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Price-Dividend Ratio Factor Proxies for Long-Run Risks

Jagannathan, Ravi; Marakani, Srikant
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Português
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We show that several asset pricing models that rely on long-run risks imply that the state of the economy can be captured by factors derived from the price-dividend ratios of stock portfolios. We find two factors with small growth and large value tilts are important for this purpose, thereby relating the Fama-French model and the Bansal-Yaron and Merton intertemporal asset pricing models. As predicted by the model, these price-dividend ratio factors track consumption volatility and predict future consumption and stock dividends, and the covariance of returns with their innovations explains the cross-section of average returns of several stock portfolios. (JEL G19)

Essays on the Economics of Risk and Financial Markets

Turley, Robert Staffan
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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Prices in financial markets are primarily driven by the interaction of risk and time. The returns to financial assets over long time horizons are primarily driven by fundamental news regarding their promised cash flows. In contrast, short-run price variation is associated with a large degree of predictable, transient investor trading behavior unrelated to fundamental prospects. The quantity of long-run risk directly affects economic well-being, and its magnitude has varied significantly over the past century. The theoretical model presented here shows some success in quantifying the impact of news about future risks on asset prices. In particular, some investing strategies that appear to offer anomalously large returns are associated with high exposures to future long-run risks. The historical returns to these portfolios are partly a result of investors’ distaste for assets whose worth declines when uncertainty increases. The financial sector is tasked with pricing these risks in a way that properly allocates investment resources. Over the past thirty years, this sector has grown much more rapidly than the economy as a whole. As a result, asset prices appear to be more informative. However, the new information relates to short-term uncertainty...

Essays on Asset Pricing and Econometrics

Jin, Tao
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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This dissertation presents three essays on asset pricing and econometrics. The first chapter identifies rare events and long-run risks simultaneously from a rich data set (the Barro-Ursua macroeconomic data set) and evaluates their contributions to asset pricing in a unified framework. The proposed model of rare events and long-run risks is estimated using a Bayesian Markov-chain Monte-Carlo method, and the estimates for the disaster process are closer to the data than those in the previous studies. Major evaluation results in asset pricing include: (1) for the unleveraged annual equity premium, the predicted values are 4.8%, 4.2%, and 1.0%, respectively; (2) for the Sharpe ratio, the values are 0.72, 0.66, and 0.15, respectively.; Economics

How Much Would You Pay to Resolve Long-Run Risk?

Epstein, Larry G.; Farhi, Emmanuel; Strzalecki, Tomasz
Fonte: American Economic Association Publicador: American Economic Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Though risk aversion and the elasticity of intertemporal substitution have been the subjects of careful scrutiny, the long-run risks literature as well as the broader literature using recursive utility to address asset pricing puzzles have ignored the full implications of their parameter specifications. Recursive utility implies that the temporal resolution of risk matters and a quantitative assessment thereof should be part of the calibration process. This paper gives a sense of the magnitudes of implied timing premia. Its objective is to inject temporal resolution of risk into the discussion of the quantitative properties of long-run risks and related models.; Economics

Causality between External Debt and Capital Flight in Sub-Saharan Africa

Fofack, Hippolyte
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Over the past few decades, the foreign liabilities of the majority of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have grown dramatically, propelling most nations into the status of Highly Indebted Poor Countries, when these liabilities reached unsustainable levels in the 1990s. At the same time, increases in capital flight from the region followed a parallel trend, leading scholars to draw on "revolving door" models to explain the apparent positive covariation of external debt and capital flight in the region. This paper investigates the causality between external debt and capital flight in a cross-section of Sub-Saharan African countries using co-integration and error-correction models. Although dual causality, which is consistent with the revolving door hypothesis, cannot be rejected for the majority of countries, empirical evidence highlights the lead of external debt over capital flight. The significance of error-correction terms points to a long-run co-integrating relationship between external debt and capital flight in a large number of countries.

Equilibrium Credit : The Reference Point for Macroprudential Supervisors

Buncic, Daniel; Melecky, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Equilibrium credit is an important concept because it helps identify excessive credit provision. This paper proposes a two-stage approach to determine equilibrium credit. It uses two stages to study changes in the demand for credit due to varying levels of economic, financial and institutional development of a country. Using a panel of high and middle-income countries over the period 1980-2010, this paper provides empirical evidence that the credit-to-GDP ratio is inappropriate to measure equilibrium credit. The reason for this is that such an approach ignores heterogeneity in the parameters that determine equilibrium credit across countries due to different stages of economic development. The main drivers of this heterogeneity are financial depth, access to financial services, use of capital markets, efficiency and funding of domestic banks, central bank independence, the degree of supervisory integration, and experience of a financial crisis. Countries in Europe and Central Asia show a slower adjustment of credit to its long-run equilibrium compared with other regions of the world.

