Página 1 dos resultados de 15 itens digitais encontrados em 0.002 segundos

O Three Block War e a sua aplicação no Exército Português

Fernandes, Francisco
Fonte: Academia Militar. Direção de Ensino Publicador: Academia Militar. Direção de Ensino
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 01/08/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
30.602285%
O tema deste trabalho de investigação aplicada centra-se no conceito de Three Block War. É um conceito criado pelo General norte-americano, Charles Krulak, que descreve um complexo espectro de ameaças que uma unidade pode ter de enfrentar no moderno campo de batalha. Em três fracções (quarteirões) de uma cidade, os soldados têm de ter a capacidade de conduzir uma diversidade de operaçõesmilitares em simultâneo, como por exemplo Operações de Manutenção de Paz (Peace Keeping Operations - PK), Operações Humanitárias (Humanitarian Operations - HO) e de Imposição de Paz (Peace Enforcement - PE) abrangendo um espectro de operações de baixa, média e alta intensidade. Para que uma unidade cumpra os requisitos do conceito de Three Block War, tem de estar preparada psicológica e fisicamente para realizar operações de PE num dia e realizar operações humanitárias no dia seguinte. A importância do tema deste Trabalho de Investigação Aplicada (TIA) assenta no eventual interesse para o Exército Português em se manter actualizado e aplicar, se assim o entender, os emolumentos conceptuais e doutrináriosque vão surgindo através das lições apreendidas por outros Exércitos...

Crimes de Guerra em Operações de apoio à paz e o trabalho do Oficial de Infantaria na sua prevenção

Bastos, Henrique
Fonte: Academia Militar. Direção de Ensino Publicador: Academia Militar. Direção de Ensino
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 01/07/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
31.04892%
Através de um contexto de Conflitos Armados Contemporâneos, surgem as Operações de Resposta a Crises, nomeadamente, as Operações de Apoio à Paz, sob as quais incide o Direito Internacional Humanitário como regulador da conduta das operações militares, assim surge a temática desta investigação, a ocorrência de violações ao Direito Internacional Humanitário em Operações de Apoio à Paz. Esta investigação aborda o estudo do enquadramento jurídico dos militares presentes em tal cenário, que devem reger a sua conduta em conformidade com os princípios do Direito Internacional Humanitário, destacando-se a responsabilidade dos comandantes perante os seus subordinados. O método utilizado neste trabalho foi a análise documental, utilizando em especial as leis estruturantes do Direito aplicável às Operações de Apoio à Paz. Na realização deste trabalho surgiu a necessidade de caracterizar o Direito Internacional Humanitário e os seus princípios, assim como abordar o Estatuto do Tribunal Penal Internacional, as correspondentes implicações na legislação portuguesa, e identificar as Operações de Apoio à Paz com especial enfoco nas Operações de Manutenção de Paz e Operações de Imposição de Paz...

O emprego de uma força de segurança de natureza militar nas missões de paz

Pereira, Rui Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
30.001936%
The conflicts currently taking place around the world demand that the international intervention fits the intensity and extent of the threat. This is particularly important in post-conflict scenarios, leading to a greater participation of the Security Forces in those scenarios, in order to foster lasting peace, enforce the order and improve law enforcement services in those regions. The transition from armed conflict to peacekeeping may entail high risk situations and greater instability periods, so-called “intermediate situations”. Accordingly, in the face of persisting high volatility, a robust response is still required post-conflict. Therefore, it is appropriate to deploy Security Forces with military nature and status, the gendarmeries, which have training and response capabilities similar to Armed Forces in peacekeeping operations. Their double facet as police and military forces enables them to perform police duties in high risk and unsafe environments. In light of these features, the Portuguese gendarmerie, Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR), is able to carry out tasks in these scenarios, which it has been doing through individual operatives or larger units. This dissertation focuses on the use of Security Forces of military nature in peacekeeping missions...

