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Chronic Parenteral Nutrition Induces Hepatic Inflammation, Steatosis, and Insulin Resistance in Neonatal Pigs123

Stoll, Barbara; Horst, David A.; Cui, Liwei; Chang, Xiaoyan; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Hadsell, Darryl L.; Suryawan, Agus; Kurundkar, Ashish; Maheshwari, Akhil; Davis, Teresa A.; Burrin, Douglas G.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Prematurity and overfeeding in infants are associated with insulin resistance in childhood and may increase the risk of adult disease. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a major source of infant nutritional support and may influence neonatal metabolic function. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that TPN induces increased adiposity and insulin resistance compared with enteral nutrition (EN) in neonatal pigs. Neonatal pigs were either fed enteral formula orally or i.v. administered a TPN mixture for 17 d; macronutrient intake was similar in both groups. During the 17-d period, we measured body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning; fasting i.v. glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (CLAMP) were performed to quantify insulin resistance. On d 17, tissue was collected after 1-h, low-dose CLAMP for tissue insulin signaling assays. TPN pigs gained less lean and more body fat and developed hepatic steatosis compared with EN pigs. After 7 and 13 d, IVGTT showed evidence of insulin resistance in the TPN compared with the EN group. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin also were higher in TPN pigs. CLAMP showed that insulin sensitivity was markedly lower in TPN pigs than in EN pigs. TPN also reduced the abundance of the insulin receptor...

Challenges and New Opportunities for Clinical Nutrition Interventions in the Aged123

Johnson, Mary Ann; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Jensen, Gordon L.; Miller, Joshua W.; Speakman, John R.; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Volpi, Elena
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nutritional status plays a critical role in the prevention and management of many chronic health conditions that are common in the elderly and are likely to become more prevalent as the population ages. This paper highlights several aspects of nutrition that require additional basic science and clinical application research to improve the health and well-being of older adults. Topics addressed are selected demographic and health indices, the uncertain benefits of energy restriction in aged humans compared with other species, the impact of food insecurity on health, the relationship between dietary protein and sarcopenia, the prevention and management of obesity while maintaining muscle mass and functional status, and controversy regarding high intakes of folic acid. Research needs regarding the safety, efficacy, and application of clinical interventions related to these topics also are discussed.

Field-friendly techniques for assessment of biomarkers of nutrition for development1234

Garrett, Dean A; Sangha, Jasbir K; Kothari, Monica T; Boyle, David
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Whereas cost-effective interventions exist for the control of micronutrient malnutrition (MN), in low-resource settings field-friendly tools to assess the effect of these interventions are underutilized or not readily available where they are most needed. Conventional approaches for MN measurement are expensive and require relatively sophisticated laboratory instrumentation, skilled technicians, good infrastructure, and reliable sources of clean water and electricity. Consequently, there is a need to develop and introduce innovative tools that are appropriate for MN assessment in low-resource settings. These diagnostics should be cost-effective, simple to perform, robust, accurate, and capable of being performed with basic laboratory equipment. Currently, such technologies either do not exist or have been applied to the assessment of a few micronutrients. In the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), a few such examples for which “biomarkers” of nutrition development have been assessed in low-resource settings using field-friendly approaches are hemoglobin (anemia), retinol-binding protein (vitamin A), and iron (transferrin receptor). In all of these examples, samples were collected mainly by nonmedical staff and analyses were conducted in the survey country by technicians from the local health or research facilities. This article provides information on how the DHS has been able to successfully adapt field-friendly techniques in challenging environments in population-based surveys for the assessment of micronutrient deficiencies. Special emphasis is placed on sample collection...

Nutrition and pharmacology: general principles and implications for HIV1234

Raiten, Daniel J
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Food and nutrition play an intimate and inextricable role in all aspects of drug metabolism, safety, and effectiveness. Antiretroviral therapies (ART) have assumed a preeminent position in the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV and its comorbidities. The interaction between food, nutrition, and ART has become an expanding area of interest both in terms of clinical standards of care and as a target for research. Since the original review of this topic by the WHO in 2005, much has been learned (8). This article contains a review of what is known about the general relationships between nutrition and pharmacology, as well as issues specific to ART, with particular attention to their use in low- and middle-resource settings. The importance of food and nutrition on the bioavailability of drugs and vice versa has been an area of historical interest. However, much has been learned about the importance of nutritional status on drug metabolism, distribution, and effectiveness. The impact of traditional therapies (herbal/botanical) is highlighted as an area of clinical concern and one in need of further research. Additional attention is focused on the impact of individual micronutrients on drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Finally...

