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Análise global da expressão gênica de Xylella fastidiosa submetida a estresses ambientais; Global gene expression analysis of Xylella fastidiosa under environmental stress conditions

Koide, Tie
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/08/2006 Português
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Xylella fastidiosa é uma bactéria fitopatogênica, responsável por doenças em diversas plantas de importância econômica. Diversas cepas têm sido estudadas, porém, pouco se sabe a respeito da resposta a estresses ambientais em X. fastidiosa. Utilizando a tecnologia de microarranjos de DNA, verificou-se a resposta global aos estresses térmico, salino e osmótico em nível de transcrição. Os experimentos foram realizados em séries temporais, os perfis de expressão gênica dos genes diferencialmente expressos foram agrupados e validados por RT-PCR quantitativo. No choque térmico, 261 genes foram induzidos (9,7%) e 222 genes foram reprimidos (8,3%). Dentre os genes altamente induzidos, destacam-se os que codificam proteínas de choque térmico (Hsps), que previnem a desnaturação e a formação de agregados protéicos ou degradam polipeptídeos irreversivelmente desnaturados. A partir da determinação do início de transcrição de seis genes altamente induzidos no choque térmico, propôs-se um consenso para promotores dependentes do fator sigma alternativo que controla a resposta ao choque térmico, sigma32. Observou-se também a indução de genes relacionados ao estresse extracitoplasmático, que são regulados pelo fator sigma alternativo sigmaE. No choque osmótico e salino...

Caracterização do comportamento alimentar de Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) em citros e suas implicações na transmissão de Xylella fastidosa; Characterization of feeding behavior of Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in citrus and its implications for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa

Miranda, Marcelo Pedreira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/03/2008 Português
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36.33%
Xylella fastidiosa é uma bactéria limitada ao xilema de plantas, sendo transmitida principalmente por cigarrinhas da subfamília Cicadellinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). No Brasil, é o agente causal da Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC), doença que afeta laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o comportamento alimentar da cicadelíneo vetor Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) em citros e correlacionar suas atividades estiletares com a transmissão de X. fastidiosa. Inicialmente, testes de escolha e análises de excreção de honeydew foram realizadas para determinar os locais e períodos preferidos para alimentação em mudas de citros. B. xanthophis preferiu a haste dos ramos novos, na parte superior da muda. Esta cigarrinha ingeriu seiva do xilema e apresentou maior volume médio de excreção e maior percentual de indivíduos que excretaram durante a fotofase. Assim, estudou-se a penetração estiletar do vetor na haste de brotações cítricas, durante a fotofase, pela técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graph" (EPG, sistema DC). Os principais padrões de EPG foram correlacionados com análises histológicas e de "honeydew" para determinação da posição exata dos estiletes no tecido vegetal e atividades envolvidas. Seis padrões foram descritos: (S) secreção de bainha salivar e caminhamento dos estiletes através de células da epiderme ou parênquima; (R) estiletes inseridos na planta...

Variabilidade genética de isolados de Curtobacterium sp. associados a citros; Genetic variability of Curtobacterium sp. associated to citrus plants

Belmonte, Uira Camilo Furlan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2009 Português
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26.58%
Microrganismos endofíticos são aqueles, cultiváveis ou não, que habitam o interior da planta hospedeira sem causar danos aparentes, podendo ou não apresentar estruturas externas visíveis. Esta interação endófito-planta é intrínseca a determinadas espécies de plantas e/ou bactérias. Embora bactérias do gênero Curtobacterium sejam normalmente estudadas como fitopatógenas, este grupo vem sendo isolado como endófito de diferentes espécies vegetais, tais como citros, trevo, arroz, batata, milho, olmeiro, café e álamo. Tais bactérias vem sendo estudada no controle de doenças em pepino, batata e fumo, na promoção de crescimento, interagindo com bactérias promotoras de crescimento (PGPR) e fitopatógenas. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi estudar a variabilidade genética e fisiológica de Curtobacterium sp. isolados endofiticamente de citros, por meio das técnicas moleculares ARDRA, RAPD, AFLP e sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, além de características fisiológicas (coloração da colônia, fitopatogenicidade e perfil enzimático). Além dos isolados endofíticos de citros, foram utilizados isolados endofíticos e fitopatogênicos de diversas culturas proveniente de diferentes regiões do Brasil e outros países. Embora a coloração das colônias seja uma característica altamente variável...