Natural Resources and Violent Conflict : Options and Actions

Bannon, Ian; Collier, Paul
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
19.499769%
Recent research undertaken by the Bank and others, suggest that developing countries face substantially higher risks of violent conflict, and poor governance if highly dependent on primary commodities. Revenues from the legal, or illegal exploitation of natural resources have financed devastating conflicts in large numbers of countries across regions. When a conflict erupts, it not only sweeps away decades of painstaking development efforts, but creates costs and consequences-economic, social, political, regional-that live on for decades. The outbreak of violent domestic conflict amounts to a spectacular failure of development-in essence, development in reverse. Even where countries initially manage to avoid violent conflict, large rents from natural resources can weaken state structures, and make governments less accountable, often leading to the emergence of secessionist rebellions, and all-out civil war. Although natural resources are never the sole source of conflict, and do not make conflict inevitable...

Law Enforcement Actions in Urban Spaces Governed by Violent Non-State Entities: Lessons from Latin America

Felbab-Brown, Vanda
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
30.464568%
In response to a crime epidemic afflicting Latin America since the early 1990s, several countries in the region have resorted to using heavy-force police or military units to physically retake territories de facto controlled by non-State criminal or insurgent groups. After a period of territory control, the heavy forces hand law enforcement functions in the retaken territories to regular police officers, with the hope that the territories and their populations will remain under the control of the state. To a varying degree, intensity, and consistency, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica have adopted such policies since the mid-1990s. During such operations, governments need to pursue two interrelated objectives: to better establish the state’s physical presence and to realign the allegiance of the population in those areas toward the state and away from the non-State criminal entities. From the perspective of law enforcement, such operations entail several critical decisions and junctions, such as: Whether or not to announce the force insertion in advance. The decision trades off the element of surprise and the ability to capture key leaders of the criminal organizations against the ability to minimize civilian casualties and force levels. The latter...

Military involvement in law enforcement

Stephens, D.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
30.429873%
Law enforcement is not a task usually undertaken by military forces, at least within domestic legal contexts. Conversely, maintaining or restoring security within dysfunctional or ‘post-conflict’ areas of operation is a role commonly undertaken by them. Within these latter operations, the skill sets and highly calibrated application of force that are commonly associated with police forces in their law enforcement role are in fact manifested in a decisively military context. This article reviews the experiences and legal frameworks associated with military participation in two separate types of mission, namely UN-sponsored peace operations and unilateral/multilateral stabilization and counter-insurgency operations. It argues that these contexts have demanded a revised interpretative approach to the applicable law, one that is much more sensitive to social and political effect.; Dale Stephens

The forced repatriation of Soviet citizens: a study in military obedience

Dismukes, Donna E.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
40.001936%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; On 11 February 1945, at the conclusion of the Yalta Conference, the United States signed a Repatriation Agreement with the USSR. The interpretation of this Agreement resulted in the forcible repatriation of all Soviets regardless of their wishes. Repatriation operations became scenes of carnage as Soviets fiercely resisted the return to ersecution, torture, and in many cases, execution. Military objections to the policy failed to result in its cancellation. This thesis examines the military struggle to find a balance between obedience and moral obligation under extremely difficult conditions. The forced repatriation operations, which took place from 1945-1947, stand as a precursor to the new world of peacekeeping and peace enforcement. These new military missions will undoubtedly bring military personnel face to face with operations of a similarly troubling nature. This study of past events may prove useful for the development of policy for future operations

Frequency-based designs for terminating simulation experiments: A peace-enforcement example

Sanchez, Susan M.; Wu, Hsin-Fu
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
59.867104%
Proceedings of the 2003 Winter Simulation Conference, 952-959.; SEED Center Paper; In recent year, the U.S. Marine Corps has begun developing an infrastructure for applying agent-based models and simulation, computing power, and data analysis and visualization technologies to help answer complex questions in military operations. Factor screening approaches are of particular interest, since even relatively simple agent-based models may have hundreds (or even thousands) of inputs that can be varied. We describe a new experimental design, called a frequency-based design, that can be used for exploring the behavior of terminating simulations. We apply this to a model of a peace-enforcement operation. We examine the behavior of four performance measures (including two attrition ratios) and discuss how the results confirm and complement earlier findings. We conclude with a brief discussion of issues that merit further investigation.

