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Percursos e trajetórias de beneficiários de RSI: transitoriedade e fatalismo

Frade, Andreia
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Santarém Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Santarém
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.87143%
Dissertação apresentada para obtenção do grau de Mestre na área de Educação Social e Intervenção Comunitária. Orientadora: Dr.ª Lia Pappamikail. Co-orientadora: Dr.ª Ricardina Reis; A dissertação de mestrado apresentada é um estudo realizado com beneficiários do Rendimento Social de Inserção (RSI) que pretende dar a conhecer as suas trajetórias de vida e percecionar contextos de pobreza e exclusão social. O contato com estes beneficiários foi feito através da European Anti-Poverty Network (EAPN), núcleo de Santarém, que é parceira/mediadora neste estudo e efetua a articulação com as três equipas protocoladas de RSI do concelho de Santarém. Confronta a realidade atual com o impacto das alterações da revisão do regime jurídico e da lei da condição de recursos do RSI com o decreto-lei n.º 133/2012 de 27 de junho. Com a análise dos resultados pretende-se verificar as mudanças significativas nos contextos familiares e sociais. As políticas sociais existentes e as metodologias de intervenção utilizadas são também importantes para compreender os resultados obtidos e verificar se existe ou não uma aplicação eficaz e o que pode efetivamente mudar.- The following dissertation is a study of the beneficiaries and seeks to present their backgrounds and life trajectories and to understand contexts of poverty and social exclusion. The contact with these beneficiaries was done through the European Anti-Poverty Network (EAPN)...

Dealing with Politics for Money and Power in Infrastructure

Benitez, Daniel; Estache, Antonio; Soreide, Tina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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48.796387%
Policy recommendations for infrastructure provision usually build on a well-established understanding of best practice for sector governance. Too rarely are they adapted to the country-specific political environment even if this is an area where policy choices are likely to be subject to private agendas in politics. The fact that such private agendas are often ignored goes a long way toward explaining why infrastructure policies fail and why best practice can be counterproductive. While non-benevolence and rent-seeking are well described in the literature and anecdotes abound, there is only limited consideration of how the different incentive problems in politics impede policy improvements in infrastructure. This paper addresses why politics in infrastructure cannot be ignored, drawing on theoretical results and a systematic review of experiences. It reviews how different private agendas in politics will have different impacts for sector-governance decisions -- and hence service delivery. The concept of best practice in policy recommendations should be reconsidered in a wide perspective and allow for tailored solutions based on an understanding of the given incentive problems. Policy recommendations should take into account how coordination trade-offs may complicate efforts to reduce the possible impact of private agendas on infrastructure policy decisions. Although more transparency linked to service delivery indicators is a "safe" recommendation...

Macro Federalism and Local Finance

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.912373%
The book is divided into two parts. The first part macro federalism provides a fresh look at emerging constitutional challenges arising from globalization and the information revolution, as well as the dynamic-efficiency and growth implications of existing federal constitutions. Several aspects of these systems are examined: (a) institutional design to achieve internal economic union; (b) policies for regional development; (c) conduct of monetary policy; (d) coordination of fiscal policies, with a special emphasis on tax harmonization; and (e) management of risks of insolvency from sub-national borrowing. The second part of the book local finance provides a comparative perspective on local finances and measures the progress of decentralized governance reforms in developing countries.

Trade Remedies and Non-Market Economies : Economic Implications of the First US Countervailing Duty Case on China

Zhao, Longyue; Wang, Yan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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49.00113%
In 2007, the United States Department of Commerce altered a 23-year old policy of not applying the countervailing duty law to non-market economies, and initiated eight countervailing and antidumping duty investigations on Chinese imports. The change brings heated debate on trade remedy policies and issues of non-market economies. This study focuses on the first countervailing duty case on imported coated free sheet paper from China and analyzes the implications of this test case for United States-China bilateral trade, and industrial policies in transitioning market economies. The paper also provides a brief review of the economics of subsidies, World Trade Organization rules on subsides and countervailing measures, and United States countervailing duty laws applied to non-market economies. While recently acceded countries should review their domestic development policies from the perspective of economic efficiency and comply with the World Trade Organization rules, it is also important to further clarify the issues of non-market economies under the multilateral trading system...