Caracterização funcional e estrutural de peroxidases dependentes de tiól da bactéria fitopatogênica Xylella fastidiosa; Functional and structural characterization of thiol-dependent peroxidases from the phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa

Horta, Bruno Brasil
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/08/2009 Português
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46.49%
A bactéria fitopatogênica Xylella fastidiosa é o agente etiológico da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC), que causa perdas anuais estimadas em US$ 100 milhões no Brasil. Durante o processo infeccioso, a geração extracelular de espécies ativas de oxigênio é um dos principais mecanismos de defesa da planta contra o patógeno. Em contrapartida, para se defender do estresse oxidativo imposto pelo hospedeiro, os fitopatógenos possuem mecanismos de defesa que incluem enzimas antioxidantes, como as peroxirredoxinas, alquil hidroperóxido redutase subunidade C (AhpC) e proteína comigratória com bacterioferritina (Bcp). As peroxirredoxinas são proteínas que utilizam suas cisteínas ativas para catalisar a redução de hidroperóxidos. Por análise proteômica, os produtos dos genes ahpc e bcp foram identificados no extrato celular protéico de X. fastidiosa (Smolka e col., 2003). Com o intuito de caracterizar funcional e estruturalmente as proteínas AhpC e Bcp de X. fastidiosa, clonamos e expressamos seus respectivos genes em Escherichia coli e purificamos as proteínas por cromatografia de afinidade a níquel. As proteínas recombinantes apresentaram atividade dependente de tiól de redução de peróxido de hidrogênio e hidroperóxidos orgânicos. A atividade peroxidase da AhpC e Bcp são dependentes...

Xylella fastidiosa de ameixeira: transmissão por cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) e colonização de plantas hospedeiras; Xylella fastidiosa in plum: transmission by sharphoters (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and colonization in host plants

Müller, Cristiane
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/04/2013 Português
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36.33%
A Escaldadura das Folhas da Ameixeira (EFA) é a principal doença da cultura no Brasil, sendo causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa e transmitida entre plantas pela ação de insetos vetores, mas há carência de informações sobre a identidade dos vetores e plantas hospedeiras para estirpes de X. fastidiosa causando EFA. Objetivando subsidiar uma proposta de manejo da EFA, foram realizados estudos sobre a transmissão de X. fastidiosa por vetores em ameixeira, identificação de plantas hospedeiras da bactéria em vegetação de cobertura dos pomares que possam servir como fontes de inóculo, capacidade de colonização de estirpes de ameixeira, cafeeiro e citros em inoculações cruzadas e validação da técnica de inoculação mecânica como método de avaliação de resistência de cultivars a X. fastidiosa em programas de melhoramento de ameixeira. Inicialmente, por meio de testes de colonização por X. fastidiosa foram identificadas Ocimum basilicum, Vernonia condensata e Pentas lanceolata como plantas não hospedeiras da bactéria, permitindo a criação de cigarrinhas sadias que foram utilizadas nos ensaios de transmissão. As cigarrinhas Macugonalia cavifrons, M. leucomelas e Sibovia sagata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) foram identificadas como vetoras de X. fastidiosa em ameixeira com eficiência de transmissão por indivíduo variando de 12 a 21%. Para identificação de hospedeiros alternativos do patógeno...

A putative twin-arginine translocation system in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa

Ciapina, Luciane Prioli; Picchi, Simone Cristina; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos, Eliana; Oedberg-Ferragut, Carmen
Fonte: Canadian Science Publishing, Nrc Research Press Publicador: Canadian Science Publishing, Nrc Research Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 149-154
Português
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway of the xylem-limited phytopathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa strain 9a5c, responsible for citrus variegated chlorosis, was explored. The presence of tatA, tatB, and tatC in the X. fastidiosa genome together with a list of proteins harboring 2 consecutive arginines in their signal peptides suggested the presence of a Tat pathway. The functional Tat dependence of X. fastidiosa OpgD was examined. Native or mutated signal peptides were fused to the beta-lactamase. Expression of fusion with intact signal peptides mediated high resistance to ampicillin in Escherichia coli tat(+) but not in the E. coli tat null mutant. The replacement of the 2 arginines by 2 lysines prevented the export of b-lactamase in E. coli tat(+), demonstrating that X. fastidiosa OpgD carries a signal peptide capable of engaging the E. coli Tat machinery. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the tat genes are transcribed as a single operon. tatA, tatB, and tatC genes were cloned. Complementation assays in E. coli devoid of all Tat or TatC components were unsuccessful, whereas X. fastidiosa Tat components led to a functional Tat translocase in E. coli TatB-deficient strain. Additional experiments implicated that X. fastidiosa TatB component could form a functional heterologous complex with the E. coli TatC component.

