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Estudo da prevalência de maus - tratos em crianças matriculadas de 1ª à 4ª série do ensino fundamental em escolas da rede pública e particular da cidade de Ribeirão Preto; Prevalence of maltreatment in children from 7 to 10 years old studying in public and private schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto

Faleiros, Juliana Martins
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2006 Português
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FALEIROS, J. M. Estudo da prevalência de maus - tratos em crianças matriculadas de 1ª à 4ª série do ensino fundamental em escolas da rede pública e particular da cidade de Ribeirão Preto. 150 p. Dissertação (Mestrado) Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto. 2006. Os maus-tratos na infância têm se revelado um foco de preocupação no meio científico devido às descobertas das graves conseqüências a curto e longo prazo no desenvolvimento da criança. No meio político e social, no entanto, essa questão, e suas graves conseqüências, parece caminhar ainda muito lentamente na direção do estabelecimento de políticas públicas efetivas. A escassez de estatísticas e a ausência de um conhecimento mais aprofundado das diversas situações de maus-tratos fazem com que a problemática receba uma atenção pouca adequada e especializada. A literatura científica aponta a provável existência de um grande número de casos que não se chega a conhecer, para além dos números divulgados por órgãos oficiais de proteção. Com o objetivo de estimar de forma mais precisa o número de casos de maus-tratos domésticos na cidade de Ribeirão Preto, o presente estudo buscou mensurar a prevalência de maus-tratos...

Maus-tratos físicos de crianças: contribuições para a avaliação de fatores de risco psicossociais; Physical maltreatment of children: contributions to the evaluation of psychosocial risk factors

Bergamo, Lilian Paula Degobbi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2007 Português
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Sabe-se que o fenômeno dos maus-tratos se constitui em uma problemática complexa que envolve na sua etiologia vários fatores, sendo necessária a observação deste fenômeno por uma perspectiva multidimensional. A abordagem Ecológico-Sistêmica do desenvolvimento humano e o modelo teórico Transacional pressupõem, respectivamente, a existência de diversos contextos e variáveis de risco que se influenciam mutuamente para a produção dos maus-tratos. Dentro disto, numerosas pesquisas, principalmente no âmbito internacional, têm encontrado associação significativa entre a problemática dos maus-tratos e variáveis no nível ontogenético, no microssistema, e no exossistema, dispondo-se inclusive de um conhecimento quanto às especificidades referentes a cada tipo de maus-tratos em particular. Neste panorama, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar se a associação entre determinados fatores de risco atinentes à figura do cuidador e os maus-tratos físicos seria encontrada na realidade brasileira. Vale destacar que os fatores priorizados no estudo referem-se a aspectos psicológicos, como a angústia, nível de estresse associado à função parental, nível de apoio social, estilo parental e histórico de maus-tratos na própria infância. Para tanto...

Perfil neuropsicológico e psiquiátrico de adolescentes submetidos a maus tratos; Neuropsychological and psychiatric profile of adolescents exposed to maltreatment

Oliveira, Paula Approbato de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/05/2013 Português
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Introdução: Os maus tratos na infância e adolescência são considerados um problema de saúde pública devido a alta prevalência no Brasil e no mundo. A exposição a maus tratos está associada a alterações no desenvolvimento cognitivo, porém, há uma escassez de estudos brasileiros que investiguem o tema. Objetivos: Comparar o funcionamento neuropsicológico de adolescentes com e sem histórico de maus tratos, bem como estudar as relações entre essas vivências, desempenho neuropsicológico e sintomas psiquiátricos relacionados a impulsividade, oposição, hiperatividade e desatenção. Método: Cento e oito adolescentes foram selecionados em dois programas de atendimento a população em situação de vulnerabilidade e/ou risco social de São Paulo (SP). De acordo com a pontuação do Questionário de Traumas na Infância (QUESI), foram classificados em três grupos: GMT1 (grupo de maus tratos leves, n=35), GMT2 (grupo de maus tratos moderado a grave, n=19) e GC (grupo de comparação, n=54). Os adolescentes passaram por avaliação neuropsicológica com o foco na investigação de funções relacionadas a percepção visual e spam atencional (primeira unidade funcional), processamento e armazenamento de informações (segunda unidade funcional) e funcionamento executivo (terceira unidade funcional). Foram utilizadas escalas para avaliação psiquiátrica (K-SADS-PL) e investigação de sintomas de impulsividade...