Nutrition and disease progression pre–highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART: can good nutrition delay time to HAART and affect response to HAART?1234

Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Gupta, Amita
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Several studies have investigated a variety of nutritional supplementation interventions in adults with HIV. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence from 31 clinical trials that explore clinical benefits of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation in this population while attempting to answer the question of whether good nutrition can delay the time to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and response. We focused on trials published in English between 1990 and 2010 that reported on CD4 count, viral load, and disease progression or survival. Among 9 macronutrient and 22 micronutrient trials, we found that evidence for improved CD4 count and HIV viral load with nutritional supplementation was limited; only 11.1% and 36.8% of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation trials, respectively, reported improved CD4 count; and 33.3% and 12.5% of macronutrient and micronutrient trials, respectively, reported decreased viral load. Given their utility as surrogate markers of HIV disease progression, this suggests limited evidence for nutritional interventions having an impact on delaying HAART initiation or on improving HAART response. However, there are challenges in evaluating the effects of nutritional supplementation on clinical disease in that comparisons are difficult due to heterogeneity in study design...

The Impact of Nutrition on Differential Methylated Regions of the Genome1

Parle-McDermott, Anne; Ozaki, Mari
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/11/2011 Português
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Nutrition has always played an important role in health and disease, ranging from common diseases to its likely contribution to the fetal origins of adult disease. However, deciphering the molecular details of this role is much more challenging. The impact of nutrition on the methylome, i.e., DNA methylation, has received particular attention in more recent years. Our understanding of the complexity of the methylome is evolving as efforts to catalog the DNA methylation differences that exist between different tissues and individuals continue. We review selected examples of animal and human studies that provide evidence that, in fact, specific genes and DNA methylation sites are subject to change during development and during a lifetime as a direct response to nutrition. Investigation of the methyl donors folate, choline, and methionine provide the most compelling evidence of a role in mediating DNA methylation changes. Although a number of candidate regions/genes have been identified to date, we are just at the beginning in terms of cataloging so-called nutrient-sensitive methylation variable positions in humans.

School-Based Nutrition Programs Are Associated with Reduced Child Food Insecurity over Time among Mexican-Origin Mother-Child Dyads In Texas Border Colonias12

Nalty, Courtney C.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In 2011, an estimated 50.2 million adults and children lived in US households with food insecurity, a condition associated with adverse health effects across the life span. Relying solely on parent proxy may underreport the true prevalence of child food insecurity. The present study sought to understand mothers’ and children’s (aged 6–11 y) perspectives and experiences of child food insecurity and its seasonal volatility, including the effects of school-based and summertime nutrition programs. Forty-eight Mexican-origin mother-child dyads completed standardized, Spanish-language food-security instruments during 2 in-home visits between July 2010 and March 2011. Multilevel longitudinal logistic regression measured change in food security while accounting for correlation in repeated measurements by using a nested structure. Cohen’s κ statistic assessed dyadic discordance in child food insecurity. School-based nutrition programs reduced the odds of child food insecurity by 74% [OR = 0.26 (P < 0.01)], showcasing the programs’ impact on the condition. Single head of household was associated with increased odds of child food insecurity [OR = 4.63 (P = 0.03)]. Fair dyadic agreement of child food insecurity was observed [κ = 0.21 (P = 0.02)]. Obtaining accurate prevalence rates and understanding differences of intrahousehold food insecurity necessitate measurement at multiple occasions throughout the year while considering children’s perceptions and experiences of food insecurity in addition to parental reports.

Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy lifespan12

Ohlhorst, Sarah D.; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M.; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R.; Milner, John; Ross, A. Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/09/2013 Português
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Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN’s Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs...

The need to advance nutrition education in the training of health care professionals and recommended research to evaluate implementation and effectiveness1234

Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Akabas, Sharon R; Bales, Connie W; Bistrian, Bruce; Braun, Lynne; Edwards, Marilyn S; Laur, Celia; Lenders, Carine M; Levy, Matthew D; Palmer, Carole A; Pratt, Charlotte A; Ray, Sumantra; Rock, Cheryl L; Saltzman, Edward; Seidner,
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nutrition is a recognized determinant in 3 (ie, diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases) of the top 4 leading causes of death in the United States. However, many health care providers are not adequately trained to address lifestyle recommendations that include nutrition and physical activity behaviors in a manner that could mitigate disease development or progression. This contributes to a compelling need to markedly improve nutrition education for health care professionals and to establish curricular standards and requisite nutrition and physical activity competencies in the education, training, and continuing education for health care professionals. This article reports the present status of nutrition and physical activity education for health care professionals, evaluates the current pedagogic models, and underscores the urgent need to realign and synergize these models to reflect evidence-based and outcomes-focused education.