Thermoregulated Expression and Characterization of an NAD(P)H-Dependent 2-Cyclohexen-1-one Reductase in the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea

Rohde, Bettina H.; Schmid, Roland; Ullrich, Matthias S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1999 Português
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The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180.N9 causes bacterial blight of soybeans and preferably infects its host plant during periods of cold, humid weather conditions. To identify proteins differentially expressed at low temperatures, total cellular protein fractions derived from PG4180.N9 grown at 18 and 28°C were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Of several proteins which appeared to be preferentially present at 18°C, a 40-kDa protein with an isoelectric point of approximately 5 revealed significant N-terminal sequence homology to morphinone reductase (MR) of Pseudomonas putida M10. The respective P. syringae gene was isolated from a genomic cosmid library of PG4180, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. It was designated ncr for NAD(P)H-dependent 2-cyclohexen-1-one reductase. Comparison of the 1,083-bp open reading frame with database entries revealed 48% identity and 52% similarity to the MR-encoding morB gene of P. putida M10. The ncr gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its gene product was used to generate polyclonal antisera. Purified recombinant Ncr protein was enzymatically characterized with NAD(P)H and various morphinone analogs as substrates. So far, only 2-cyclohexen-1-one and 3-penten-2-one were found to be substrates for Ncr. By high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis...

Stable transformation of the gram-positive phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus with several cloning vectors.

Laine, M J; Nakhei, H; Dreier, J; Lehtilä, K; Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R; Metzler, M C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1996 Português
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In this paper we describe transformation of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the potato ring rot bacterium, with plasmid vectors. Three of the plasmids used, pDM100, pDM302, and pDM306, contain the origin of replication from pCM1, a native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. We constructed two new cloning vectors, pHN205 and pHN216, by using the origin of replication of pCM2, another native plasmid of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Plasmids pDM302, pHN205, and pHN216 were stably maintained without antibiotic selection in various strains of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. We observed that for a single plasmid, different strains of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus showed significantly different transformation efficiencies. We also found unexplained strain-to-strain differences in stability with various plasmid constructions containing different arrangements of antibiotic resistance genes and origins of replication. We examined the effect of a number of factors on transformation efficiency. The best transformation efficiencies were obtained when C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus cells were grown on DM agar plates, harvested during the early exponential growth phase, and used fresh (without freezing) for electroporation. The maximal transformation efficiency obtained was 4.6 x 10(4) CFU/microgram of pHN216 plasmid DNA. To demonstrate the utility of this transformation system...

Transformation of the phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense by electroporation and development of a cloning vector.

Meletzus, D; Eichenlaub, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1991 Português
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We constructed a cloning vector for use in the plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganense subsp. michiganense. The vector pDM100 consists of a 3.2-kb restriction fragment of the Clavibacter plasmid pCM1 joined to a pBR325 derivative carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase of transposon Tn5 and the gentamicin acetyltransferase of Tn1696. Both antibiotic resistance genes are efficiently expressed in C. michiganense subsp. michiganense. Although polyethylene glycol-mediated transfection of spheroplasts with the DNA of the C. michiganense subsp. michiganense-specific bacteriophage CMP1 yielded about 3 x 10(3) transfectants per microgram of DNA, in transformations with plasmid DNA only a very few transformants were obtained. However, the transformation efficiency could be improved by electroporation of intact cells, giving about 2 x 10(3) transformants per microgram of plasmid DNA. Since a transformation procedure and a cloning vector are now available, pathogenicity in C. michiganense subsp. michiganense can now be analyzed genetically.

A single gene that promotes interaction of a phytopathogenic bacterium with its insect vector, Drosophila melanogaster

Basset, Alan; Tzou, Phoebe; Lemaitre, Bruno; Boccard, Frédéric
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2003 Português
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36.32%
Insects are major vectors of plant and animal disease, and bacterial phytopathogens are often disseminated by flies. We have previously reported that some isolates of the phytopathogenic bacterial species Erwinia carotovora infect Drosophila and activate an immune response. Using a genetic screen, we have now identified two genes that are required by E. carotovora to infect Drosophila. One of these genes has a regulatory role whereas the other, evf, confers an infectious phenotype: its transfer to non-infectious Erwinia strains or to several enterobacteria improves survival in the gut and triggers the immune response. Overexpression of Erwinia virulence factor (evf) allowed bacteria to colonize the apical side of the gut epithelium and in some cases to spread to the body cavity. Our results demonstrate a specific interaction between plant pathogens and flies that promote their dissemination.

