gq and G12 Families of Heterotrimeric G Proteins Report Functional Selectivity

Zhang, Li; Brass, Lawrence F.; Manning, David R.
Fonte: American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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46.06%
Receptors coupled to the Gq and G12 families of heterotrimeric G proteins have surfaced rarely in the context of functional selectivity and always indirectly. We explore here the differential engagement of Gq and G13 (of the G12 family) by the thromboxane A2 receptor α (TPα), via agonist-effected [35S]-guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding when the G proteins themselves are used as reporters. We find for TPα introduced into human embryonic kidney 293 cells and for the receptor expressed normally in human platelets an agonist-selective engagement of Gq versus G13. Pinane thromboxane A2 (PTA2) activates Gq in preference to G13, whereas 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α activates G13 in preference to Gq. 9,11-Dideoxy-9α,11α-methanoepoxy-prosta-5Z,13E-dien-1-oic acid (U46619), in contrast, exhibits no preference. Reserve of receptor in relation to G protein and of G protein in relation to downstream events is apparent in some instances but does not have a bearing on selectivity. Activation of G proteins by PTA2 is right-shifted from binding of the ligand to receptor, a manifestation of which is a bimodal action: PTA2 is an antagonist at low concentrations and an agonist at higher concentrations. We posit two populations of TPα...

Determination of Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Pharmacology Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Implications for Ligand Screening and Functional Selectivity

Stewart, Gregory D.; Valant, Celine; Dowell, Simon J.; Mijaljica, Dalibor; Devenish, Rodney J.; Scammells, Peter J.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2009 Português
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46.2%
The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a convenient system for coupling heterologous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the pheromone response pathway to facilitate empirical ligand screening and/or GPCR mutagenesis studies. However, few studies have applied this system to define GPCR-G protein-coupling preferences and furnish information on ligand affinities, efficacies, and functional selectivity. We thus used different S. cerevisiae strains, each expressing a specific human Gα/yeast Gpa1 protein chimera, and determined the pharmacology of various ligands of the coexpressed human adenosine A1 receptor. These assays, in conjunction with the application of quantitative models of agonism and antagonism, revealed that (−)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine was a high-efficacy agonist that selectively coupled to Gpa/1Gαo, Gpa1/Gαi1/2, and Gpa1/Gαi3, whereas the novel compound, 5′-deoxy-N6-(endo-norborn-2-yl)-5′-(2-fluorophenylthio)adenosine (VCP-189), was a lower-efficacy agonist that selectively coupled to Gpa1/Gαi proteins; the latter finding suggested that VCP-189 might be functionally selective. The affinity of the antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, was also determined at the various strains. Subsequent experiments performed in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells monitoring cAMP formation/inhibition...

Functional Selectivity in Adrenergic and Angiotensin Signaling Systems

Patel, Chetan B.; Noor, Nabila; Rockman, Howard A.
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
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46.12%
β-Adrenergic and angiotensin II type 1A receptors are therapeutic targets for the treatment of a number of common human diseases. Pharmacological agents designed as antagonists for these receptors have positively affected the morbidity and mortality of patients with hypertension, heart failure, and renal disease. Antagonism of these receptors, however, may only partially explain the therapeutic benefits of β-blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers given the emerging concept of functional selectivity or biased agonism. This new pharmacological paradigm suggests that multiple signaling pathways can be differentially modified by a single ligand-receptor interaction. This review examines the functional selectivity of β-adrenergic and angiotensin II type 1A receptors with respect to their ability to signal via both G protein-dependent and G protein-independent mechanisms, with a focus on the multifunctional protein β-arrestin. Also highlighted are the concept of “biased signaling” through β-arrestin mediated pathways, the affect of ligand/receptor modification on such biased agonism, and the implications of functional selectivity for the development of the next generation of β-blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers.

Functional selectivity of adenosine receptor ligands

Verzijl, Dennis; IJzerman, Ad P.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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45.99%
Adenosine receptors are plasma membrane proteins that transduce an extracellular signal into the interior of the cell. Basically every mammalian cell expresses at least one of the four adenosine receptor subtypes. Recent insight in signal transduction cascades teaches us that the current classification of receptor ligands into agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists relies very much on the experimental setup that was used. Upon activation of the receptors by the ubiquitous endogenous ligand adenosine they engage classical G protein-mediated pathways, resulting in production of second messengers and activation of kinases. Besides this well-described G protein-mediated signaling pathway, adenosine receptors activate scaffold proteins such as β-arrestins. Using innovative and sensitive experimental tools, it has been possible to detect ligands that preferentially stimulate the β-arrestin pathway over the G protein-mediated signal transduction route, or vice versa. This phenomenon is referred to as functional selectivity or biased signaling and implies that an antagonist for one pathway may be a full agonist for the other signaling route. Functional selectivity makes it necessary to redefine the functional properties of currently used adenosine receptor ligands and opens possibilities for new and more selective ligands. This review focuses on the current knowledge of functionally selective adenosine receptor ligands and on G protein-independent signaling of adenosine receptors through scaffold proteins.