Nutrition education in medical school: a time of opportunity1234

Kushner, Robert F; Van Horn, Linda; Rock, Cheryl L; Edwards, Marilyn S; Bales, Connie W; Kohlmeier, Martin; Akabas, Sharon R
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Undergraduate medical education has undergone significant changes in development of new curricula, new pedagogies, and new forms of assessment since the Nutrition Academic Award was launched more than a decade ago. With an emphasis on a competency-based curriculum, integrated learning, longitudinal clinical experiences, and implementation of new technology, nutrition educators have an opportunity to introduce nutrition and diet behavior–related learning experiences across the continuum of medical education. Innovative learning opportunities include bridging personal health and nutrition to community, public, and global health concerns; integrating nutrition into lifestyle medicine training; and using nutrition as a model for teaching the continuum of care and promoting interprofessional team-based care. Faculty development and identification of leaders to serve as champions for nutrition education continue to be a challenge.

Residency and specialties training in nutrition: a call for action1234

Lenders, Carine M; Deen, Darwin D; Bistrian, Bruce; Edwards, Marilyn S; Seidner, Douglas L; McMahon, M Molly; Kohlmeier, Martin; Krebs, Nancy F
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Despite evidence that nutrition interventions reduce morbidity and mortality, malnutrition, including obesity, remains highly prevalent in hospitals and plays a major role in nearly every major chronic disease that afflicts patients. Physicians recognize that they lack the education and training in medical nutrition needed to counsel their patients and to ensure continuity of nutrition care in collaboration with other health care professionals. Nutrition education and training in specialty and subspecialty areas are inadequate, physician nutrition specialists are not recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties, and nutrition care coverage by third payers remains woefully limited. This article focuses on residency and fellowship education and training in the United States and provides recommendations for improving medical nutrition education and practice.

Challenges and opportunities for nutrition education and training in the health care professions: intraprofessional and interprofessional call to action1234

DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Mirtallo, Jay M; Tobin, Brian W; Hark, Lisa; Van Horn, Linda; Palmer, Carole A
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Understanding and applying nutrition knowledge and skills to all aspects of health care are extremely important, and all health care professions need basic training to effectively assess dietary intake and provide appropriate guidance, counseling, and treatment to their patients. With obesity rates at an all-time high and the increasing prevalence of diabetes projected to cost the Federal government billions of dollars, the need for interprofessional nutrition education is paramount. Physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, dentists, dental hygienists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech and language pathologists, and others can positively affect patient care by synchronizing and reinforcing the importance of nutrition across all specialty areas. Although nutrition is a critical component of acute and chronic disease management, as well as health and wellness across the health care professions, each profession must reevaluate its individual nutrition-related professional competencies before the establishment of meaningful interprofessional collaborative nutrition competencies. This article discusses gaps in nutrition education and training within individual health professions (ie...

Identifying and Characterizing the Effects of Nutrition on Hippocampal Memory123

Monti, Jim M.; Baym, Carol L.; Cohen, Neal J.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2014 Português
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In this review we provide evidence linking relational memory to the hippocampus, as well as examples of sensitive relational memory tasks that may help characterize the subtle effects of nutrition on learning and memory. Research into dietary effects on cognition is in its nascent stages, and many studies have cast a wide net with respect to areas of cognition to investigate. However, it may be that nutrition will have a disproportionate effect on particular cognitive domains. Thus, researchers interested in nutrition-cognition interactions may wish to apply a more targeted approach when selecting cognitive domains. We suggest that hippocampus-based relational memory may be extraordinarily sensitive to the effects of nutrition. The hippocampus shows unique plastic capabilities, making its structure and function responsive to an array of lifestyle factors and environmental conditions, including dietary intake. A major function of the hippocampus is relational memory, defined as learning and memory for the constituent elements and facts that comprise events. Here we identify several sensitive tests of relational memory that may be used to examine what may be subtle effects of nutrition on hippocampus and memory. We then turn to the literature on aerobic exercise and cognition to provide examples of translational research programs that have successfully applied this targeted approach centering on the hippocampus and sensitive relational memory tools. Finally...