Plant Carbohydrate Scavenging through TonB-Dependent Receptors: A Feature Shared by Phytopathogenic and Aquatic Bacteria

Blanvillain, Servane; Meyer, Damien; Boulanger, Alice; Lautier, Martine; Guynet, Catherine; Denancé, Nicolas; Vasse, Jacques; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Arlat, Matthieu
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/02/2007 Português
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TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs) are outer membrane proteins mainly known for the active transport of iron siderophore complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the genome of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), predicts 72 TBDRs. Such an overrepresentation is common in Xanthomonas species but is limited to only a small number of bacteria. Here, we show that one Xcc TBDR transports sucrose with a very high affinity, suggesting that it might be a sucrose scavenger. This TBDR acts with an inner membrane transporter, an amylosucrase and a regulator to utilize sucrose, thus defining a new type of carbohydrate utilization locus, named CUT locus, involving a TBDR for the transport of substrate across the outer membrane. This sucrose CUT locus is required for full pathogenicity on Arabidopsis, showing its importance for the adaptation to host plants. A systematic analysis of Xcc TBDR genes and a genome context survey suggested that several Xcc TBDRs belong to other CUT loci involved in the utilization of various plant carbohydrates. Interestingly, several Xcc TBDRs and CUT loci are conserved in aquatic bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus, Colwellia psychrerythraea, Saccharophagus degradans...

Pea Aphid as both Host and Vector for the Phytopathogenic Bacterium Pseudomonas syringae▿

Stavrinides, John; McCloskey, Jodi K.; Ochman, Howard
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.32%
Aphids are widespread agricultural pests that are capable of disseminating plant viral diseases; however, despite coming into frequent contact with epiphytic bacteria, aphids are considered to have no role in bacterial transmission. Here, we demonstrate the ability of pea aphids to vector the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a (PsyB728a). While feeding on plants colonized by epiphytic bacteria, aphids acquire the bacteria, which colonize the digestive tract, multiply, and are excreted in the aphid honeydew, resulting in inoculation of the phyllosphere with up to 107 phytopathogenic bacteria per cm2. Within days of ingesting bacteria, aphids succumb to bacterial sepsis, indicating that aphids serve as an alternative, nonplant host for PsyB728a. The related strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is >1,000-fold less virulent than PsyB728a in the pea aphid, suggesting that PsyB728a possesses strain-specific pathogenicity factors that allow it to exploit aphids as hosts. To identify these factors, we performed a mutagenesis screen and recovered PsyB728a mutants that were hypovirulent, including one defective in a gene required for flagellum formation and motility. These interactions illustrate that aphids can also vector bacterial pathogens and that even seemingly host-restricted pathogens can have alternative host specificities and lifestyles.

Dickeya dadantii, a Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Producing Cyt-Like Entomotoxins, Causes Septicemia in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

Costechareyre, Denis; Balmand, Séverine; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/01/2012 Português
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36.24%
Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 108 cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and...

Volatile organic compounds produced by the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10

Weise, Teresa; Kai, Marco; Gummesson, Anja; Troeger, Armin; von Reuß, Stephan; Piepenborn, Silvia; Kosterka, Francine; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf; Francke, Wittko; Piechulla, Birgit
Fonte: Beilstein-Institut Publicador: Beilstein-Institut
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/04/2012 Português
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Xanthomonas campestris is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causes many diseases of agricultural relevance. Volatiles were shown to be important in inter- and intraorganismic attraction and defense reactions. Recently it became apparent that also bacteria emit a plethora of volatiles, which influence other organisms such as invertebrates, plants and fungi. As a first step to study volatile-based bacterial–plant interactions, the emission profile of Xanthomonas c. pv. vesicatoria 85-10 was determined by using GC/MS and PTR–MS techniques. More than 50 compounds were emitted by this species, the majority comprising ketones and methylketones. The structure of the dominant compound, 10-methylundecan-2-one, was assigned on the basis of its analytical data, obtained by GC/MS and verified by comparison of these data with those of a synthetic reference sample. Application of commercially available decan-2-one, undecan-2-one, dodecan-2-one, and the newly synthesized 10-methylundecan-2-one in bi-partite Petri dish bioassays revealed growth promotions in low quantities (0.01 to 10 μmol), whereas decan-2-one at 100 μmol caused growth inhibitions of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Volatile emission profiles of the bacteria were different for growth on media (nutrient broth) with or without glucose.