Resilience and health among youths with documented childhood maltreatment

Maia, Ângela; Pinto, Ricardo
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/11/2012 Português
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Background: The aim of this study was to assess the current health among youths who were maltreated as a child and had received one of two different protective interventions (home vs. institutionalization). Methods: We assessed the childhood adversity, psychopathology, physical complaints and health risk behaviours of 136 youths who had been identified by Child Protective Services and 80 youth not identified (control). Findings: The groups were similar in terms of psychopathology, global index of risk behaviours, and physical complaints. However, some of the risk behaviours were associated with different groups. Discussion: The literature has shown that maltreated children have a heightened risk of developing health problems, but our results suggest resilience and the importance of CPS intervention after maltreatment identification. However, CPS professionals, schools and communities need to focus on the strategies for health promotion and prevention of risk behaviours considering different young populations.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) SFRH/BD/45414/2008

Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

Irigaray,Tatiana Quarti; Pacheco,Janaína Barbosa; Grassi-Oliveira,Rodrigo; Fonseca,Rochele Paz; Leite,José Carlos de Carvalho; Kristensen,Christian Haag
Fonte: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011) databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. We conclude that child maltreatment is a risk factor for short and long-term development due to potential adverse effects on cognitive functioning.

Childhood maltreatment and psychological adjustment: a systematic review

Pacheco,Janaína Thais Barbosa; Irigaray,Tatiana Quarti; memoriam),Blanca Werlang (in; Nunes,Maria Lucia Tiellet; Argimon,Irani Iracema de Lima
Fonte: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to child maltreatment on self-esteem, social competence, peer relationships and school performance through a systematic literature review. For this purpose, a search of articles indexed in Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed databases between 1984 and 2012 was done. In this review, 19 empirical articles in English were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies highlight that, overall, both adults and children/teenagers who were exposed to maltreatment during childhood showed impairments on self-esteem, social competence, peer relationships, and school performance. The analysis of the articles has also allowed the identification of the instruments used to assess the variables of interest and the description of the profile of those who participated of the studies included in this review.

Exposure to maltreatment and urban violence in children working on the streets in São Paulo, Brazil: factors associated with street work

Mello,Andrea F.; Maciel,Mariana R.; Fossaluza,Victor; Paula,Cristiane S. de; Grassi-Oliveira,Rodrigo; Cavalcante-Nóbrega,Luciana P.; Cividanes,Giuliana C.; Soussumi,Yusaku; Soussumi,Sonia P.; Perissinotti,Dirce N.M.; Bordin,Isabel A.; Mello,Marcelo F.; M
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 Português
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Objective: To quantitatively study the exposure to childhood maltreatment and urban violence in children from families with at least one child working on the streets and to investigate the relationship between these factors and street work. Methods: Families who participated in a nongovernmental organization (NGO) program to eliminate child labor were included. Data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, punishment methods used in the family environment against the children, five types of abuse and neglect perpetrated by the caregivers, urban violence exposure and family functioning were collected. Results: The sample included 126 children who were working on the streets and 65 siblings who were not working on the streets. Caregivers reported high levels of severe physical punishment. The children reported high levels of abuse and neglect, and high levels of urban violence exposure. The families showed a predominance of dysfunctional and unsatisfactory relationships. A multiple logistic regression model showed that age older than 12 years and severe physical punishment at home were associated with street work. Conclusion: Interventions to decrease the risk of child street work should be family-focused and should aim to reduce violence in the family environment.

Lack of association between the 5-HTTLPR and positive screening for mental disorders among children exposed to urban violence and maltreatment

Cividanes,Giuliana C.; Mello,Andrea F.; Sallum,Juliana M.; Fossaluza,Victor; Medeiros,Marcio de; Maciel,Mariana R.; Cavalcante-Nobrega,Luciana P.; Mari,Jair J.; Mello,Marcelo F.; Valentte,Nina L.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
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Objective: To ascertain whether genetic variations in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR 44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism) influence an increase in depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents exposed to high levels of violence. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from a group of children who were working on the streets and from their siblings who did not work on the streets. DNA was extracted from the saliva samples and analyzed for 5-HTTLPR polymorphism genotypes. Results: One hundred and seventy-seven children between the ages of 7 and 14 years were analyzed (114 child workers and 63 siblings). Data on socioeconomic conditions, mental symptoms, and presence and severity of maltreatment and urban violence were collected using a sociodemographic inventory and clinical instruments. There was no positive correlation between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and presence of mental symptoms in our sample, although the children were exposed to high levels of abuse, neglect, and urban violence. Conclusions: Despite previous studies that associated adult psychiatric disorders with the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and a history of childhood maltreatment, no such association was found in this sample of children at risk.