Ligand-Directed Functional Selectivity at the Mu Opioid Receptor Revealed by Label-Free Integrative Pharmacology On-Target

Morse, Megan; Tran, Elizabeth; Sun, Haiyan; Levenson, Robert; Fang, Ye
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/10/2011 Português
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46.02%
Development of new opioid drugs that provide analgesia without producing dependence is important for pain treatment. Opioid agonist drugs exert their analgesia effects primarily by acting at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) sites. High-resolution differentiation of opioid ligands is crucial for the development of new lead drug candidates with better tolerance profiles. Here, we use a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) approach to characterize the functional selectivity of a library of known opioid ligands for the MOR. This approach is based on the ability to detect dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) arising from the activation of the MOR in living cells. DMR assays were performed in HEK-MOR cells with and without preconditioning with probe molecules using label-free resonant waveguide grating biosensors, wherein the probe molecules were used to modify the activity of specific signaling proteins downstream the MOR. DMR signals obtained were then translated into high resolution heat maps using similarity analysis based on a numerical matrix of DMR parameters. Our data indicate that the iPOT approach clearly differentiates functional selectivity for distinct MOR signaling pathways among different opioid ligands, thus opening new avenues to discover and quantify the functional selectivity of currently used and novel opioid receptor drugs.

Receptor Conformations Involved in Dopamine D2L Receptor Functional Selectivity Induced by Selected Transmembrane-5 Serine Mutations

Fowler, J. Corey; Bhattacharya, Supriyo; Urban, Jonathan D.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Mailman, Richard B.
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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Although functional selectivity is now widely accepted, the molecular basis is poorly understood. We have studied how aspects of transmembrane region 5 (TM5) of the dopamine D2L receptor interacts with three rationally selected rigid ligands (dihydrexidine, dinapsoline, and dinoxyline) and the reference compounds dopamine and quinpirole. As was expected from homology modeling, mutation of three TM5 serine residues to alanine (S5.42A, S5.43A, S5.46A) had little effect on antagonist affinity. All three mutations decreased the affinity of the agonist ligands to different degrees, S5.46A being somewhat less affected. Four functions [adenylate cyclase (AC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (MAPK), arachidonic acid release (AA), and guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding (GTPγS)] were assessed. The intrinsic activity (IA) of quinpirole was unaffected by any of the mutations, whereas S5.42A and S5.46A mutations abolished the activity of dopamine and the three rigid ligands, although dihydrexidine retained IA at MAPK function only with S5.42A. Remarkably, S5.43A did not markedly affect IA for AC and MAPK for any of the ligands and eliminated AA activity for dinapsoline and dihydrexidine but not dinoxyline. These data suggest that this mutation did not disrupt the overall conformation or signaling ability of the mutant receptors but differentially affected ligand activation. Computational studies indicate that these D2 agonists stabilize multiple receptor conformations. This has led to models showing the stabilized conformations and interhelical and receptor-ligand contacts corresponding to the different activation pathways stabilized by various agonists. These data provide a basis for understanding D2L functional selectivity and rationally discovering functionally selective D2 drugs.

Dissociations in the Effects of β2-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists on cAMP Formation and Superoxide Production in Human Neutrophils: Support for the Concept of Functional Selectivity

Brunskole Hummel, Irena; Reinartz, Michael T.; Kälble, Solveig; Burhenne, Heike; Schwede, Frank; Buschauer, Armin; Seifert, Roland
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/05/2013 Português
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In neutrophils, activation of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR), a Gs-coupled receptor, inhibits inflammatory responses, which could be therapeutically exploited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various β2AR ligands on adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced superoxide anion (O2•−) production in human neutrophils and to probe the concept of ligand-specific receptor conformations (also referred to as functional selectivity or biased signaling) in a native cell system. This is an important question because so far, evidence for functional selectivity has been predominantly obtained with recombinant systems, due to the inherent difficulties to genetically manipulate human native cells. cAMP concentration was determined by HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry, and O2•− formation was assessed by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. β2AR agonists were generally more potent in inhibiting fMLP-induced O2•− production than in stimulating cAMP accumulation. (−)-Ephedrine and dichloroisoproterenol were devoid of any agonistic activity in the cAMP assay, but partially inhibited fMLP-induced O2•− production. Moreover...