Nutritional Phenotype Databases and Integrated Nutrition: From Molecules to Populations123

Gibney, Michael J.; McNulty, Breige A.; Ryan, Miriam F.; Walsh, Marianne C.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2014 Português
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In recent years, there has been a great expansion in the nature of new technologies for the study of all biologic subjects at the molecular and genomic level and these have been applied to the field of human nutrition. The latter has traditionally relied on a mix of epidemiologic studies to generate hypotheses, dietary intervention studies to test these hypotheses, and a variety of experimental approaches to understand the underlying explanatory mechanisms. Both the novel and traditional approaches have begun to carve out separate identities vís-a-vís their own journals, their own international societies, and their own national and international symposia. The present review draws on the advent of large national nutritional phenotype databases and related technological developments to argue the case that there needs to be far more integration of molecular and public health nutrition. This is required to address new joint approaches to such areas as the measurement of food intake, biomarker discovery, and the genetic determinants of nutrient-sensitive genotypes and other areas such as personalized nutrition and the use of new technologies with mass application, such as in dried blood spots to replace venipuncture or portable electronic devices to monitor food intake and phenotype. Future development requires the full integration of these 2 disciplines...

Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Diseases

Jang, Hyeran; Serra, Carlo
Fonte: The Korean Society of Clinical Nutrition Publicador: The Korean Society of Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental animal studies supports the role of epigenetics in disease susceptibility during critical developmental periods, including periconceptional period, gestation, and early postnatal period. The rapid improvements in genetic and epigenetic technologies will allow comprehensive investigations of the relevance of these epigenetic phenomena in human diseases.

Nutrition and health II : nutrition and health revised with a study of the impact of nutritional health considerations on food policy

United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: xii, 378 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Publicado em //1976 Português
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(Bibliography) Bibliography: p. 69-72.; At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.; (Statement of Responsibility) prepared by the staff of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, July 1976.

Women's work and child nutrition in Haiti

Haggerty, Patricia Ann
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 leaves; 5715403 bytes; 5715165 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Patricia Ann Haggerty.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, 1981.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND SCIENCE.; Bibliography: leaves 85-89.

Policy approach to nutrition and physical activity education in health care professional training1234

Levy, Matthew D; Loy, Lisel; Zatz, Laura Y
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nutrition and physical activity are key risk factors for a host of today's most prevalent and costly chronic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes; yet, health care providers are not adequately trained to educate patients on the components of a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this article is to underscore the need for improved nutrition and physical activity training among health care professionals and to explore opportunities for how policy can help support a shift in training. We first identify key barriers to sufficient training in nutrition and physical activity. Then, we provide an overview of how recent changes in the government and institutional policy environment are supporting a shift toward prevention in our health care system and creating an even greater need for improved training of health care professionals in nutrition and physical activity. Last, we outline recommendations for additional policy changes that could drive enhanced training for health care professionals and recommend future directions in research.

Executive summary—Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development: Building a Consensus123

Raiten, Daniel J; Namasté, Sorrel; Brabin, Bernard; Combs, Gerald; L'Abbe, Mary R; Wasantwisut, Emorn; Darnton-Hill, Ian
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The ability to develop evidence-based clinical guidance and effective programs and policies to achieve global health promotion and disease prevention goals depends on the availability of valid and reliable data. With specific regard to the role of food and nutrition in achieving those goals, relevant data are developed with the use of biomarkers that reflect nutrient exposure, status, and functional effect. A need exists to promote the discovery, development, and use of biomarkers across a range of applications. In addition, a process is needed to harmonize the global health community's decision making about what biomarkers are best suited for a given use under specific conditions and settings. To address these needs, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, organized a conference entitled “Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development: Building a Consensus,” which was hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Partners included key multilateral, US agencies and public and private organizations. The assembly endorsed the utility of this initiative and the need for the BOND (Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development) project to continue. A consensus was reached on the requirement to develop a process to inform the community about the relative strengths or weaknesses and specific applications of various biomarkers under defined conditions. The articles in this supplement summarize the deliberations of the 4 working groups: research...

The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury: data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Drogan, Dagmar; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Pischon, Tobias; Tsilidis, Kostas; Overvad, Kim; Tj?nneland, Anne; Bouton-Ruaul
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Article; published version
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This is the final version of the article. It was first available from American Society for Nutrition via http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/?ajcn.115.116095; BACKGROUND: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer?hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DESIGN: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination. RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted RR of having $4 cups (600 mL) coffee/d compared with ...