Humanitarian assistance: adapting the process to meet the military's evolving role in non-traditional missions

Hogberg, James A.; Stone, Shimon
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 166 p.: 28 cm.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
29.109658%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Operation Restore Hope (ORH) presents an example of how our military is responding to the challenges of today's changing new world order. This analysis reviews the roles, capabilities and funding structure of the Department of Defense (DOD) in the conduct of humanitarian assistance (HA). The research considers the traditional HA roles that DOD performs in peacetime and the new emerging role in which U.S. led coalition and U.N. sponsored HA operations conduct peace enforcement. As the military adapts its forces to meet this new challenge, the budgeting structure governing DOD has not evolved to meet these new contingent requirements. At the onset on ORH, costs were estimated to determine DOD funding requirements. The actual startup costs for ORH proved to be the largest. The DOD budget mechanism in place proved to be inflexible and not adaptable for the contingency. The impact is severe when the Services absorb the cost for these types of operation. The need for a long term budget mechanism to deal with these growing contingencies exists and is the focus of this thesis; http://archive.org/details/humanitarianassi00hogb; Major, United States Marine Corps; Captain, United States Marine Corps

Comparison of the British and Canadian CIMIC and the U.S. CMO doctrines to the NATO CIMIC doctrine

Celik, Murat
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 83 p. : ill. (chiefly col.) ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
30.133306%
This thesis is intended to contribute to the Turkish armed forces' development of a national doctrine for civil military cooperation (CIMIC). CIMIC doctrine is an increasingly significant component of peacekeeping, peace enforcement, and even combat operations. Since the end of the cold war era, the number of conflicts rose steadily, and internal conflicts became more salient to international peace and security. In addition, winning in the Clausewitzian sense--simply obtaining territory and/or political, economic, and social concessions--is now of less interest than winning "hearts and minds." Thus, during a multilateral peacekeeping operation, whether UN or NATO, the lack of an overarching strategy of civil-military cooperation (CIMIC) will undermine the overall effectiveness of the mission. Turkey is in a geo-political position to make a significant contribution to the stabilization of conflicts in its region, and recently developed a series of initiatives aimed at increasing its effectiveness in peacekeeping operations. And in May 2005 the Turkish armed forces began to develop a civil-military cooperation doctrine. This thesis is intended to make a contribution to that doctrine. The thesis compares NATO doctrine with British, Canadian...

East African crisis response shaping Ethiopian peace force for better participation in future peace operations

Amdemichael, Haile Araya.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 97 p. : ill. (s ome col.) ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
50.30497%
Ethiopia, being one of the force-contributing countries to the East African Standby Brigade (EASBRIG) and given its, resources, strategic location, and its military's long history, will have a significant role to play in creating a stable environment in the sub-region. This thesis analyzes the Organization of African Union/African Union (OAU/AU) efforts after the Cold War to restore security and ensure stability in the region and outlines the process of creating African Standby Forces (ASF) as sub-regional arrangements to bring stability and peace by preventing crises or responding to crises whenever they arise in the region. To fulfill such missions East African states have agreed to form the EASBRIG with each state contributing forces. This thesis also analyzes Ethiopia's past and current participation in peace operations (from 1951 in Korea to ongoing missions in Liberia and Burundi) and argues that though Ethiopia's participation in peace operations is commendable, many things could yet be improved and corrective measures need to be taken to better prepare for mission execution in regional and sub-regional crisis response efforts. There is work yet to be done on peacekeeping and peace enforcement in particular. How to better organize Ethiopia's Peace Force and increase their efficiency and effectiveness for future peace operations is a main goal of this thesis.