Support for 5-HT2C receptor functional selectivity in vivo utilizing structurally diverse, selective 5-HT2C receptor ligands and the 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine elicited head-twitch response model

Canal, Clinton E.; Booth, Raymond G.; Morgan, Drake
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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55.94%
There are seemingly conflicting data in the literature regarding the role of serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptors in the mouse head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Namely, both 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists, regarding 5-HT2C receptor-mediated Gq-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, reportedly attenuate the HTR response. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that both classes of 5-HT2C receptor compounds could attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in a single strain of mice, C57Bl/6J. The expected results were considered in accordance with ligand functional selectivity. Commercially-available 5-HT2C agonists (CP 809101, Ro 60-0175, WAY 161503, mCPP, and 1-methylpsilocin), novel 4-phenyl-2-N,N-dimethyl-aminotetralin (PAT)-type 5-HT2C agonists (with 5-HT2A/2B antagonist activity), and antagonists selective for 5-HT2A (M100907), 5-HT2C (SB-242084), and 5-HT2B/2C (SB-206553) receptors attenuated the DOI-elicited-HTR. In contrast, there were differential effects on locomotion across classes of compounds. The 5-HT2C agonists and M100907 decreased locomotion, SB-242084 increased locomotion, SB-206553 resulted in dose-dependent biphasic effects on locomotion...

Ligand-specific endocytic dwell times control functional selectivity of the cannabinoid receptor 1

Flores-Otero, Jacqueline; Ahn, Kwang H.; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska; Mackie, Ken; Kendall, Debra A.; Yudowski, Guillermo A.
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2014 Português
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major transducers of external stimuli and key therapeutic targets in many pathological conditions. When activated by different ligands, one receptor can elicit multiple signalling cascades that are mediated by G proteins or β-arrestin, a process defined as functional selectivity or ligand bias. However, the dynamic mechanisms underlying β-arrestin signalling remain unknown. Here by studying the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R), we identify ligand-specific endocytic dwell times, that is, the time during which receptors are clustered into clathrin pits together with β-arrestins before endocytosis, as the mechanism controlling β-arrestin signalling. Agonists inducing short endocytic dwell times produce little or no β-arrestin signalling, whereas those eliciting prolonged dwell times induce robust signalling. Remarkably, extending CB1R dwell times by preventing endocytosis substantially increased β-arrestin signalling. These studies reveal how receptor activation translates into β-arrestin signalling and identify a mechanism to control this pathway.

Étude de la pharmacologie de ligands du récepteur EP4 de prostaglandine E2

Leduc, Martin
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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46.2%
La prostaglandine E2 est une hormone lipidique produite abondamment dans le corps, incluant dans le rein où elle agit localement pour réguler les fonctions rénales. Un couplage à la protéine Gαs menant à une production d’AMPc a classiquement été attribué au récepteur EP4 de PGE2. La signalisation d’EP4 s’est cependant avérée plus complexe et implique aussi un couplage aux protéines sensibles à la PTX Gαi et des effets reliés aux β-arrestines. Il y a maintenant plusieurs exemples de l’activation sélective de voies de signalisation indépendantes par des ligands des récepteurs couplés aux protéines G (RCPG), et ce concept désigné sélectivité fonctionnelle pourrait être exploité dans le développement de nouveaux médicaments plus spécifiques et efficaces. Dans une première étude, la puissance et l’activité intrinsèque d’une série de ligands d’EP4 pour l’activation de Gαs, Gαi et de la ß-arrestine ont été systématiquement déterminées relativement au ligand endogène PGE2. Dans ce but, trois essais de transfert d’énergie de résonance de bioluminescence (BRET) ont été adaptés pour évaluer les différentes voies dans des cellules vivantes. Nos résultats montrent une sélectivité fonctionnelle importante parmi les agonistes évalués et ont une implication pour l’utilisation d’analogues de la PGE2 dans un contexte expérimental et possiblement clinique...