Benefits and Costs of International Financial Integration : Theory and Facts

Agenor, Pierre-Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The author provides a selective review of the recent analytical and empirical literature on the benefits and costs of international financial integration. He discusses the impact of financial openness on consumption, investment, and growth, and the impact of foreign bank entry on the domestic financial system. Consistent with some recent studies, the author argues that financial integration must be carefully prepared and managed to ensure that the benefits outweigh the short-run risks. Prudent macroeconomic management, adequate supervision and prudential regulation of the financial system, greater transparency, and improved capacity to manage risk in the private sector are important requirements for coping with potentially abrupt reversals in pro-cyclical, short-term capital flows. The author adopts a more skeptical view than some assessments in two areas, however. First, only foreign direct investment appears to provide dynamic gains and improved prospects for growth; the evidence on the benefits of other types of capital flows remains weak. Second...

Potential Benefits and Risks of Increased Aid Flows to Burundi

Nielsen, Hannah; Madani, Dorsati
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Burundi has experienced a significant increase in aid flows in recent years. Currently, about half of the budget is funded by aid, mostly grants. The high external assistance has, however, not yet translated into high and sustainable growth rates. This paper analyzes (i) the policy response of the government to the aid surge and its impact on macroeconomic variables; and (ii) the allocation of external assistance and its implications for growth. Since not all aid affects economic development in the same way, aid disbursements are disaggregated by sector as well as by their lag in impacting growth. The analysis shows that Burundi has mostly spent and absorbed increased aid flows, but has until now not suffered significantly from the possible negative effects of an appreciating exchange rate and the related loss of competitiveness, but the possibility of a Dutch disease effect remains a risk. The country s low growth performance, despite high aid inflows, is not necessarily a sign that aid is ineffective or exceeding Burundi s absorptive capacity. It reflects that a large share of aid has been allocated to either humanitarian and emergency aid or long-run growth enhancing sectors. Therefore...

Long-Run Effects of Temporary Incentives on Medical Care Productivity

Celhay, Pablo; Gertler, Paul; Giovagnoli, Paula; Vermeersch, Christel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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The adoption of new clinical practice patterns by medical care providers is often challenging, even when the patterns are believed to be efficacious and profitable. This paper uses a randomized field experiment to examine the effects of temporary financial incentives paid to medical care clinics for the initiation of prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. The rate of early initiation of prenatal care was 34 percent higher in the treatment group than in the control group while the incentives were being paid, and this effect persisted at least 15 months and likely 24 months or more after the incentives ended. These results are consistent with a model where the incentives enable providers to address the fixed costs of overcoming organizational inertia in innovation, and suggest that temporary incentives may be effective at motivating improvements in long-run provider performance at a substantially lower cost than permanent incentives.

Three essays on asset pricing

Wang, Zhiguang
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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38.067407%
In this dissertation, I investigate three related topics on asset pricing: the consumption-based asset pricing under long-run risks and fat tails, the pricing of VIX (CBOE Volatility Index) options and the market price of risk embedded in stock returns and stock options. These three topics are fully explored in Chapter II through IV. Chapter V summarizes the main conclusions. ^ In Chapter II, I explore the effects of fat tails on the equilibrium implications of the long run risks model of asset pricing by introducing innovations with dampened power law to consumption and dividends growth processes. I estimate the structural parameters of the proposed model by maximum likelihood. I find that the stochastic volatility model with fat tails can, without resorting to high risk aversion, generate implied risk premium, expected risk free rate and their volatilities comparable to the magnitudes observed in data. ^ In Chapter III, I examine the pricing performance of VIX option models. The contention that simpler-is-better is supported by the empirical evidence using actual VIX option market data. I find that no model has small pricing errors over the entire range of strike prices and times to expiration. In general, Whaley’s Black-like option model produces the best overall results...

Three Essays on Asset Pricing

Wang, Zhiguang
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.067407%
In this dissertation, I investigate three related topics on asset pricing: the consumption-based asset pricing under long-run risks and fat tails, the pricing of VIX (CBOE Volatility Index) options and the market price of risk embedded in stock returns and stock options. These three topics are fully explored in Chapter II through IV. Chapter V summarizes the main conclusions. In Chapter II, I explore the effects of fat tails on the equilibrium implications of the long run risks model of asset pricing by introducing innovations with dampened power law to consumption and dividends growth processes. I estimate the structural parameters of the proposed model by maximum likelihood. I find that the stochastic volatility model with fat tails can, without resorting to high risk aversion, generate implied risk premium, expected risk free rate and their volatilities comparable to the magnitudes observed in data. In Chapter III, I examine the pricing performance of VIX option models. The contention that simpler-is-better is supported by the empirical evidence using actual VIX option market data. I find that no model has small pricing errors over the entire range of strike prices and times to expiration. In general, Whaley’s Black-like option model produces the best overall results...