Deterring spoilers peace enforcement operations and political settlements to conflict

Manseau, Nicole C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 77 p. ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
70.53926%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In this thesis, I demonstrate that the ability of a peace enforcement operation to deter spoilers determines the progress of a political settlement to a conflict. Using the method of difference, I examine how two case studies with similar security environments obtained divergent results in political settlements to their respective conflicts. In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Operation Artemis succeeded in deterring spoilers to the implementation of a political settlement to that country's civil war. Peace enforcement operations like Artemis, which offer highly credible military capabilities in direct support of the political negotiating process, prove to be effective in deterring spoilers and thus ensuring forward momentum for a political settlement to the conflict.; Outstanding Thesis; US Air Force (USAF) author.

Efficient nearly orthogonal and space-filling experimental designs for high-dimensional complex models

Cioppa, Thomas M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 128 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
90.76667%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The Department of Defense uses complex high-dimensional simulation models as an important tool in its decision-making process. To improve on the ability to efficiently explore larger subspaces of these models, this dissertation develops a set of experimental designs for searching over as many as 22 variables in as few as 129 runs. These new designs combine orthogonal Latin hypercubes and uniform designs to create designs having near orthogonality and excellent space-filling properties. Multiple measures are used to assess the quality of candidate designs and to identify the best one. For situations in which more than the minimum number of required runs are available, the designs can be permuted and appended to create additional design points that improve upon the design's orthogonality and space-filling. The designs are used to explore two surfaces. For a known 11 dimensional stochastic response function containing nonlinear and interaction terms, it is shown that the near orthogonal Latin hypercube is substantially better than the orthogonal Latin hypercube in estimating model coefficients. The other exploration uses the agent-based simulation MANA to analyze 22 variables in a complex military peace enforcement operation. The need for maintaining the initiative and speed of execution during these peace enforcement operations is identified.; Lieutenant Colonel...

External Interventions and the Duration of Civil Wars

Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.; Sambanis, Nicholas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
40.180833%
The authors combine an empirical model of external intervention, with a theoretical model of civil war duration. Their empirical model of intervention allows them to analyze civil war duration, using "expected" rather than "actual" external intervention as an explanatory variable in the duration model. Unlike previous studies, they find that external intervention is positively associated with the duration of civil war. They distinguish partial third-party interventions that extend the length of war, from multilateral "peace" operations, which have a mandate to restore peace without taking sides - and which typically take place at war's end, or at least when both sides have agreed to a cease-fire. In a future paper, the authors will examine whether partial third-party interventions - whatever their effect on a war's duration - increase the risk of war's recurrence. If that proves true, then even if interventions reduce the length of civil war, they may do so at the cost of further destabilizing the political system...

Los grupos paramilitares en Bogotá y Cundinamarca, 1997-2005

Pérez Salazar, Bernardo
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/04/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
29.072742%
Este artículo considera el período comprendido entre la segunda mitad de los 90, cuando aparecieron “grupos paramilitares” en Cundinamarca y Bogotá, y mediados de la primera década de este siglo, cuando fueron desmanteladas algunas de estas estructuras por parte de las autoridades, hubo entrega de armas por otras y surgieron organizaciones paramilitares “sustitutas” que permanecen activas en el ámbito territorial referido en este estudio. Destaca la actividad “antiinsurgente” desarrollada por los paramilitares en zonas coincidentes con aquellas donde las Fuerzas Militares adelantaron operaciones contrainsurgentes. Además, documenta el proceso de transformación y desintegración que sufrieron en el centro del país algunas estructuras paramilitares que acogieron el proceso de diálogo con el gobierno Uribe como parte de las Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia –AUC–a la vez que enfrentaban una “guerra interna” con otros grupos paramilitares recalcitrantes a participar del acuerdo. Finalmente presenta una apreciación sobre la evolución futura de los “ejércitos privados” que perviven luego de culminado el desarme de las AUC.-----This article surveys the period that covers the second half of the 1990’s, when “paramilitary groups” became visible in Cundinamarca and Bogotá...