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fonte: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Publicador: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Português
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58.47917%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Tracking Results in Agriculture and Rural Development in Less-Than-Ideal Conditions : A Sourcebook of Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluation

Global Donor Platform for Rural Development; World Bank; FAO Statistics Division
Fonte: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development Publicador: Bonn: Global Donor Platform for Rural Development
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.47764%
The purpose of this sourcebook is to pull together into a single document a collection of common sense tips and recommendations based on actual practices and experience around the world. The sourcebook aims first and foremost to help strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) capacity at the national and sub-national levels, and to ensure a consistency of approach and methodology so that, at the global level, sufficient reliable and timely information can be accessed from the different countries and used to make cross-country comparisons and to calculate development indicators at the global level. The sourcebook is specifically targeted towards countries where conditions are less-than-ideal, particularly with respect to the availability of relevant information. The sourcebook also shows how a service delivery approach can be used to select indicators which can generate useful, easy-to-measure early outcome measures. It suggests that greater use be made of qualitative indicators, such as access, use and satisfaction. The sourcebook devotes considerable attention to the need for a strong statistical infrastructure and reviews the range of different statistical instruments available.

Crisis Response in Social Protection

Marzo, Federica; Mori, Hideki
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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49.032983%
The main goal of this paper is to draw lessons from the past to better understand the role and potential of social protection in response to crisis, and support the definition of the World Bank social protection and labor strategy 2012-2022. This paper uses selected crises (1990-present), their social impact, and government responses to evaluate the social protection instruments deployed and provide lessons learned and possible directions for the future, including questions for further analytical work. While experience seems to suggest that governments and the World Bank are increasingly committed to the mainstreaming of social protection in crises prevention and management, important challenges and questions to be answered still remain to effectively protect populations, especially in the case of low Income countries and fragile states. Among the main messages emerging from the paper are, first, that crises are very diverse in origins, channels of transmission and impacts; second, preparing for crises by fiscal prudence and by setting programs in place is crucial to dispose of the necessary financial resources and to increase the speed and reach of the response; third...

Madagascar - Three Years into the Crisis : An Assessment of Vulnerability and Social Policies and Prospects for the Future, Volume 1. Main Report; Madagascar - Apres trois ans de crise : evaluation de la vulnerabilite et des politiques sociales et perspectives d'avenir

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.894927%
The report is divided into two volumes. The first volume includes the fundamental content of the report. It is organized as follows. Chapter one provides a conceptual framework to analyze risk and vulnerability and provides a definition of social protection. Chapter two assesses the main risks faced by the Malagasy population as well as its vulnerability profile. Chapter three reviews Madagascar's social protection policies, the institutions responsible for social protection and the financial resources allocated to social protection by the government, donors and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Chapter four proceeds with a description and analysis of the main social protection programs presently under implementation in Madagascar. Chapter five builds on the previous chapters but also on the experience of other low income countries, especially in Africa. It outlines the main principles of a social protection strategy and recommends priority actions for implementation including in the immediate aftermath of a resolution to the current political crisis. As such...

Madagascar - Three Years into the Crisis : An Assessment of Vulnerability and Social Policies and Prospects for the Future, Volume 2. Background Papers; Madagascar - Apres trois ans de crise : evaluation de la vulnerabilite et des politiques sociales et perspectives d'avenir

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.894927%
The report is divided into two volumes. The first volume includes the fundamental content of the report. It is organized as follows. Chapter one provides a conceptual framework to analyze risk and vulnerability and provides a definition of social protection. Chapter two assesses the main risks faced by the Malagasy population as well as its vulnerability profile. Chapter three reviews Madagascar's social protection policies, the institutions responsible for social protection and the financial resources allocated to social protection by the government, donors and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Chapter four proceeds with a description and analysis of the main social protection programs presently under implementation in Madagascar. Chapter five builds on the previous chapters but also on the experience of other low income countries, especially in Africa. It outlines the main principles of a social protection strategy and recommends priority actions for implementation including in the immediate aftermath of a resolution to the current political crisis. As such...

Analyzing the Effects of Policy Reforms on the Poor : An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of World Bank Support to Poverty and Social Impact Analyses

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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49.19922%
The current global financial and economic crises are likely to put enormous pressure on governments to respond with immediate measures and to undertake far-reaching reforms in the medium term, requiring a substantial increase in donor support. To protect the poor and enhance benefits to them, key policy reforms will need to be underpinned by systematic analysis of their expected poverty and social impacts. The World Bank's experience to date with the Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) approach provides useful lessons for addressing these issues. Overall, implementation of the PSIA approach has had considerable limitations. There have been tensions between the various operational objectives assigned to PSIAs. The tensions concern inconsistencies between informing country and Bank policy decisions in a timely way and building country analytic capacity. PSIAs have had limited ownership by Bank staff and managers and have often not been effectively integrated into country assistance programs. Quality assurance...

Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Details and Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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58.58768%
The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since the preparation of the diagnostic study on Malawi's public procurement system in 1996, the Government has made good progress with establishing new - and relatively good - legal framework for procurement reform. But there has not yet been much reform (institutional, practical and oversight). In 2003, the Malawi Parliament passed a new procurement law, the Public Procurement Act of 2003, which became effective in August of that year. The new Procurement Act requires procurement regulations to provide, among things, thresholds for the use of the various procurement methods, bid and bid evaluation procedures and contract management. The analysis of the CPAR is carried out against the five basic pillars of a sound public procurement system...

How Do Special Economic Zones and Industrial Clusters Drive China’s Rapid Development?

Zeng, Douglas Zhihua
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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48.993086%
In the past 30 years, China has achieved phenomenal economic growth, an unprecedented development "miracle" in human history. How did China achieve this rapid growth? What have been its key drivers? And, most important, what can be learned from China's success? Policy makers, business people, and scholars all over the world continue to debate these topics, but one thing is clear: the numerous special economic zones and industrial clusters that emerged after the country's reforms are without doubt two important engines of China's remarkable development. The special economic zones and industrial clusters have made crucial contributions to China's economic success. Foremost, the special economic zones (especially the first several) successfully tested the market economy and new institutions and became role models for the rest of the country to follow. Together with the numerous industrial clusters, the special economic zones have contributed significantly to gross domestic product, employment, exports, and attraction of foreign investment. The special economic zones have also played important roles in bringing new technologies to China and in adopting modern management practices. This study briefly summarizes the development experiences of China's special economic zones and industrial clusters (their formation...

Transport for Health : The Global Burden of Disease from Motorized Road Transport

Global Road Safety Facility, The World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Fonte: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Publicador: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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57.936772%
This report summarizes the findings of a long and meticulous journey of data gathering and analysis to quantify the health losses from road deaths and injuries worldwide, as part of the path-finding Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. It is important, first, to acknowledge the profound contribution made by the lead authors and global team of injury prevention professionals to estimate the disease burden of road trauma, before absorbing their findings and recommendations. Without their dedication and tenacity, the way forward would be less certain. The first GBD study, published nearly two decades ago, signaled an emerging road safety crisis in developing regions of the world. It triggered a remarkable program of global advocacy that culminated in the United Nations decade of action for road safety and global plan to bring road safety outcomes under control in these regions by 2020. However, limited investment has been mobilized so far to implement the UN initiative. The second GBD studies, and related analyses presented in this report...

Burkina Faso - Social safety nets; Burkina Faso - filets sociaux

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis
Português
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49.099854%
Burkina Faso is a poor landlocked country with a narrow natural resource base and a rapidly expanding population of 15.8 million. This report, with the technical support of United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), provides a detailed, updated inventory of the existing social safety net programs and suggests policy measures that could improve their coverage, efficiency, relevance, and financial sustainability. This report shows that the scope and coverage of the existing social safety net system is too limited and that most interventions are fairly small in scale and designed as temporary programs. On average, excluding fuel subsidies, spending on social safety net programs was about 0.6 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from 2005 to 2009 - from 0.3 percent in 2005 to 0.9 percent in 2009, while about 20 percent of the population is food insecure and lives permanently in chronic poverty. Universal fuel subsidies are very expensive (0.7 percent of GDP in 2007) and have a very limited impact on the poorest docile (84 percent of the benefits go to the non poor). Among the remaining programs...

Public Finance for Poverty Reduction : Concepts and Case Studies from Africa and Latin America

Moreno-Dodson, Blanca; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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49.261885%
The book, public finance for poverty reduction, includes a series of papers that were prepared in the context of a World Bank Institute (WBI) public finance The book, public finance for poverty reduction, includes a series of papers that were prepared in the context of a WBI public finance learning program intended to build capacity in developing countries, with a special focus on Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The book places a particular emphasis on the fiscal issues encountered by countries that are in the process of implementing a poverty reduction strategy. It provides an innovative analysis of many difficult policy issues plaguing less-developed economies in growing their economies while achieving poverty reduction. It also is appropriately concerned with administrative practice, and it provides excellent case studies on some new approaches to improving fiscal, spending, and tax policies in less-developed economies. The first chapters in public finance are appropriately 'theoretical' in reviewing basic concepts...

Addressing Access and Behavioral Constraints through Social Intermediation Services : A Review of Chile Solidario and Red Unidos

Camacho, Adriana; Cunningham, Wendy; Rigolini, Jamele; Silva, Veronica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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58.896377%
Social programs are often designed under the assumption that individuals make rational decisions that improve their welfare. Yet, informational and behavioral constraints limit the extreme and chronic poor's access and participation in social programs. This paper reviews the implementation and performance of two "social intermediation services" that were designed to address these constraints, improve beneficiaries' access to social programs, and help the poor surmount poverty: Chile Solidario, the first such service in Latin America, and Red Unidos, implemented later in Colombia. The analysis provides insights on key factors influencing performance, cost effectiveness, and the impacts that such services can be expected to have.