Diversity of Bacterial Endosymbionts Associated with Macrosteles Leafhoppers Vectoring Phytopathogenic Phytoplasmas

Ishii, Yoshiko; Matsuura, Yu; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 Português
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Here, we investigate the endosymbiotic microbiota of the Macrosteles leafhoppers M. striifrons and M. sexnotatus, known as vectors of phytopathogenic phytoplasmas. PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes identified two obligate endosymbionts, “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Candidatus Nasuia deltocephalinicola,” and five facultative endosymbionts, Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Burkholderia, Diplorickettsia, and a novel bacterium belonging to the Rickettsiaceae, from the leafhoppers. “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” exhibited 100% infection frequencies in the host species and populations and were separately harbored within different bacteriocytes that constituted a pair of coherent bacteriomes in the abdomen of the host insects, as in other deltocephaline leafhoppers. Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Burkholderia, Diplorickettsia, and the novel Rickettsiaceae bacterium exhibited infection frequencies at 7%, 31%, 12%, 0%, and 24% in M. striifrons and at 20%, 0%, 0%, 20%, and 0% in M. sexnotatus, respectively. Although undetected in the above analyses, phytoplasma infections were detected in 16% of M. striifrons and 60% of M. sexnotatus insects by nested PCR of 16S rRNA genes. Two genetically distinct phytoplasmas...

Analysis of Expressed Genes of the Bacterium ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma Mali’ Highlights Key Features of Virulence and Metabolism

Siewert, Christin; Luge, Toni; Duduk, Bojan; Seemüller, Erich; Büttner, Carmen; Sauer, Sascha; Kube, Michael
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/04/2014 Português
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‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ is a phytopathogenic bacterium of the family Acholeplasmataceae assigned to the class Mollicutes. This causative agent of the apple proliferation colonizes in Malus domestica the sieve tubes of the plant phloem resulting in a range of symptoms such as witches’- broom formation, reduced vigor and affecting size and quality of the crop. The disease is responsible for strong economical losses in Europe. Although the genome sequence of the pathogen is available, there is only limited information on expression of selected genes and metabolic key features that have not been examined on the transcriptomic or proteomic level so far. This situation is similar to many other phytoplasmas. In the work presented here, RNA-Seq and mass spectrometry shotgun techniques were applied on tissue samples from Nicotiana occidentalis infected by ‘Ca. P. mali’ strain AT providing insights into transcriptome and proteome of the pathogen. Data analysis highlights expression of 208 genes including 14 proteins located in the terminal inverted repeats of the linear chromosome. Beside a high portion of house keeping genes, the recently discussed chaperone GroES/GroEL is expressed. Furthermore, gene expression involved in formation of a type IVB and of the Sec-dependent secretion system was identified as well as the highly expressed putative pathogenicity–related SAP11-like effector protein. Metabolism of phytoplasmas depends on the uptake of spermidine/putescine...

The Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Exploits N-Acetylglucosamine during Infection

Boulanger, Alice; Zischek, Claudine; Lautier, Martine; Jamet, Stevie; Rival, Pauline; Carrère, Sébastien; Arlat, Matthieu; Lauber, Emmanuelle
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/09/2014 Português
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N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the main component of chitin and a major constituent of bacterial peptidoglycan, is present only in trace amounts in plants, in contrast to the huge amount of various sugars that compose the polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. Thus, GlcNAc has not previously been considered a substrate exploited by phytopathogenic bacteria during plant infection. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassica plants, expresses a carbohydrate utilization system devoted to GlcNAc exploitation. In addition to genes involved in GlcNAc catabolism, this system codes for four TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters (TBDTs) and eight glycoside hydrolases. Expression of all these genes is under the control of GlcNAc. In vitro experiments showed that X. campestris pv. campestris exploits chitooligosaccharides, and there is indirect evidence that during the early stationary phase, X. campestris pv. campestris recycles bacterium-derived peptidoglycan/muropeptides. Results obtained also suggest that during plant infection and during growth in cabbage xylem sap, X. campestris pv. campestris encounters and metabolizes plant-derived GlcNAc-containing molecules. Specific TBDTs seem to be preferentially involved in the consumption of all these plant-...