Intergenerational Continuity in Maltreatment

Thornberry, Terence P.; Henry, Kimberly L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2013 Português
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Identification of the causes of child maltreatment perpetration is prerequisite for developing efficacious prevention initiatives to reduce its occurrence. Earlier maltreatment victimization is often suggested as an important cause of subsequent maltreatment perpetration. This study investigates a) whether maltreatment victimization causes subsequent perpetration and b) whether the timing of maltreatment victimization—childhood versus adolescence—alters this relationship. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in Rochester, New York in 1988, based on a stratified random sample of 1000 seventh and eighth graders. At the most recent followup, 80% were reinterviewed. Child Protective Services data were collected on substantiated incidents of maltreatment victimization from birth to age 17 and on maltreatment perpetration through average age 33, n = 816. Using propensity score models to control selection effects, we find that a history of maltreatment victimization significantly increases the odds of becoming a perpetrator of maltreatment. Although childhood-limited maltreatment does not significantly increase the odds of maltreatment perpetration, maltreatment that occurs in adolescence or that begins in childhood and persists into adolescence does. Adolescent maltreatment was found to be more serious in terms of type...

Child Maltreatment Experience among Primary School Children: A Large Scale Survey in Selangor State, Malaysia

Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/03/2015 Português
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Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10–12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life for Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Literature Review

Corso, Phaedra S; Prosser, Lisa Alison
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. Methods: We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D) for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. Results: We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D...

Childhood Maltreatment, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse during Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

Khan, Alaptagin; McCormack, Hannah C.; Bolger, Elizabeth A.; McGreenery, Cynthia E.; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: The adverse childhood experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age. Methods: 560 (223M/337F) young adults (18–25 years) were recruited from the community without regard to diagnosis and balanced to have equal exposure to 0–4 plus types of maltreatment. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure Scale assessed severity of exposure to 10 types of maltreatment across each year of childhood. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and current symptoms were evaluated by SCID, interview, and self-report. Predictive analytics assessed importance of exposure at each age and evaluated whether exposure at one or two ages was a more important predictor than number, severity, or duration of maltreatment across childhood. Results: The most important predictors of lifetime history of MDD were non-verbal emotional abuse in males and peer emotional abuse (EA) in females at 14 years of age...

An Investigation of the Relationship Between Maltreatment and Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Use Among African-American and Hispanic Adolescent Girls

Gray, Calonie Marie Kelli
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Maltreatment experienced in childhood or adolescence is a known risk factor for later problem alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) use (Bailey & McCloskey, 2005; Shin, Edwards, Heeren, 2009). A growing body of empirical work has found significant associations between adolescent girls’ AOD use and maltreatment experiences. However, questions remain as to how this relation unfolds with African-American and Hispanic adolescent girls. Guided by four relational models that have been proposed in the literature, this study examined the links between maltreatment, trauma symptoms, and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems in a sample of 170 African-American and Hispanic adolescent girls who were participants in a school-based AOD use intervention. Results of this study revealed that maltreatment experiences (physical and emotional abuse) were positively related to trauma symptoms, which were positively related to AOD problem severity, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependency, drug abuse, and drug dependency. Perceived discrimination moderated this relation between sexual abuse and trauma symptoms, such that more perceived discrimination resulted in a stronger effect of sexual abuse on trauma symptoms. Ethnic identity moderated the relation between sexual abuse and AOD problem severity...