La sélectivité fonctionnelle des ligands du récepteur delta opiacé

Audet, Nicolas
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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46.26%
Les récepteurs couplés aux protéines GRCPG sont une des plus grandes familles de récepteur membranaire codifié par le génome humain et certainement la plus grande famille de récepteurs. Localisés au niveau des membranes plasmiques, ils sont responsables d’une grande variété de réponses cellulaires. L’activation de ces derniers par des ligands était traditionnellement associée à un changement de conformation de la protéine, passant d’un état inactif à un état actif. Toutefois, certaines observations entraient en contradiction avec cette théorie et laissaient supposer la présence de plusieurs conformations actives du récepteur. Ces différentes conformations pouvaient être actives pour certaines voies de signalisation ou de régulation et inactives pour d’autres. Ce phénomène, initialement appelé agoniste dirigé ou « biased agonism », est maintenant décrit comme étant la sélectivité fonctionnelle des ligands des RCPG. Cette sélectivité des voies de signalisation et de régulation permettrait en théorie de développer des ligands capables de cibler seulement les voies de signalisation et de régulation responsable des effets thérapeutiques sans activer les voies responsables des effets secondaires ou indésirables. Le récepteur delta opiacé (DOR) est un RCPG impliqué dans la gestion de la douleur chronique. L’action analgésique de ses ligands est toutefois soumise à un effet de tolérance produite lors de leur utilisation à long terme. Cet effet secondaire limite l’utilisation thérapeutique de ces médicaments. Cette thèse s’est donc intéressée à la sélectivité fonctionnelle des ligands du DOR afin d’évaluer la possibilité de réduire les effets de tolérance produits par ces molécules. En premier lieu...

Use of cellular impedance to characterize ligand functional selectivity at G protein-coupled receptors

Stallaert, Wayne
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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96.35%
Les récepteurs couplés aux protéines G (RCPGs) représentent la plus grande famille de cibles thérapeutiques pour le traitement d’une panoplie de pathologies humaines. Bien que plusieurs décennies de recherche aient permis de façonner nos connaissances sur ces protéines membranaires, notre compréhension des déterminants moléculaires de leur activité signalétique reste encore limitée. De ces domaines de recherche, une avancée récente a mis à jour un nouveau phénomène, appelé sélectivité fonctionnelle des ligands, qui a bouleversé les paradigmes décrivant leu fonctionnement de ces récepteurs. Ce concept émane d’observations montrant que l’activité pharmacologique de certains ligands n’est pas nécessairement conservée sur tout le répertoire signalétiques connu du récepteur et peu se restreindre à l'activation sélective d’un sous-groupe de voies de signalisation.Ce nouveau modèle pharmacologique de l'activation des RCPG ouvre de nouvelles possibilités pour la découverte de médicaments plus efficace et sûr, ciblant les RCPGs. En effet, il permet la conception de molécules modulant spécifiquement les voies signalétiques d’intérêt thérapeutique, sans engager les autres voies qui pourraient mener à des effets secondaires indésirables ou de la tolérance. Cette thèse décrit l'utilisation d'une nouvelle approche sans marquage...

Étude du trafic du récepteur delta-opiacé suite à sa stimulation par différents agonistes

Charfi, Iness
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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46.02%
Les opiacés figurent parmi les analgésiques les plus puissants pour le traitement des douleurs sévères. Les agonistes du DOR (récepteur delta opiacé) induisent moins d'effets secondaires que ceux du mu, ce qui les rend une cible d'intérêt pour le traitement des douleurs chroniques. Cependant, ils induisent la tolérance à l'analgésie. Des hypothèses récentes proposent que le potentiel des drogues à induire la tolérance soit la conséquence de la stabilisation de différentes conformations du récepteur induites par la liaison avec différents ligands, chacune ayant différentes propriétés de trafic. Dans ce contexte, nous avons déterminé si différents ligands du DOR différaient dans leur capacité à induire la signalisation et le trafic du récepteur. Nos résultats indiquent que DPDPE et SNC-80 sont les drogues les plus efficaces à inhiber la production d’AMPc, suivis par UFP-512, morphine et TIPP. DPDPE et SNC-80 induisent à eux seuls l’internalisation du DOR dans les cellules HEK-293 de façon dépendante de la β-arrestine mais pas de la GRK2 ni PKC. Ces deux drogues induisent également l’internalisation du DOR dans les neurones corticaux et c’est seulement le DPDPE qui permet au DOR de regagner la membrane des cellules HEK-293 et des neurones après récupération. Cette capacité de recyclage était suggérée comme un mécanisme protégeant contre la survenue de la tolérance. Ces observations indiquent que le DOR peut subir différentes régulations en fonction du ligand lui étant associé. Cette propriété de sélectivité fonctionnelle des ligands pourrait être utile pour le développement de nouveaux opiacés ayant une activité analgésique plus durable.; Opiates are among the most powerful painkillers to treat severe pain. Delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists induce fewer side effects than mu opioid receptor agonists...