Das Effektorprotein HrpZ1 aus dem phytopathogenen Bakterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola - Studien zur funktionellen und molekularen Charakterisierung; The effector protein HrpZ1 from the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola - Functional and molecular characterization studies

Engelhardt, Stefan
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Effektorproteine Gram-negativer Bakterien werden mittels des Typ-III-Sekretionssystems in das Wirtszytosol transloziert, um Reaktionen der angeborenen Immunität des Wirtes, die nach der Erkennung von spezifischen Oberflächenstrukturen des Pathogens aktiviert werden, zu unterdrücken. HrpZ1, ein in den pflanzlichen Apoplasten Typ-III-sekretiertes Effektorprotein phytopathogener Pseudomonaden, induziert in Pflanzen Antworten der angeborenen Immunität, welche allerdings nicht durch die Ionenporenbildungsfähigkeit des Proteins hervorgerufen werden, sondern auf der immunostimulatorischen Aktivität ähnlich den klassischen PAMPs beruhen und wahrscheinlich durch einen in der pflanzlichen Plasmamembran lokalisierten Rezeptor vermittelt werden. Aufgrund der Fähigkeit zur Homooligomerisierung, der charakteristischen und spezifischen Konformationsänderung beim Übergang von wäßrigen in lipophile, membranähnliche Milieubedingungen verbunden mit der in synthetischen und natürlichen Lipiddoppelschichtsystemen stattfindenden Ionenporenbildung kann man sich eine Beteiligung des HrpZ1-Proteins an der Porenbildung in der pflanzlichen Plasmamembran während der Infektion vorstellen, um aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach die Injektion von Typ-III-Effektorproteinen in das Wirtszytosol zu unterstützen.; Effector proteins of gram-negative bacteria are translocated into the host cytosol via the type-III-secretion system to suppress host innate immune reactions...

Caracterização estrutural e funcional do sistema de captação de fosfato da bactéria fitopatogênica 'Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri'; Structural and functional studies of the phosphate system uptake from bacteria phytopathogenic 'Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri'

Vanessa Rodrigues Pegos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/03/2015 Português
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Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (X. citri) é o causador do cancro cítrico em diversas espécies de citrus, sobretudo, laranjas. As epidemias de cancro cítrico tem causado severas perdas econômicas à citricultura mundial uma vez que não há estratégias de combate efetiva contra essa bactéria no campo. Diversos estudos demonstraram a importância de genes para a patogênese de X. citri, mas ainda não foram investigados genes envolvidos na aquisição e no metabolismo de micronutrientes tais como o fosfato. X. citri conserva o sistema de transporte do tipo ABC de fosfato inorgânico codificado pelo óperon pstSCAB. Adicionalmente a bactéria possui dois outros operons oprO/phoX e phoBR, os quais codificam, respectivamente, uma porina de membrana externa e uma proteína periplasmática ligadora e o sistema dois componentes de sinalização celular, ambos integrantes do regulon de fosfato (regulon pho). Neste trabalho, estudamos a resposta destes operons à carência de fosfato, bem como o papel da proteína ligadora periplasmática PstS, por meio de análises proteômica, metabolômica, estruturais baseadas em cristalografia de raio-X e funcionais utilizando um mutante de X. citri portador de deleção no gene pstS (Xac::pstS). Os dados obtidos foram comparados entre as linhagens selvagem e mutante. Primeiramente evidenciamos que o sistema ABC de fosfato é ativado em carência do íon...

A unique virulence factor for proliferation and dwarfism in plants identified from a phytopathogenic bacterium

Hoshi, Ayaka; Oshima, Kenro; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Ishii, Yoshiko; Ozeki, Johji; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Ken; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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One of the most important themes in agricultural science is the identification of virulence factors involved in plant disease. Here, we show that a single virulence factor, tengu-su inducer (TENGU), induces witches' broom and dwarfism and is a small secreted protein of the plant-pathogenic bacterium, phytoplasma. When tengu was expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, these plants showed symptoms of witches' broom and dwarfism, which are typical of phytoplasma infection. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing tengu exhibited similar symptoms, confirming the effects of tengu expression on plants. Although the localization of phytoplasma was restricted to the phloem, TENGU protein was detected in apical buds by immunohistochemical analysis, suggesting that TENGU was transported from the phloem to other cells. Microarray analyses showed that auxin-responsive genes were significantly down-regulated in the tengu-transgenic plants compared with GUS-transgenic control plants. These results suggest that TENGU inhibits auxin-related pathways, thereby affecting plant development.