Interaction between specific forms of childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) in recurrent depressive disorder

Fisher, H.; Cohen-Woods, S.; Hosang, G.; Korszun, A.; Owen, M.; Craddock, N.; Craig, I.; Farmer, A.; McGuffin, P.; Uher, R.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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BACKGROUND: There is inconsistent evidence of interaction between stressful events and a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in depression. Recent studies have indicated that the moderating effect of 5-HTTLPR may be strongest when adverse experiences have occurred in childhood and the depressive symptoms persist over time. However, it is unknown whether this gene-environment interaction is present for recurrent depressive disorder and different forms of maltreatment. Therefore, patients with recurrent clinically diagnosed depression and controls screened for the absence of depression were utilised to examine the moderating effect of 5-HTTLPR on associations between specific forms of childhood adversity and recurrent depression. METHOD: A sample of 227 recurrent unipolar depression cases and 228 never psychiatrically ill controls completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to assess exposure to sexual, physical and emotional abuse, physical and emotional neglect in childhood. DNA extracted from blood or cheek swabs was genotyped for the short (s) and long (l) alleles of 5-HTTLPR. RESULTS: All forms of childhood maltreatment were reported as more severe by cases than controls. There was no direct association between 5-HTTLPR and depression. Significant interactions with additive and recessive 5-HTTLPR genetic models were found for overall severity of maltreatment...

Childhood Maltreatment and Stress Sensitization in Depression: Moderation by Age Group and Depression History

LAROCQUE, CHERIE LEE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Major Depressive Disorder is a highly prevalent and recurrent psychological disorder, affecting approximately 12% of Canadians across their lifetime and 5% each year. Studies have shown that a history of childhood maltreatment increases risk for depression by conferring a vulnerability to the effects of stressful life events (i.e., stress sensitization). The goal of the current investigation was to examine whether the relation between childhood maltreatment and stress sensitization in depression is influenced by age group and depression history. This study also sought to investigate whether specific characteristics of the maltreatment experience differentially relate to stress sensitization. Two hundred and seven clinically depressed adolescents (i.e., 12 – 17 years; n = 59) and adults (i.e., 18 – 64 years; n = 148) participated in this study. Childhood accounts of maltreatment were assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Scale, and stressful life events experienced 3 months prior to depression onset were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Results revealed that individuals with a history of severe maltreatment reported lower severity levels of stressful life events prior to depression onset than did those without such a history...

Experiencias de maltrato infantil y transmisión intergeneracional de patrones de apego madreinfante; Experiences of child maltreatment and the intergenerational transmission of mother-child attachment patterns; Experiências de mau-trato infantil e transmissão inter-geracional de patrões de apego mãeinfante

Mesa, Ana María; Estrada, Luisa Fernanda; Bahamón, Alba Luz; Perea, Diana
Fonte: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali Publicador: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; "Artículo revisado por pares"; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artículo Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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Esta investigación propone explorar el fenómeno del apego en díadas materno-infantiles cuyas madres han vivido experiencias de maltrato y, adicionalmente, adaptar una metodología para su evaluación. El estudio se realizó con cuatro díadas: madres quienes vivieron experiencias de maltrato en su infancia y sus hijos con edades entre 12 y 18 meses, de estrato bajo de la ciudad de Cali. La información se recolectó a partir de la aplicación de la situación extraña y del protocolo de la entrevista de apego adulto. El análisis de los resultados se basó en categorías creadas a partir de la revisión teórica. Se encontró una correspondencia en las formas de organización del apego entre las madres y los bebés, siendo tres díadas organizadas y una desorganizada. Tres de las cuatro díadas muestran una transmisión intergeneracional de patrones caracterizados por la falta de seguridad, en la otra, la mamá es insegura y la bebé es segura. En todos los bebés se observó un componente de resistencia-ambivalencia, lo que se ha relacionado con el maltrato materno. Se concluye que el impacto de éste en la relación con el bebé es mayor entre más intensas y prolongadas hayan sido estas vivencias y menor disponibilidad para la madre de figuras de apego alternativas positivas.; The purpose of this study was to research the attachment relationship between babies and their mothers who have suffered experiences of maltreatment...