Receptor, Ligand and Transducer Contributions to Dopamine D2 Receptor Functional Selectivity

Peterson, Sean M.; Pack, Thomas F.; Caron, Marc G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2015 Português
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46.12%
Functional selectivity (or biased agonism) is a property exhibited by some G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands, which results in the modulation of a subset of a receptor’s signaling capabilities and more precise control over complex biological processes. The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) exhibits pleiotropic responses to the biogenic amine dopamine (DA) to mediate complex central nervous system functions through activation of G proteins and β-arrestins. D2R is a prominent therapeutic target for psychological and neurological disorders in which DA biology is dysregulated and targeting D2R with functionally selective drugs could provide a means by which pharmacotherapies could be developed. However, factors that determine GPCR functional selectivity in vivo may be multiple with receptors, ligands and transducers contributing to the process. We have recently described a mutagenesis approach to engineer biased D2R mutants in which G protein-dependent ([Gprot]D2R) and β-arrestin-dependent signaling ([βarr]D2R) were successfully separated (Peterson, et al. PNAS, 2015). Here, permutations of these mutants were used to identify critical determinants of the D2R signaling complex that impart signaling bias in response to the natural or synthetic ligands. Critical residues identified in generating [Gprot]D2R and [βarr]D2R conferred control of partial agonism at G protein and/or β-arrestin activity. Another set of mutations that result in G protein bias was identified that demonstrated that full agonists can impart unique activation patterns...

Functional Selectivity of Hallucinogenic Phenethylamine and Phenylisopropylamine Derivatives at Human 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C Receptors

Gutiérrez Hernández, Manuel A.; Clarke, William P.; Reyes Parada, Miguel; Cassels, Bruce K.; Sáez Briones, Patricio; Berg, Kelly A.; Moya, Pablo R.
Fonte: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Publicador: The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
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2,5-Dimethoxy-4-substituted phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines are 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)2A/2C agonists. The former are partial to full agonists, whereas the latter are partial to weak agonists. However, most data come from studies analyzing phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated responses, although additional effectors [e.g., phospholipase A2 (PLA2)] are associated with these receptors. We compared two homologous series of phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines measuring both PLA2 and PLC responses in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing human 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors. In addition, we assayed both groups of compounds as head shake inducers in rats. At the 5-HT2C receptor, most compounds were partial agonists for both pathways. Relative efficacy of some phenylisopropylamines was higher for both responses compared with their phenethylamine counterparts, whereas for others, no differences were found. At the 5-HT2A receptor, most compounds behaved as partial agonists, but unlike findings at 5-HT2C receptors, all phenylisopropylamines were more efficacious than their phenethylamine counterparts. 2,5-Dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine activated only the PLC pathway at both receptor subtypes, 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine was selective for PLC at the 5-HT2C receptor...

Functional selectivity of hallucinogenic phenethylamine and phenylisopropylamine derivatives at human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) and 5-HT2C receptors

Gutiérrez Hernández, Manuel A.; Berg, Kelly A.; Sáez Briones, Patricio; Cassels, Bruce K.; Reyes Parada, Miguel; Clarke, William P.; Moya, Pablo R.
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
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Publicación ISI; 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-substituted phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines are 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(2A/2C) agonists. The former are partial to full agonists, whereas the latter are partial to weak agonists. However, most data come from studies analyzing phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated responses, although additional effectors [e. g., phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))] are associated with these receptors. We compared two homologous series of phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines measuring both PLA(2) and PLC responses in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing human 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors. In addition, we assayed both groups of compounds as head shake inducers in rats. At the 5-HT2C receptor, most compounds were partial agonists for both pathways. Relative efficacy of some phenylisopropylamines was higher for both responses compared with their phenethylamine counterparts, whereas for others, no differences were found. At the 5-HT2A receptor, most compounds behaved as partial agonists, but unlike findings at 5-HT2C receptors, all phenylisopropylamines were more efficacious than their phenethylamine counterparts. 2,5-Dimethoxyphenylisopropylamine activated only the PLC pathway at both receptor subtypes...