Risk premium, variance premium and the maturity structure of uncertainty

Feunou, Bruno; Fontaine, Jean-Sébastien; Taamouti, Abderrahim; Tédongap, Roméo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2011 Português
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Theoretical risk factors underlying time-variations of risk premium across asset classes are typically unobservable or hard to measure by construction. Important examples include risk factors in Long Run Risk [LRR] structural models (Bansal and Yaron 2004) as well as stochastic volatility or jump intensities in reduced-form affine representations of stock returns (Duffie, Pan, and Singleton 2000). Still, we show that both classes of models predict that the term structure of risk-neutral variance should reveal these risk factors. Empirically, we use model-free measures and construct the ex-ante variance term structure from option prices. This reveals (spans) two risk factors that predict the bond premium and the equity premium, jointly. Moreover, we find that the same risk factors also predict the variance premium. This important contribution is consistent with theory and confirms that a small number of factors underlies common time-variations in the bond premium, the equity premium and the variance premium. Theory predicts that the term structure of higher-order risks can reveal the same factors. This is confirmed in the data. Strikingly, combining the information from the variance, skewness and kurtosis term structure can be summarized by two risk factors and yields similar level of predictability (i.e....

Republic of Niger; Niger - Tendances de la pauvreté, l’inégalité, et la croissance, 2005-2011; Trends of Poverty, Inequality, and Growth, 2005-2011

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The ability to accurately monitor poverty trends is crucial to ensure the adoption of effective antipoverty policies and to assess progress toward the achievement of national development goals. In Niger, efforts to assess poverty dynamics between 2005 and 2011 are complicated by methodological differences in the three household surveys conducted over the period, in 2005, 2007-08 and 2011. While Niger’s overall poverty rate has dropped significantly between 2005 and 2011, changes in the poverty incidence are highly uneven across location types. Among the major causes of persistent poverty are the country’s minimal economic diversification and extremely limited agricultural infrastructure, which leave the majority of Nigerien households dependent on highly vulnerable farming and livestock production. In addition, the country’s extremely high rate of population growth presents a serious obstacle to sustainable poverty reduction. Not only does Niger have one of the highest population growth rates in the world...

An Introduction to Financial and Economic Modeling for Utility Regulators

Estache, Antonio; Rodriguez Pardina, Martin; Rodriguez, Jose Maria; Sember, German
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The most effective regulators in developing countries are following remarkably similar approaches. The main common element across "best practice" countries is the use of relatively simple quantitative models of operators' behavior and constraints to measure the impact of regulatory decisions on some key financial and economic indicators of concern to the operators, the users, and the government. The authors provide an introduction to the design and use of these models. They draw on lessons from international experience in industrial and developing countries in ordinary or extraordinary revisions and in the context of contract renegotiations. Simplifying somewhat, these models force regulators to recognize that, in the long run, private operators need to at least cover their opportunity cost of capital, including the various types of risks specific to the country, the sector, or the projects with which they are involved. Because these variables change over time, scheduled revisions are needed to allow for adjustments in the key determinants of the rate of return of the operator. These revisions are a recognition of the fact that all these determinants-tariffs...

The Long-Run Risks Model and Aggregate Asset Prices: An Empirical Assessment

Beeler, Jason; Campbell, John Y.
Fonte: Now Publishers Publicador: Now Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The long-run risks model of asset prices explains stock price variation as a response to persistent fluctuations in the mean and volatility of aggregate consumption growth, by a representative agent with a high elasticity of intertemporal substitution. This paper documents several empirical difficulties for the model, as calibrated by Bansal and Yaron (BY, 2004) and Bansal et al. (BKY, 2011). U.S. data do not show as much univariate persistence in consumption or dividend growth as implied by the model. BY's calibration counterfactually implies that long-run consumption and dividend growth should be highly predictable from stock prices. BKY's calibration does better in this respect by greatly increasing the persistence of volatility fluctuations and their impact on stock prices. This calibration fits the predictive power of stock prices for future consumption volatility, but implies much greater predictive power of stock prices for future stock return volatility than is found in the data. The long-run risks model, particularly as calibrated by BKY, implies extremely low yields and negative term premia on inflation-indexed bonds. Finally, neither calibration can explain why movements in real interest rates do not generate strong predictable movements in consumption growth.; Economics

Essays in Financial Economics

Li, Kai
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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My dissertation, consisting of three related essays, aims to understand the role of macroeconomic risks in the stock and bond markets. In the first chapter, I build a financial intermediary sector with a leverage constraint a la Gertler and Kiyotaki (2010) into an endowment economy with an independently and identically distributed consumption growth process and recursive preferences. I use a global method to solve the model, and show that accounting for occasionally binding constraint is important for quantifying the asset pricing implications. Quantitatively, the model generates a procyclical and persistent variation of price-dividend ratio, and a high and countercyclical equity premium. As a distinct prediction from the model, in the credit crunch, high TED spread, due to a liquidity premium, coincides with low stock price and high stock market volatility, a pattern I confirm in the data.