Las instituciones educativas y la comunidad frente al maltrato infantil: una experiencia de investigación acción participativa; Educative institutions and the community faced with child maltreatment: an experience of participative action research

Barrera, María Dilia Mieles; Espitia, María Victoria Gaitán; Gaitán, Renán Cepeda
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Educação
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2012 Português
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La investigación "Diagnóstico del Maltrato Infantil en la Comuna 8 del Distrito de Santa Marta", financiada por el Fondo Patrimonial para el Desarrollo de la Investigación de la Universidad del Magdalena (Santa Marta, Colombia) y desarrollada por el Grupo de Investigación en Educación Infantil, caracteriza las formas de maltrato infantil (MI) más frecuentes en esta zona de la ciudad y describe el papel de las instituciones educativas y la comunidad frente a esta problemática. La metodología Investigación-Acción-Participativa (IAP) permitió movilizar la sociedad civil, instituciones educativas y organizaciones gubernamentales para trabajar en el diagnóstico y prevención. Se encontraron todas las formas de maltrato caracterizadas y los principales maltratadores se reconocieron como pertenecientes al grupo familiar. Se identificaron factores protectores en las familias, la comunidad y el Estado. La extrema pobreza y el bajo nivel educativo propician el maltrato y originan condiciones de vida injustas para la infancia, violación de sus derechos y grave daño en su desarrollo integral. Se recomienda: i) Desarrollar estrategias de formación y prevención con las familias y la comunidad para disminuir la violencia intrafamiliar y escolar; ii) que las instituciones educativas intervengan con una activa función preventiva; iii) organizar programas de apoyo social...

The Impact of State Early Childhood Programs and Child Protective Services Policies on Resilience Following Experiences of Child Maltreatment

McCourt, Sandra
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
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In the largest known investigation to date of the prevalence of resilience following experiences of child maltreatment, a statewide, longitudinal sample of maltreated children was used to measure the prevalence of resilience, defined in this study as consistent competence over time and across multiple domains of functioning within the academic setting. In response to the relative paucity of resilience research using large samples, multiple domains of functioning, and longitudinal data, the current study measured resilience in a sample of over 150,000 children who were reported to child protective services agencies for suspected maltreatment. Functioning was measured within three distinct domains (academic performance, special education, and behavioral functioning) across a time period of up to 7 years. A sample of over 450,000 children with no known maltreatment history was used to compare relative rates of consistent competence over time and examine any differential effects on competence across groups. Approximately 18% of maltreated children exhibited consistently competent functioning in all domains across all available years of data, whereas approximately 35% of nonmaltreated children demonstrated consistent competence. County-level introduction of differential response policies investigating children's reported maltreatment was found to promote higher rates of competent functioning. In addition...

Relationship between psychoactive substance use and family maltreatment: a prison population analysis

Rodríguez-Díaz,Francisco J.; Bringas-Molleda,Carolina; Villa Moral-Jiménez,María de la; Pérez-Sánchez,Beatriz; Ovejero-Bernal,Anastasio
Fonte: Anales de Psicología Publicador: Anales de Psicología
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/05/2013 Português
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The present study is framed within the analysis of the relationship between family background and offending behaviour at young age, considered crime during adulthood; and drug use. The aim is to establish the possible influence of family maltreatment experienced during the socialization period on the early onset of drug use in a sample of prison inmates from the Villabona Penitentiary (Asturias, Spain). The study was performed with a total of 157 inmates who participated voluntarily. Physical and psychological violence exercised by parents and siblings was considered a predicting variable, with psychoactive substances consumption being considered a dependent variable. Analysis of survival was performed using the Cox regression method, and is therefore mediated by both the type of inmate (i.e. primary or recidivist) and the type of crime for which they are serving time in prison. According to the rate of recidivism, results reveal the importance of maltreatment experienced within families in the earlier onset of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, heroin and amphetamines use. Likewise, according to the type of crime, maltreatment within the family influences the initiation of alcohol, cannabis, prescription drugs, cocaine, amphetamines and designer drugs consumption.

SafeCare®: historical perspective and dynamic development of an evidence-based scaled-up model for the prevention of child maltreatment

Guastaferro,Katelyn M.; Lutzker,John R.; Graham,Megan L.; Shanley,Jenelle R.; Whitaker,Daniel J.
Fonte: Psychosocial Intervention Publicador: Psychosocial Intervention
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2012 Português
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SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will include an overview of the SafeCare model, an historical perspective of its history and dynamic development, description of the theoretical underpinnings of the model, a description of the program targets and content by describing its modules and delivery, an overview of program outcomes, and data discussion of dissemination and implementation.