Renewable energy sources in Latin America and the Caribbean: situation and policy proposals

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.25048%
Includes bibliography; The World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, August 2002, responded to a new cycle of global meetings that began with the Millennium Summit. The main characteristic of this new cycle is that the focus of the debate has moved away from declarations of principle toward identifying objectives and areas of concrete action, with quantitative commitments and deadlines for compliance. Debates about energy held an important position in Johannesburg. The positive links between access to energy, eliminating poverty and improving People's health and quality of life were emphasized. Although there was agreement on the need to expand the use of renewable energy resources and increase the percentage of energy produced from renewable sources, unlike other areas of debate, it was not possible to establish global targets and deadlines. Nonetheless, some regions, among them Latin America and the Caribbean through the Latin American and Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development, did agree on concrete targets. The Brasilia Regional Conference on Renewable Energy (Brasilia, October 2003), represented not only one of the first efforts to concretize the target agreed upon on at Johannesburg, but also the first joint meeting of authorities and representatives of Latin American and Caribbean Ministries of the Environment and Energy. This instance of convergence approved the Brasilia Platform on Renewable Energies...

Energy efficiency potential in Jamaica: challenges, opportunities and strategies for implementation

Binger, Al
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.199565%
Incluye Bibliografía; The Barbados Programme of Action (BPoA) for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) identifies energy management as a critical issue in achieving sustainability. Like many of the small islands states, Jamaica is economically vulnerable to external factors such as fluctuations in energy prices, a consequence of an over dependence on imported oil. Securing supplies of affordable and reliable energy is an essential element of economic and social development. In Jamaica however, energy systems and energy use are inefficient and expensive and add to national economic vulnerability.Jamaica is endowed with significant renewable energy resources that provide a base for reducing their dependence on high-cost, environmentally damaging fossil fuels. The benefits of using renewable energy are at least fivefold: a clean, green, dynamic image and marketing tool for the country; the preservation of natural and tourism resources; economic benefits via the reduction of imports (of which oil is a major component), thus saving scarce foreign exchange; creating employment and generating new income; and providing cheaper and more reliable energy for businesses and individuals.The problems associated with such heavy reliance on fossil fuels have promulgated an energy policy that promote energy conservation and efficiency in the energy conversion (electricity generation and petroleum refining) and end use (industrial...

On the buses: a mixed-method evaluation of the impact of free bus travel for young people on the public health

Green, Judith; Steinbach, Rebecca; Jones, Alasdair; Edwards, Phil; Kelly, Charlotte; Nellthorp, John; Goodman, Anna; Roberts, Helen; Petticrew, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul
Fonte: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Publicador: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2014 Português
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58.774727%
Background In September 2005 London introduced a policy granting young people aged < 17 years access to free bus and tram travel. A year later this policy was extended to people aged < 18 years in education, work or training. This intervention was part of a broader environmental strategy in London to reduce private car use, but its primary aim was to decrease ‘transport exclusion’, and ensure that access to goods, services, education and training opportunities were not denied to some young people because of transport poverty. However, there were also likely to be positive and negative health implications, which were difficult to assess in the absence of a robust evidence base on the impact of transport policies on health and well-being. Objectives To evaluate the impact of free bus travel for young people in London on the public health. Specifically, to provide empirical evidence for the impact of this ‘natural experiment’ on health outcomes and behaviours (e.g. injuries, active travel) for young people; explore the effects on the determinants of health; identify the effects on older citizens of increased access to bus travel for young people and to identify whether or not the intervention represented value for money. Design Quasi-experimental design...

Promoting health, preventing disease: is there an economic case?

Merkur, Sherry; Sassi, Franco; McDaid, David
Fonte: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies Publicador: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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58.21862%
•There is an evidence base from controlled trials and well-designed observational studies on the effectiveness of a wide range of health promotion and disease prevention interventions that address risk factors to health. These include measures to reduce the risk of smoking and alcohol consumption, increase physical activity and promote more healthy diets, protect psychological and emotional well-being, reduce environmental harms and make road environments safer. •Many of these actions may be both funded and delivered outside of the health sector. •There is also an evidence base suggesting that a number of cost-effective health promotion and disease prevention interventions are available. Some of these interventions will be cost-saving, but most will generate additional health (and other) benefi ts for additional costs. However this evidence base must be treated with caution, given that many interventions have only been assessed in a small number of settings and different methods and assumptions are made in different studies. •Combinations of actions, for example in the areas of tobacco, alcohol and road injury prevention, are often more cost-effective than relying on one action alone. •The use of taxes to infl uence individual choices on the use of tobacco and alcohol...