In the second chapter, which is coauthored with Hengjie Ai and Mariano Croce, we model investment options as intangible capital in a production economy in which younger vintages of assets in place have lower exposure to aggregate productivity risk. In equilibrium, physical capital requires a substantially higher expected return than intangible capital. Quantitatively...

Essays in Financial Economics

Shaliastovich, Ivan
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1916023 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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68.64771%

The central puzzles in financial economics commonly include

violations of the expectations hypotheses, predictability of excess returns, and the levels and volatilities of nominal bond yields, in addition to well-known equity premium and the risk-free rate puzzles.

Equally surprising is the recent evidence on large moves in asset prices, and the over-pricing of the out-of-the-money index put options relative to standard models. In this work, I argue that the long-run risks type model can successfully explain these features of financial markets. I present robust empirical evidence which supports the main economic channels in the model. Finally, I develop econometric methods to estimate and test the model, and find that it delivers plausible preference and model parameters and provides a good fit to the asset-price and macroeconomic data.

In the first chapter, which is co-authored with Ravi Bansal, we present a long-run risks based equilibrium model that can quantitatively explain the violations of expectations hypotheses and predictability of returns in bond and currency markets. The key ingredients of the model include a low-frequency predictable component in consumption, time-varying consumption volatility and investor's preferences for early resolution of uncertainty. In this model...

Rational Pessimism, Rational Exuberance, and Asset Pricing Models

Bansal, Ravi; Gallant, A. Ronald; Tauchen, George
Fonte: SSRN eLibrary Publicador: SSRN eLibrary
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 287847 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 Português
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estimates and examines the empirical plausibility of asset pricing models that attempt to explain features of financial markets such as the size of the equity premium and the volatility of the stock market. In one model, the long-run risks (LRR) model of Bansal and Yaron, low-frequency movements, and time-varying uncertainty in aggregate consumption growth are the key channels for understanding asset prices. In another, as typified by Campbell and Cochrane, habit formation, which generates time-varying risk aversion and consequently time variation in risk premia, is the key channel. These models are fitted to data using simulation estimators. Both models are found to fit the data equally well at conventional significance levels, and they can track quite closely a new measure of realized annual volatility. Further, scrutiny using a rich array of diagnostics suggests that the LRR model is preferred.

Essays in Asset Pricing

Ochoa-Coloma, Juan Marcelo
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The three essays in this dissertation explore the role of fluctuations in aggregate volatility and global temperature as sources of systemic risk.

The first essay proposes a production-based asset pricing model and provides empirical evidence suggesting that compensation for volatility risk is closely related to an unexplored characteristic of a firm, namely, its reliance on skilled labor. I propose a model in which aggregate growth has time-varying volatility, and linear adjustment costs in labor increase with the skill of a worker. The model predicts that expected returns increase with a firm's reliance on skilled labor, as well as compensation for fluctuations in aggregate uncertainty. Consequently, a rise in aggregate uncertainty predicts an increase in expected returns as well as in cautiousness in hiring and firing. This impact is larger for firms with a high share of skilled workers because their labor is more costly to adjust. I empirically test the implications of the model using occupational estimates to construct a measure of a firm's reliance on skilled labor, and find a positive and statistically significant cross-sectional relation between the reliance on skilled labor and expected returns. Empirical estimates also show that an increase in aggregate uncertainty leads to a rise in expected returns...

Asset pricing tests with long run risks in consumption growth

Constantinides, George M.; Ghosh, Anisha
Fonte: Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2008 Português
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The Bansal and Yaron (2004) model of long run risks (LLR) in aggregate consumption and dividend growth and its extension that captures potential co- integration of the consumption and dividend levels, are tested on a cross-section of asset classes and rejected using annual data over the period 1930-2006 and using both annual and quarterly data over the post-war period. The reversal of earlier empirical conclusions is partly due to the increase in the power of the tests resulting from two observations under the null. First, the latent state vari- ables and, therefore, the pricing kernel are known a¢ ne functions of observables such as the interest rate and the market-wide price-dividend ratio. Second, the parameters of the time-series processes of consumption and dividend growth, the LLR variable, and its conditional variance impose constraints on the parameters of the pricing kernel. The value of the persistence parameter of the LRR variable that best …ts the data implies that its half-life is shorter than that of the business cycle.